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THE 

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TRANSLATED 

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F.  MAX  MULLER 


VOL.   XLVI 


VEDIC   HYMNS 


TRANSLATED  BY 
HERMANN  OLDENBERG 


Part  II 

HYMNS  TO  AGNI  (MANDALAS  I-V) 


MOTILAL    BANARSIDASS 

DELHI  ::  VARANASI  ::  PATNA 


©  MOTILAL  BANARSIDASS 

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This  book  has  been  accepted  in  the  Indian  Translation  Series 
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First  published  by  the  Oxford  University  Press,  1897 
Reprinted  by  Motilal  Banarsidass,  1964 


PRINTED  IN  INDIA  BY  8HANTILAL  JAIN,  8HRI  JAINBNDRA  PRESS, 
BUNGALOW  ROAD,  DBLHI-6  AND  PUBLISHED  BY  SUNDARLAL  JAIN, 
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RASHTRAPATI  BHAVAN, 
NEW  DELHi-4 
June  10,  1962 


I  am  very  glad  to  know  that  the  Sacred 
Books  of  the  East,  published  years  ago  by 
the  Clarendon  Press,  Oxford,  which  have 
been  out-of-print  for  a  number  of  years, 
will  now  be  available  to  all  students  of 
religion  and  philosophy.  The  enterprise 
of  the  publishers  is  commendable  and  I 
hope  the  books  will  be  widely  read. 

S.  RADHAKRISHNAN 


PREFATORY  NOTE  TO  THE  NEW  EDITION 


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PUBLISHER'S  NOTE 

First,  the  man  distinguished  between  eternal  and  perish- 
able. Later  he  discovered  within  himself  the  germ  of  the 
Eternal.  This  discovery  was  an  epoch  in  the  history  of  the 
human  mind  and  the  East  was  the  first  to  discover  it. 

To  watch  in  the  Sacred  Books  of  the  East  the  dawn  of 
this  religious  consciousness  of  man,  must  always  remain  one 
of  the  most  inspiring  and  hallowing  sights  in  the  whole  history 
of  the  world.  In  order  to  have  a  solid  foundation  for  a  com- 
parative study  of  the  Religions  of  the  East,  we  must  have  before 
all  things,  complete  and  thoroughly  faithful  translation  of  their 
Sacred  Books  in  which  some  of  the  ancient  sayings  were  pre- 
served because  they  were  so  true  and  so  striking  that  they 
could  not  be  forgotten.  They  contained  eternal  truths,  ex- 
pressed for  the  first  time  in  human  language. 

With  profoundcst  reverence  for  Dr.  S.  Radhakrishnan, 
President  of  India,  who  inspired  us  for  the  task;  our  deep 
sense  of  gratitude  for  Dr.  G.  D.  Deshmukh  &  Dr.  D.  S. 
Kothari,  for  encouraging  assistance;  esteemed  appreciation  of 
UNESCO  for  the  warm  endorsement  of  the  cause;  and  finally 
with  indebtedness  to  Dr.  H.  Rau,  Director,  Max  Muller 
Bhawan,  New  Delhi,  in  procuring  us  the  texts  of  the  Series 
for  reprint,  we  humbly  conclude. 


CONTENTS. 

PACK 

INTRODUCTION xi 

HYMNS,  TRANSLATION  AND  NOTLS  : — 

Ma;i</ala  1,    i         .         .         .         .         .                  .  i 

12 .6 

1 3  Apn  Hymn 8 

26 13 

27 16 

31                            22 

36         .......  31 

44 37 

45                            42 

58                                                                -  45 

59 49 

60                  .                  ....  52 

65 54 

66 57 

67 61 

68          ..                   ...  64 

69 67 

70 70 

7" 74 

72 82 

73 88 

74 9* 

75 95 

76         .         . 96 

77 ioo 

78 102 

79 103 

94 108 


VIII  CONTENTS. 


Manila  I,  95        .        .        . 

PAGP 

.     114 

96        ... 

.     119 

97        ... 

.     125 

98        ... 

.         ,     127 

99        ... 

.     128 

127        ... 

.     129 

128        ... 

.     137 

MI      *        ' 

.     147 

142  A  pi!  Hymn     . 

•     "53 

M3 

.     157 

.     1  60 

US          ... 

.        .        .        .     164* 

146     ... 

.        .        .        .     167 

147      ... 

.     170 

148     ... 

•     '73 

149     ... 

.        .         .        .     176 

150  f   • 

.        .        .        .     178 

188  Apr!  Hymn     . 

.     179 

189 

.     181 

II,  i         .        .        . 

.     1  86 

2            ... 

193 

3  Apr!  Hymn     . 

o  .     198 

4        ... 

.      202 

.      206 

6        ... 

.      209 

7        ... 

.       211 

a      ... 

.       2I«i 

IO 

.   217 

in,  i      ... 

.      228 

4  Aprf  Hymn     . 

.      .      .      .   236 

6        ... 

.      244 

7        ... 

.           .           .           .      248 

8        ... 

.      252 

9        ... 

-      256 

CONTENTS.  IX 


Mam/ala  III,  10 

PAck 
.   21)0 

ii    .... 

.   26l 

12  To  Indra-Agni 

.   263 

'3    

.   266 

14    .... 

.   268 

15    ... 

.   '  .     .271 

16 

•   273 

17    .    /   . 

.     .     .   275 

18 

.   277 

19    .... 

.   279 

20     .... 

.   28l 

21     .... 

.   283 

22     .... 

.     .     .   285 

23     .... 

.   287 

24     .... 

.   289 

26     .... 

*yl 

.   292 

27     .... 

.   296 

28     .... 

.  300 

29     .... 

.  302 

IV,  i    .    .    .    . 

.  307 

2     .... 

•  316 

3    .... 

-  •  325 

4    .... 

•  33* 

5    .... 

•  335 

6    .... 

.  340 

7    .... 

•  343 

8    .... 

•    •    •  346 

9    .... 

:f   •  348 

10 

•  350 

ii    .... 

•  352 

12     .... 

•  354 

I3     .... 

•  356 

14     .... 

...    -358 

I*     .     .     . 

V,  i    .... 

•  363 

2     .... 

.  366 

3    ... 

•  371 

4    .... 

•  376 

CONTENTS. 


MCF 

MajfdaJa  V,  5  Apit  Hymn 

.   3*7 

6    ... 

.  379 

7    ... 

.    .    .    .  38a 

a   ... 

.  3«5 

9    ... 

•    •   •   •  3»7 

.    48Q 

ii    ... 

.    391 

13 

-  395 

14    ... 

-  397 

15    ..- 

399 

16 

.  •   •  401 

17    ... 

•  403 

18 

-  405 

19    ... 

.  407 

20     ... 

.  410 

21     ... 

.  4" 

24 

.  415 

25     ... 

.  .  .  .  4i6 

]6 

.  4i8 

27     ... 

.  430 

28     ... 

•'  433 

APPENDICES  : — 

I,  Index  of  Words 427 

II.  List  of  the  more  important  Passages  quoted  in  tne 

Notes .487 


Transliteration    of   Oriental    Alphabets    adopted    for    the 

Translations  of  the  Sacred  Books  of  the  East  .        .     497 


INTRODUCTION. 

IN  preparing  this  volume,  which  contains  the  greater 
part  of  the  Agni  hymns  of  the  Rig-veda,  namely,  those  of 
the  Ma/H/alas  I-V,  the  translator  enjoyed  the  high  ad- 
vantage of  Professor  Max'  M tiller's  assistance,  in  the  way 
stated  in  the  Introduction  to  the  first  volume  of  Vedic 
Hymns,  Sacred  Books  of  the  East,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  xxvii. 


H.  O. 


KIEL: 
November,  1895. 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAA^ALA  I,   HYMN  1. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  1-2. 

i  *.  I  magnify 2  Agni,  the  Purohita,  the  divine 
ministrant  of  the  sacrifice,  the  Hotri  priest,  tlie 
greatest  bestower  of  treasures. 

2.  Agni,  worthy  to  be  magnified  by  the  ancient 
7?zshis  and  by  the  present  ones — may  he  conduct 
the  gods  hither. 

3.  May  one  obtain  through  Agni  wealth  and  wel- 
fare day  by  day,  which  may  bring  glory  and  high 
bliss  of  valiant  offspring. 

4.  Agni,  whatever    sacrifice    anu    worship *   thou 
encompassest  on   every  side,  that   indeed  goes  to 
the  gods. 

5.  May  Agni   the   thougluUu    Hot/'/,  he  who   is 
true  and  most  splendidly  renowned,  may  the  god 
come  hither  with  the  gods. 

6.  Whatever  good  thou  wilt  do  to  thy  worshipper, 
O  Agni,  that  (work)  verily  is  thine,  O  Ahgiras. 

7.  Thee,  O    Agni,  we  approach  day  by  day,  O 
(god)  who  shinest  in  the  darkness * ;  with  our  prayer, 
bringing  adoration  to  thee — 

8.  Who  art  the  king  of  all  worship,  the  guardian  of 
/?zta,  the  shining  one,  increasing  in  thy  own  house. 

9.  Thus,  O  Agni,  be  easy'  of  access  to  us,  as  a 
father  is  to  his  son.    Stay  with  us  for  our  happiness. 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  hymn  is  ascribed  to  Madhu&Wandas  Vauv^mitra, 
and  may  possibly  belong  to  an  author  of  the  Vijvdmitra 
family.  See  my  Prolegomena,  p.  261.  Metre,  Gdyatri. 
The  hymn  has  been  translated  and  commented  upon  by 
M.M.,  Physical  Religion,  pp.  170-173. 

Verse  i  =  TS.  IV,  3,  13,  3  ;  MS.  IV,  10,  5.  Verse  3  = 
TS.  Ill,  i,  11,  i  ;  IV/3,  13/5  J  MS.  IV,  10,  4  (IV,  14/16). 
Verse  4  =  TS.  IV,  i,  u,  i ;  MS.  IV,  10,  3.  Verse  7  =  SV. 
I,  14.  Verses  7-9  =  VS,  III,  22-24;  TS.  I,  5,  6,  2;  MS. 

I>  5,  3- 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  This  verse  being  the  first  verse  of  the  Rig-veda  as 
we  now  possess  it,  seems  already  to  have  occupied  the  same 
position  in  the  time  of  the  author  of  the  hymns  X,  20-26. 
For,  after  a  short  benediction,  the  opening  words  of  this 
collection  of  hymns  are  also  agni'm  i/e,  *  I  magnify  Agni/ 
Comp.  my  Prolegomena,  p.  231. 

Note  2.  The  verb  which  I  translate  by '  magnify  ' — being 
well  ^ware  that  it  is  impossible  to  do  full  justice  to  its 
meaning  by  such  a  translation — is  id.  There  seems  to  me 
no  doubt  that  this  verb  is  etymologically  connected  with 
the  substantives  feh, '  food/  id,  ida,  frd  (not  with  the  root  y*g 
of  which  Brugmann,  Indogermanische  Forschungen  I,  171, 
thinks).  We  need  not  ask  here  whether  the  connection 
between  \d  and  (sh  is  effected  by  a  '  Wurzeldeterminativ ' 
(root-determinative)  d — in  this  case  we  should  have  here  \d 
for  izhd,  comp.  nfc/a  for  nizhda,  pid  for  pizhd,  &c.  ;  see 
Brugmann's  Grundriss,  vol.  i,  §  591 — or  whether  \d  is  a 
reduplicated  present  of  id  (of  the  type  described  by  Brug- 
mann, qruudriss,  Vol  ii,  p.  854 ;  comp.  frte,  &c.).  The 
original  meaning  of  ide  at  all  events  seems  to  be  '  I  give 
sap  or  nourishment/  Now  in  the  Vedic  poetry  and  ritual, 
the  idea  of  sap  or  nourishment  is  especially  connected  with 
the  different  products  coming  from  the  cow,  milk  and 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN     I.  3 

butter.  The  footsteps  of  the  goddess  Ida  drip  with  butter. 
The  words  *  agnim  fate '  seem  to  me,  consequently,  originally 
to  convey  the  idea  of  celebrating  Agni  by  pouring  sacrificial 
butter  into  the  fire.  There  is  a  number  of  passages  in  the 
Rig-veda  which,  in  my  opinion,  show  clear  traces  of  this 
original  meaning  of  the  verb.  Thus  we  read  X,  53,  2. 
ya^amahai  ya^iyan  hanta  dev£n  iVamahai  i'dyan  4^yena» 
*  let  us  sacrifice  (ya^)  to  the  gods  to  whom  sacrifice  is  due : 
let  us  magnify  (\d)  with  butter  those  to  whom  magnifying 
is  due.'  V,  14,  3.  tarn  hi  j-a^vanta^  T/ate  sruM  devam 
ghr/ta^uta  agnfm  havyaya  vo///ave,  'for  all  people  magnify 
this  god  Agni  with  the  butter-dripping  sacrificial  spoon, 
that  he  may  carry  the  sacrificial  food.1  V,  28,  i.  devSn 
i/dna  havfsha  ghr/t££i,  '  magnifying  the  gods  with  sacrificial 
food,  (the  spoon)  filled  with  butter.'  Comp.  also  I,  84,  18 ; 
VI,  70,  4;  VIII,  74,  6;  X,  118,  3.  Then,  by  a  gradual 
development,  we  find  the  verb  \d  or  the  noun  i/enya 
connected  with  such  instrumentals  as  gird'  or  girbhi^,  '  to 
magnify  by  songs/  or  stomai/i  'by  praises/  namasa  'by 
adoration/  a^d  the  like.  The  Rig-vedic  texts,  however, 
show  us  very  clearly  that  even  in  such  phrases  the 
original  meaning  of  id  was  not  quite  forgotten.  For  the 
word  is  not  used  indifferently  of  any  praise  offered  to 
any  god  whatever.  No  god  of  the  Vedic  Pantheon  is 
praised  so  frequently  and  so  highly  by  the  poets  of  the 
Rig-veda  as  Indra.  Yet,  with  very  few  exceptions,  the 
word  \d  is  avoided  in  connection  with  this  god.  The  whole 
ninth  Ma;/<Vala  contains  nothing  but  praises  of  Soma  Pava- 
mana.  Yet  the  word  \d  occurs,  in  the  whole  of  this  Ma;wfola, 
in  two  passages  only  (/;,  3  ;  66,  i)  of  which  one  is  contained 
in  an  Apri  verse  transferring  artificially  to  Soma  such 
qualifications  as  belong  originally  to  Agni.  On  the  other 
hand,  in  the  invocations  addressed  to  Agni,  this  verb  and  its 
derivatives  are  most  frequently  used.  We  may  conclude 
that  the  idea  of  celebration,  as  conveyed  by  these  words, 
had  a  connotation  which  qualified  them  for  the  employ- 
merit  with  regard  to  Agni,  the  god  nourished  by  offerings 
of  butter,  much  better  than  for  being  addressed  to  Indra, 
the  drinker  of  the  Soma  juice,  or  to  the  god  Soma  himself. 

E  2 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Last  comes,  I  believe,  the  meaning  of  \d  as  contained  in 
a  very  small  number  of  passages  such  as  VII,  91,  2.  fndra- 
v&yu  sustutf^  v&m  iy£n£  m&r<sfikdm  i//e  suvitam  £a  navyam, 
'  Indra  and  Vdyu  !  Our  beautiful  praise,  approaching  you, 
asks  you  for  mercy  and  for  new  welfare.'  Here  the  construc- 
tion of  id  is  such  as  if  in  English  the  phrase,  '  men  magnify 
the  gods  for  obtaining  mercy,'  could  be  expressed  in  the 
words  {  men  magnify  the  gods  mercy.1 

I  conclude  by  quoting  the  more  important  recent  litera- 
ture referring  to  \d\  Prof.  Max  Miiller's  note  on  V,  60,  i 
(S.  B.  E.  vol.  xxxii,  p.  354);  Physical  Religion,  p.  170; 
Bezzenberger,  Nachrichten  von  dcr  Gottinger  Gesellsch.  d. 
Wissensch.  1878,  p.  264;  Bechtcl,  Bezzenbcrger's  Beitrage, 
X,  286  ;  Bartholomae,  ibid.  XII,  91;  Arische  Forschungen, 
II,  78;  Indogermanische  Forschungen,  III,  28,  note  i; 
Brugmann,  Indogermanische  Forschungen,  I,  171  ;  K.  F. 
Johansson,  Indogermanische  Forschungen,  II,  47.  Comp. 
also  Bartholomae,  Arische  Forschungen,  I,  21  ;  III,  52,  and 
Joh.  Schmidt,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXXII,  389. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  '  Worship '  is  a  very  inadequate  translation  of 
adhvara,  which  is  nearly  a  synonym  of  ya^wa,  by  the  side 
of  which  it  frequently  stands.  Possibly  in  thq  designation 
of  the  sacrifice  as  ya^wa  the  stress  was  laid  on  the  ele- 
ment of  prayer,  praises,  and  adoration ;  in  the  designation  as 
adhvara  on  the  actual  work  which  was  chiefly  done  by  the 
Adhvaryu. — Prof.  Max  Miillcr  writes:  '  I  accept  the  native 
explanation  a-dhvara,  without  a  flaw,  perfect,  whole,  holy. 
Adhvara  is  generally  an  opus  operatum  ;  hence  adhvaryu, 
the  operating  priest/  Comp.  Physical  Religion,  p.  171. 
Bury's  derivation  of  adhvara  from  madhu  (mdhu-ara, 
Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  VII,  339)  is  much  more  ingenious 
than  convincing. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  I  have  translated  doshdvastar  as  a  vocative 
which,  as  is  rendered  very  probable  by  the  accent,  was 
also  the  opinion  of  the  diaskeuasts  of  the  Sawhita  text. 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN    T. 


The  author  of  the  sacrificial  formula  which  is  given 
in  A^val.  ^Sraut.  Ill,  12,  4  and  5ankh.  Grthy.  V,  5,  4, 
evidently  understood  the  word  in  the  same  way;  there 
Agni  is  invoked  as  doshdvastar  and  as  pratarvastar,  as 
shining  in  the  darkness  of  evening  and  as  shining  in  the 
morning.  That  this  may  indeed  be  the  true  meaning  of 
the  word  is  shown  by  Rig-veda  III,  49,  4,  where  Indra 
is  called  kshaparn  vasta,  'the  illuminator  of  the  nights' 
(kshapSim  is  gen.  plur.,  not  as  Bartholomae,  Bezzenberger's 
Bcitrage,  XV,  208,  takes  it,  loc.  sing.).  The  very  frequent 
passages,  however,  in  which  case-forms  of  dosha  stand  in 
opposition  to  words  meaning  *  dawn  '  or  *  morning  ' — which 
words  in  most  cases  are  derived  from  the  root  vas — strongly 
favour  the  opinion  of  Gaedicke  (Der  Accusativ  im  Veda, 
177,  note  3)  and  K.  F.  Johansson  (Bezzenberger's  Beitrage, 
XIV,  163),  who  give  to  doshavastar  the  meaning  *  in  the 
darkness  and  in  the  morning/  This  translation  very  well 
suits  all  Rig-veda  passages  in  which  the  word  occurs.  If 
this  opinion  is  accepted,  doshdvastar  very  probably  ought 
to  be  written  and  accented  as  two  independent  words, 
dosha  v/utar.  See  M.  M.,  Physical  Religion,  p.  173. 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAJV/7ALA  I,  HYMN  12. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  I,  VARGA 

1.  We  choose  Agni  as  our   messenger,  the  all- 
possessor,  as  the  Irlotrt  of  this  sacrifice,  the  highly  ^ 
wise.- 

2.  Agni  and  Agni  again  they  constantly  invoked 
with   their  invocations,  the    lord  of  the  clans,  the 
bearer  of  oblations,  the  beloved  of  many. 

3.  Agni,  when  born,  conduct  the  gods  hither  for 
him  who  has  strewn  the  Barhis  (sacrificial  grass) 1 ; 
thou  arc  our  Hot^/,  wonhy  of  being  magnified.2. 

4.  Awaken  them,  the  willing   ones,  ,when   thou 
goest  as  messenger,  O  Agni.     Sit  down  with  the 
gods  on  the  Barhis. 

5.  O  thou  to  whom  GlWta  oblations  are  poured 
out,  resplendent  (god),  burn  against  the  mischievous, 
O  Agni,  against  the  sorcerers. 

6.  By  Agni  Agni  is  kindled  (or,  by  fire   fire  is 
kindled),  the  sage,  the  master  of  the  house,  the  young 
one,  the  bearer  of  oblations,  whose   mouth   is  the 
sacrificial  spoon. 

7.  Praise  Agni  the  sage,  whose  ordinances  for  the 
sacrifice  are  true,  the  god  who  drives  away  sickness. 

8.  Be   the  protector,  O    Agni,   of  a    master   of 
sacrificial  food  who  worships  thee,   O  god,  as  his 
messenger. 

9.  Be  merciful,  O  purifier,  unto  the  man  who  is 
rich  in  sacrificial  food,  and  who  invites  Agni  to  the 
feast  of  the  gods. 

10.  Thus,  O  Agni,  resplendent  purifier,  conduct 


MAtfDAI.A    I,    HYMN    12.  7 

the  gods  hither  to  us,  to  our  sacrifice  and  to  our 
food. 

n.  Thus  praised  by  us  with  our  new  G&yatra 
hymn,  bring  us  wealth  of  valiant  men  arid  food. 

12.  Agni  with  thy  bright  splendour  be  pleased, 
through  all  our  invocations  of  the  gods,  with  this 
our  praise. 

NOTES. 

This  hymn  is  ascribed  to  Medhatithi  Kd;/va.  It  is  the 
opening  hymn  of  a  collection  which  extends  from  I,  12  to 
23  (not,  as  Ludwig,  III,  102,  believes,  from  I,  2  to  17 ;  sec 
my  Prolegomena,  p.  220).  That  the  authorship  of  this 
collection  belongs  indeed  to  the  Ka«va  family,  whose 
poetical  compositions  are  found  partly  in  the  first  and 
partly  in  the  eighth  Ma/^ala,  is  shown  by  the  text  of 
14,  2-5,  and  by  other  evidence ;  see  Zeitschr.  der  Deutschen 
Morg.  Gesellschaft,  XXXVIII,  44«- 

The  metre  is  G^yatrt.  It  is  possible,  though  I  do  not 
think  it  probable,  that  the  hymn  should  be  considered  as 
consisting  of  Tn'/fcas.  Verse  i  =SV.  I,  3  ;  TS.  II,  5,  8,  5  ; 
V,  5,  6,  i  ;  TB.  Ill,  5,  2,  3 ;  MS.  IV,  10,  2.  Verses  1-3  = 
SV.  II,  140-142 ;  AV.  XX,  101,  1-3.  Verse  2  =  TS.  IV, 
3,  13,  8;  MS.  IV,  10,  i.  Verse  3  =  TB.  Ill,  11,  6,  2. 
Verses  6,  8,  9  =  SV.  II,  194-196.  Verse  6  =  TS.  I, 
4,46,3:  III,  5,  u,  5;  V,  5,  6,  i;  TB.  II,  7,  12,  3;  MS. 
IV,  10,  2  (3).  Verse  7  =  SV.  I,  32.  Verse  10  =  VS. 
XVII,  9  ;  TS.  I,  3,  14,  »  ;  5>  5,  3  5  IV,  6,  i,  3 ;  MS.  I,  5,  i. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  On  vrzktdbarhis,  comp.  RV.  I,  i£6,  i;  M.  M., 
vol.  xxxii,  pp.  84  seq.,  109;  Geldner,  P.  G.,  Vedische 
Studien,  I,  152. 

Note  2.  On  \dy*h,  comp.  the  note  on  u/e  I,  i,  i. 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAAT0ALA  I,  HYMN  13. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  24-25. 

APR!  HYMN. 

i  l.  Being  well  lighted,  O  Agni,  bring  us  hither 
the  gods  to  the  man  rich  in  sacrificial  food,  O  Hotri, 
purifier;  and  perform  the  sacrifice. 

2.  TanQnap&t 1 !  make  our  sacrifice  rich  in  honey 
and  convey  it  to-day  to  the  gods,  O  sage,  that  they 
may  feast. 

3.  I  invoke  here  at  this  sacrifice  Narlrawsa1,  the 
beloved   one,  the   honey-tongued    preparer  of  the 
sacrificial  food. 

4.  O  magnified1  Agni !     Conduct  the  gods  hither 
in  an  easy-moving  chariot.     Thou    art  the   Hot™' 
instituted  by  Manns 2. 

5.  Strew,  O  thoughtful  men,  in  due  order1  the 
sacrificial  grass,  the  back  (or  surface)  of  which  is 
sprinkled  with  butter,  on  which  the  appearance  of 
immortality 2  (is  seen). 

6.  May  the  divine  gates  open,  the  increasers  of 
Ri ta,  which  do  not  stick  together,  that  to-day,  that 
now  the  sacrifice  may  proceed. 

7.  I  invoke  here  at  this  sacrifice  Night  and  Dawn, 
the  beautifully  adorned  goddesses,  that  they  may 
sit  down  on  this  our  sacrificial  graSs. 

8.  I  invoke  these  two  divine  Hotn's  *,  the  sages 
with   beautiful   tongues.     May   they  perform   this 
sacrifice  for  us. 

9.  1/4  ('  Nourishment '),  Sarasvatt,  and  Mahi  ('  the 
great  one')1,  the  three  comfort-giving  goddesses, 
they  who  do  not  fail,  shall  sit  down  on  the  sacrificial 
grass. 


MA<V/)ALA    I,    HYMN    IJ. 


10.  I  invoke  hither  the  foremost,  all-shaped  Tva- 
shtrt  to  come  hither ;  may  he  be  ours  alone. 

11.  O  tree1,  let  the  sacrificial  food  go,  O  god,  to 
the  gods.     May  the  giver's  splendour  be  foremost. 

12.  Offer  ye  the  sacrifice  with  the  word  Sv^ha 
to  Indra  in  the  sacrificer's  house.     Thereto  I  invoke 
the  gods. 

NOTES. 

The  hymn  is  ascribed,  as  the  whole  collection  aich 

it  belongs,  to  Mcdhatithi  Ka;/va  (see  the  note  on  the 
preceding  hyi'^  '  Its  metre  is  Gayatri.  Verses  1-4  = 
SV.  II,  697-700.  Verse  9  =  RV.  V,  5,  8.  Verse  10  =  TS. 
Ill,  i,  u,  i  ;  TB.  Ill,  5,  12,  i  ;  MS.  IV,  13,  10. 

The  hymn  belongs  to  the  class  of  Apri  hymns,  which 
were  classed  by  the  ancient  arrangers  of  the  Sa;;;hita  among 
the  Agni  hymns.  The  Apri  hymns,  consisting  of  eleven 
or  twelve  verses,  were  destined  for  the  Praya^a  offerings 
of  the  animal  sacrifice  (comp.  H.  O.,  Zeitschrift  der  D. 
Morg.  Gesellschaft,  XLII,  243  seq.).  They  were  addressed, 
verse  by  verse  in  regular  order,  partly  to  Agni,  partly 
to  different  spirits  or  deified  objects  connected*  with  the 
sacrifice,  such  as  the  sacrificial  grass,  the  divine  gates 
through  which  the  gods  had  to  pass  on  their  way  to  the 
sacrifice,  &c.  The  second  verse  was  addressed  by  some 
of  the  Rtshi  families  to  Tanunapdt  by  some  to  Nararawsa  ; 
in  some  of  the  hymns  we  find  two  verses  instead  of  one 
(so  that  the  total  number  of  verses  becomes  twelve  instead 
of  eleven)  addressed  the  one  to  Tantinapdt,  the  other  to 
Narajawsa.  Bergaigne  (Recherches  sur  Thistoire  de  la 
Liturgie  V&dique,  p.  14)  conjectures  that  some  of  theJ?/shi 
families  had  only  seven  Prayc^as.  This  opinion  is  based 
on  the  identical  appearance  of  four  verses  (8-n)  in  the 
Aprt  hymns  of  the  Vi-rvamitras  (III,  4)  and  of  the  Vasish- 
/Aas  (VII,  2),  and  on  the  diversity  of  Uietres  used  in  two 
other  Apr!  hymns,  IX,  5  and  II,  3.  To  me  this  conjecture, 
though  very  ingenious,  does  not  seem  convincing. 


10  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


With  the  text  of  the  Apr!  hymns  should  be  compared 
the  corresponding  Praishas  of  the  Maitravaru;/a  priest,  i.e. 
the  orders  by  which  this  priest  directed  the  Hotr/  to 
pronounce  the  Praya^a  invocations.  The  text  of  these 
Praishas  is  given  Taitt.  Brdhm.  Ill,  6,  2. 

Comp.  on  the  character  and  the  historical  and  ritual 
position  of  the  Apri  hymns,  Max  Muller,  Hist.  Anc.  Sansc. 
Literature,  p.  403  seq. ;  Roth,  Nirukta,  notes,  p.  121  seq. ; 
Weber,  Indische  Studien,  X,  89  seq. ;  Ludvvig  V,  315  seq. ; 
Hillebrandt,  Das  Altindische  Neu-  und  Vollmondsopfer, 
94  seq. ;  Schwab,  Das  Altindische  Thieropfer,  90  seq.;  Ber- 
gaigne,  Recherches  sur  Thistoire  do  la  Liturgie  Vedique, 

13  seq. 

Verse  1. 

Notel.  Comp.  Delbriick,  Syntactische  Forschungen,I,97. 

Verses  2,  3. 

Note  1.  Does  Tanunapat,  lit.  '  son  of  the  body/  mean, 
as  Roth  and  Grassmann  believed,  'son  of  his  own  self 
(comp.  I,  12,  6.  agni'na  agm'//  sam  idhyate,  '  by  Agni  Agni 
is  kindled '),  or  is  the  meaning  *  le  propre  fils '  (Bergaignc, 
Rel.  Vddiquc  II,  100)?  Nararawsa,  which  is  nearly  iden- 
tical with  the  Avestic  Nairyosariha,  means  *  the  song  of 
men,'  or  *  praised  by  men'  (Bcrgaigne,  1.  1.  I,  305  ;"M.  M.'s 
note  on  VII,  46,  4).  In  III,  29,  n  it  is  said  of  Agni: 
'  He  is  called  Tanunapat  as  the  foetus  of  the  Asura ; 
he  becomes  Naraja;;/sa  when  he  is  born.'  Of  course  an 
expression  like  this  is  by  no  means  sufficient  to  prove 
that  the  sacrificial  gods  Tanunapat  and  Nara^a;;/sa,  as 
invoked  in  the  Apri  hymns,  are  nothing  but  forms  of 
Agni.  Expressions  which  are  constantly  repeated  in  the 
Apri  verses  show  that  the  work  of  Tanunapat,  and  like- 
wise that  of  Nard^awsa,  consisted  in  spreading  ghr/ta  or 
1  honey'  over  the  sacrifice. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  'Magnified'  is  i/ita^;  comp.  the  note  on  I,  i,  i. 
The  third,  or  if  both  Tanunapat  and  Narlyawsa  are  in- 
voked, the  fourth  verse  of  the  Apr!  hymns  is  regularly 
addressed  to  Agni  with  this  epithet  t/ita. 


MANDAL\    I,    HYMN    13.  II 

Note  2.  Manurhita,  '  instituted  by  Manus,'  not  '  by  men/ 
See  Bergaigne,  Religion  Vedique,  I,  65  seq. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  On  anushak,  comp.  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien, 
II,  125. 

Note  2.  The  last  Pada  is  translated  by  Grassmann,  'wo 
der  unsterbliche  sich  zeigt'  (comp.  Bergaigne,  R.V.  I,  194, 
note  i) ;  by  Ludwig,  *  auf  dem  man  das  unsterbliche  sieht.1 
To  me  it  seems  impossible  to  decide,  so  as  to  leave  no 
doubt,  whether  amr/tasya  is  masculine  or  neuter.  Comp. 
also  Atharva-veda  V,  4,  3 ;  28,  7 ;  XIX,  39,  6-8,  in  which 
passages  the  phrase  amr/tasya  £aksha;/am  recurs. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  two  divine  Hotr/'s  are  mentioned  in  the 
Rig-veda  only  in  the  eighth  (or  seventh)  verse  of  the 
Apnsuktas  and  besides  in  two  passages,  X,  65,  10:  66,  13, 
which  do  not  throw  any  light  on  the  nature  of  these  sacri- 
ficial gods.  They  are  called  ^atavedasa  VII,  2,  7,  puro- 
hitau  X,  70,  7,  bhisha^a  Va^.  Sawh.  XXVIII,  7.  As 
regards  the  duality  of  these  divine  counterparts  of  the 
human  Hot/7  priest,  possibly  the  *  two  Hotrzs '  should  be 
understood  as  the  Hot/7  and  the  Maitravaru;/a ;  the  latter 
was  the  constant  companion  and  assistant  of  the  former 
in  the  Vedic  animal  sacrifice.  Comp.  Schwab,  Altin- 
disches  Thieropfer,  96,  1 14,  117,  &c. ;  H.  O  ,  Religion  des 
Veda,  391. 

Comp.  on  the  two  divine  Hotr/s  also  Bergaigne,  R.V. 
I,  233  seq. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  On  I/a,  see  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  pp.  72, 
326. — With  regard  to  Mahi  Bergaigne  (Rel.  Vedique,  I,  322) 
has  pronounced  the  opinion  that '  Bhdrati  et  Mahi,  qui,  tantdt 
se  remplacent,  tant6t  se  juxtaposent  tout  en  paraissant  ne 
compter  que  pour  une,  se  confondent  aux  yeux  des  r/shis.' 
But  Pischel  (Ved.  Studien,  II,  84  seq.)  has  shown  that  the 
eminent  French  scholar  was  wrong,  and  that  really  Mahi 
('  the  great  one ')  is  independent  of  Bh&rati.  Pischel's 


12  VEDIC    HYMNS. 

own  opinion  that  Mahi  is  a  name  of  the  goddess  Dhisha»a, 
does  not  seem  to  me  to  be  established  by  sufficient 
reasons. — On  the  meaning  of  these  three  goddesses  Prof. 
Max  Mliller  writes  :  '  I  should  not  fix  on  Nourishment  as 
the  true  meaning  of  I/a.  Originally  those  three  goddesses 
seem  to  be  local :  I/a,  the  land  or  daughter  of  Manu,  the 
Sarasvati,  and  another  river  here  called  Mahi/ 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  To  me  it  seems  evident  that  the  tree,  or,  to 
translate  more  literally,  the  lord  of  the  forest  (vanaspati) 
invoked  in  this  Apri  verse  can  only  be  the  sacrificial  post 
(yftpa)  to  which  the  victim  was  tied  before  it  was  killed. 
The  yupa  is  called  vanaspati  in  the  Rig-veda  (III,  8,  I.  3. 
6.  11)  as  well  as  in  the  more  modern  Vedic  texts  (for  inst., 
Taitt.  Sa;;/h.  I,  3,  6,  i). — In  the  Apr!  hymn,  IX,  5  (verse  10), 
the  vanaspati  is  called  sahasravaba:  with  this  should  be 
compared  III,  8,  n  (addressed  to  the  yupa):  vanaspate 
^atavaba//  vf  roha  sahasravaba/*  vi  vayam  ruhema, c  O  lord 
of  the  forest,  rise  with  a  hundred  offshoots  ;  may  we  rise 
with  a  thousand  offshoots!' — In  the  Apr!  hymn,  X,  70 
(verse  10),  the  rope  (ra^ana)  is  mentioned  by  which  the 
vanaspati  should  tie  the  victim';  comp.  with  this  expression 
the  statements  of  the  ritual  texts  as  to  the  ra^and  with 
which  the  victim  is  tied  to  the  yupa  ;  Schwab,  Das  Altin- 
clische  Thieropfcr,  8r.  Comp.  also  especially  Taittiriya 
Brahma«a  III,  6,  u,  3. — In  the  Apr!  hymns  the  vanaspati 
is  frequently  invoked  to  let  loose  the  victim  ;  in  connection 
therewith  mention  is  made  of  the  sacrificial  butcher 
z),  see  II,  3,  10;  III,  4,  10;  X,  no,  10,  and  comp. 
.  Sawhita  XXI,  21  ;  XXVIII,  10.  The  meaning  of 
these  expressions  becomes  clear  at  once,  if  we  explain  the 
vanaspati  as  the  sacrificial  post.  When  they  are  going  to 
kill  the  victim,  they  loosen  it  from  the  post;  the  post, 
therefore,  can  be  said  to  let  it  loose.  Then  the  butcher 
(szmitri)  leads  the  victim  away.  See  the  materials  collected 
by  Schwab,  Thieropfer,  p.  100  seq.,  and  comp.  also  H.  O., 
Religion  des  Veda,  357. 


MANDA.LA    I,  HYMN  26.  13 


MAMPALA  I,  HYMN  26. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  20-21. 

1.  Clothe   thyself  with   thy   clothing   (of   light), 
O    sacrificial  (god),   lord  of  all   vigour;    and  then 
perform  this  worship  for  us. 

2.  Sit  down,  most  youthful  god,  as  our  desirable 
Hotrt,  through  (our  prayerful)  thoughts l,  O  Agni, 
with  thy  word 2  that  goes  to  heaven. 

3.  The  father  verily  by  sacrificing  procures  (bless- 
ings) for  the  son1,  the  companion  for  the  companion, 
the  elect  friend  for  the  friend. 

4.  May  Variwa,  Mitra,  Aryaman,  triumphant  with 
riches  (?) J,  sit  down  on  our  sacrificial  grass  as  they 
did  on  Manu's. 

5.  O_ ancient   Hotrz,  be   pleased   with    this   our 
friendship  also,  and  hear  these  prayers. 

6.  For  whenever  we  sacrifice  constantly1  to  this 
or  to  that  god,  in  thee  alone  the  sacrificial  food  is 
offered. 

7.  May  he  be  dear  to  us,  the  lord  of  the  clan,  the 
joy-giving,  elect  Hotrz;  may  we  be  dear  (to  him), 
possessed  of  a  good  Agni  (i.  e.  of  good  fire). 

8.  For  the  gods,  when  possessed  of  a  good  Agni, 
have  given  us  excellent  wealth,  and  we  think  our- 
selves possessed  of  a  good  Agni. 

9.  And  may  there  be  among  us  mutual  praises 
of  both  the  mortals,    O    immortal   one,   (and   the 
immortals)  \ 

ID.  With  all  Agnis  (i.  e.  with  all  thy  fires),  O  Agni, 
accept  this  sacrifice  and  this  prayer,  O  young  (son) 
of  strength !. 


14  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

This  hymn,  as  well  as  the  whole  collection  to  which  it 
belongs,  is  ascribed  to  SunaAscpa  A^igarti  (comp.  2,4, 12. 13). 
The  metre  is  Gayatri.  Bergaigne  (Recherches  sur  1'histoire 
dc  la  Sa/whita,  II,  7)  divides  this  hymn  into  TrtJbas,  with 
one  single  verse  added  at  the  etid.  I  cannot  find  sufficient 
evidence  for  this ;  the  appearance  in  the  Sama-veda 
(II,  967-9)  of  a  TriJka.  composed  of  the  verses  10.  6.  7 
of  our  hymn  is  rather  against  Bergaigne's  opinion. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Manmabhi/;  may  possibly  mean,  'with  thy 
(wise)  thoughts;1  comp., Tor  instance,  III,  u,  8.  pari  vfjvani 
sudhitd  agn^  ajyama  manmabhi//,  '  may  we  obtain  every 
bliss  through  Agni's  (wise)  thoughts/  or  '  may  we  obtain 
all  the  blessings  of.Agni  for  our  prayers.' 

Note  2.  Va£as  stands  for  va£asa.  See  the  passages 
collected  by  Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  562,  and  comp. 
Roth,  Uebcr  gewisse  Kiirzungen  des  Wortendes  im  Veda,  5  ; 
Joh.  Schmidt,  Die  Pluralbildungen  der  indogermanischen 
Neutra,  304  seq.  Ludwig  also  takes  va£as  as  in&tru- 
mental. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Agni  is  the  father,  the  mortal  whose  sacrifice 
he  performs,  the  son. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Can  rijadas  be  explained  as  a  compound  of  ri 
(Tiefstufe  of  rai,  as  gu  is  the  Tiefstufe  of  gau)  and 
*ra'dasl  from  the  root  Jad, '  to  be  triumphant '  ?  Prof.  Auf- 
recht  (Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XIV,  33  ;  see  also  Neisser, 
Bezz.  Beitr.  XIX,  143)  connects  ri-  with  the  Greek  Ipi* 
(£pucv5ifc  &c.);  our  hypothesis  has  the  advantage  of  not 
leaving  the  limits  of  Sanskrit. — Comp.  M.  M.'s  note  on 
V,  60,  7  ;  Ludwig,  Ueber  <Jie  neuesten  Arbeiten  auf  dem 
Gebiete  der  Rig-veda-Forschung  (1893),  p.  7. 


MAtfDALA    I,    HYMN    26. 


Verse  6. 
Note  1.   On  jdjvata  tand  see  Lanman,  480,  515,  518. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  The  comparison  of  verse  8  and  the  expression 
amr/ta  martyanam  in  the  second  Pada  of  this  verse  seem 
to  show  that  ubhayesham  does  not  refer  to  two  classes  of 
mortals,  the  priests  and  their  patrons,  but  to  the  mortals 
and  the  immortals.  A  genitive  amr/tanam,  which  would 
make  this  meaning  quite  clear,  can  easily  be  supplied. 
A  Dvandva  compound  amr/tamartyanam,  which  one 
could  feel  tempted  to  conjecture,  would  have,  in  my 
opinion,  too  modern  a  character. — Prof.  Max  Miiller  writes: 
'  I  should  prefer  amr/ta  martyanam,  not  exactly  as  a  com- 
pound, but  as  standing  for  amr/tanam  martyanam.  This 
seems  to  be  Luchvig's  opinion  too/ 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  In  the  translation  of  sahasaA  yaho  I  follow 
Geldner,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVIII,  195 ;  Ludwig's  trans- 
lation is  similar. 


1 6  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA  I,  HYMN  27. 
ASHJAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  22-24. 

A. 

i.  With  reverence  I  shall  worship  thee  who  art 
long-tailed  like  a  horse,  Agni,  the  king  of  worship. 

-2.  May  he,  our  son  of  strength  *,  proceeding  on 
his  broad  way,  the  propitious,  become  bountiful 
to  us.  ^ 

3.  Thus  protect  us  always,  thou  who  hast  a  full 
life,  from  the   mortal  who  seeks  to  do  us  harm  l, 
whether  near  or  afar. 

4.  And  mayest  thou,  O  Agni,  announce  to  the 
gods  this  our  newest  efficient  Gayatra  song. 

5.  Let  us  partake  of  all   booty  that  is   highest 
and  that  is  middle  (i.  e.  that  dwells  in  the  highest 
and  in  the  middle  world);  help  us  to  the  wealth 
that  is  nearest. 

6.  O  god  with   bright  splendour,  thou    art   the 
distributor.     Thou  instantly  flowest  for  the  liberal 
giver  in  the  wave  of  the  river,  near  at  hand. 

B. 

7.  The   mortal,  O  Agni,  whom    thou  protectest 
in  battles,  whom  thou  speedest  in  the  races1,  he 
will  .command  constant  nourishment : 

8.  Whosoever  he  may  be,  no  one  will  overtake 
him,  O  conqueror  (Agni) !    His  strength2  is  glorious. 

9.  May  he  (the  man),  known  among  all  tribes3, 
win  the  race  with  his  horses ;  may  he  with  the  help 
of  his  priests  become  a  gainer. 


MANDALA    I,    HYMN    2J.  IJ 

C. 

10.  O  Gar&bodha1!    Accomplish  this  (task)  for 
every  house2:  a  beautiful  song  of  praise  for  wor- 
shipful Rudra3. 

11.  May  he,  the   great,  the   immeasurable,   the 
smoke-bannered,    rich    in    splendour,   incite   us    to 
(pious)  thoughts  and  to  strength. 

1 2.  May  he  hear  us,  like  the  rich  lord  of  a  clan, 
the  bannei*  of  the  gods,  on  behalf  of  our  hymns, 
Agni  with  bright  light. 

13.  Reverence  to  the  great  ones,  reverence  to 
the  lesser  ones !   Reverence  to  the  young,  reverence 
to  the  old1 !    Let  us  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  if  we  can. 
May  I   not,  O  gods,  fall  as  a  victim  to  the  curse 
of  my  better2. 

NOTES. 

The  hymn  is  ascribed  to  .Suna&repa  (see  note  on  I,  36). 
The  metre  is  Giyatri ;  the  last  verse  is  Trish/ubh. 

The  laws  of  arrangement  of  the  Sawhita  show  that  this 
hymn,  which  has  thirteen  verses  and  follows  after  a  hymn 
of  ten  verses  belonging  to  the  same  deity,  must  be  divided 
into  a  number  of  minor  hymns.  On  the  question  of  this 
division  some  further  light  is  thrown  by  the  metre.  The 
first  six  verses  and  then  again  the  verses  10-19  are 
composed  in  the  trochaic  form  of  the  G£yatri  metre ;  of 
the  verses  7-9,  on  the  other  hand,  not  a  single  Pada  shows 
the  characteristics  of  that  metre.  I  believe,  therefore,  that 
the  verses  1-6  form  one  hymn  by  themselves,  or  possibly 
two  hymns  of  three  verses  each.  Then*  follow  two  hymns : 
verses  7-9,  10-12.  As  to  verse  13,  which  is  composed 
in  a  different  metre,  it  is  difficult  to  determine  its  exact 
nature.  It  may  be  a  later  addition :  though  in  that  case 
[46]  C 


l8  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


we  shall  hardly  be  able  to  explain  why  it  was  placed  at 
the  end  of  the  hymns  addressed  to  Agni,  to  which  god  it 
contains  no  reference  whatever.  Or  it  may  form  part  of 
the  hymn  10-12 :  in  that  case  we  should  have  to  consider 
this  whole  hymn,  which  would  then  violate  the  rules  of 
arrangement,  as  an  addition  to  the  original  collection. 

We  may  add  that  the  S&ma-veda  gives  the  first  twelve 
verses  of  this  Sukta  so  as  to  form  four  independent  hymns: 
1-3  =  SV.  II,  984-6;  4-  6.5  =  SV.  II,  847-9  5  7-9  =  SV. 
H»  765-7;  10-12  =  SV.  II,  1013-15.  Besides,  verse  i  is 
found  in  SV.  I,  17.  Verse  4  =  SV.  I,  28 ;  TAr.  IV,  I J,  8. 
Verse  7  =  VS.  VI,  29 ;  TS.  I,  3,  13,  2 ;  MS.  I,  3,  i.  Verse 
10  =  SV.  1, 15.  Comp.  Bergaigne,  Recherches  sur  1'histoire 
de  la  Sawhita,  II,  pp.  7-8 ;  H.  O.,  Prolegomena,  225-2^6. 

Verse  2. 

Note  L  It  requires  a  stronger  belief  in  the  infallibility 
of  Vedic  text  tradition  than  I  possess,  npt  to  change  sivasb 
into  javasaA.  I  do  not  think  that  1, 62,  9  (sdnemi  sakhydm 
svapasy£m£na£  stiniiA  d£dh£ra  jdvasi  sudams&A)  furnishes 
a  sufficient  argument  against  this  conjecture. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Grassmann  reads  agha£y6£  for  the  sake  of  the 
metre;  Prof.  Max  Miiller  proposes  Sghly&fc.  I  think  that 
the  missing  syllable  should  be  gained  by  disyllabic  pro- 
nunciation of  -4t  in  mdrtydt  or  rather  mdrti&t  Comp.  my 
Prolegomena  185  and  the  quotations  given  there  in  note  i. 

Verses  7-0. 

Note  1.  It  is  not  my  intention  to  enter  here  into  a  new 
discussion  on  so  frequently  discussed  a  word  as  vd^a.  I  have 
translated  it  in  verses  7, 9  by  *  race/  in  verse  8  by '  strength.' 

Note  2.  The  expression  used  in  verses  7  and  8  should 
be  compared  especially  with  VII,  40,  3.  s&A  It  ugriA  astu 
maruta£  sa/fc  jushmf  ydm  mdrtyam  pr*'shadarv££  dv&tha, 
uti  fm  agnfA  sdra&vatl^undnti  nd  tdsya  r&yiJt  paryet£  asti. 


MAMDALA    I,    HYMN    27.  19 

Note  3.  VLrva£arsha#i,  a  frequent  epithet  of  Agnt,  here 
refers  to  the  mortal  hero  protected  by  Agni;  comp.  I, 
64,  14  (vol.  xxxii,  p.  1 08) ;  X,  93, 10  (virvd£arsha#i  srivaJk). 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  I  think  that  Ludwig  is  right  in  taking  £ar£- 
bodha  for  a  proper  name. 

Note  2.  Vu^-vLre  may  possibly  depend  on  y3£w/y&ya, 
so  that  we  should  have  to  translate :  'Administer  this  task : 
a  beautiful  song  of  praise  to  Rudra  who  is  worshipful  for 
every  house.' 

-  Note  3.   Rudra  is  here  a  designation   of  Agni,  as  the 
next  verses  show.     Comp.  Pischel-Geldner,  I,  56. 

Verge  13. 

Note  1.  The  word  Irind,  'old/  occurring  only  here,  is 
doubtful.  In  III,  i,  6 ;  IV,  33,  3  ;  X,39, 4,  sana  or  sanaya 
stands  in  contrast  with  yuvan.  Shall  we  conjecture  ndmaA 
&  sdnebhyaA  ? 

Note  2.  The  last  Pada  of  this  verse,  m£  gy&y^ssJt  S£M- 
sam  &  vrikshi  devi/*  ('May  I  not,  O  gods,  neglect  the 
praise  of  the  greatest/  Muir,  V,  12),  offers  some  difficulty. 
It  may  be  doubted  whether  &  vrikshi  belongs  to  &-vrig  or 
to~&-vras&. 

Let  us  see  what  would  be  the  meaning  of  the  passage,  if 
we  were  to  decide  for  &-vrig.  VIII,  101,  16  the  cow 
speaks :  devim  devebhya/*  pari  eyushim  ga'm  SL  ma  avrikta 
mdrtya^  dabhra^eta//, '  Me  the  goddess,  the  cow,  who  has 
come  hither  from  the  gods,  the  weak-minded  mortal  has 
appropriated/  Satapatha  Brihma^  XIV,  9, 4,  3.  ya  eva*» 
vidvan  adhopahdsaw  /^araty  d  sa  stri;/aw  sukritam  vrmkte 
*tha  ya  idam  avidvan  adhopahdsaw  ^araty  ^sya  striya// 
sukritam  vri^fate,  'He  who  knowing  this,  &c.,  appro- 
priates the  good  works  of  the  women.  But  the  women 
appropriate  the  good  works  of  him  who  without  knowing 
this/  &c.  In  Rig-veda  X,  159,  5  also  we  probably  have 
a  form  of  £-vr^.  There  we  find  the  triumphant  utterance 

C  2 


2O  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


of  a  wife  who  has  gained  superiority  over  her  fellow-wives : 
Si  avr/ksham  any£s4m  v&tfah, '  I  have  won  for  myself  the 
splendour  of  the  other  wives.'  We  may  conclude  from 
these  passages  that  our  P£da,  if  &  vrz'kshi  is  derived  from 
£-vrt£,  would  mean  :  '  May  I  not  draw  on  myself  the  curse 
of  my  better/ 

On  the  other  hand  we  have  a  great  number  of  passages — 
they  have  been  collected  by  Ludwig,  IV,  249  seq. — in 
which  the  verb  &-vraj£  appears.  Referring  the  reader  for 
fuller  information  to  Ludwig,  I  content  myself  here  with 
selecting  one  or  two  of  these  passages.  Taitt.  Sawh.  II,  4, 
n,  4.  devatibhyo  vA  esha  £  vrts&ya,te  yo  yakshya  ity 
uktvd  na  y^te.  In  translating  this  we  should  remember 
that  vrasik  means  *  to  cut  down ; '  4-vrajv£,  therefore,  must 
be  '  to  cut  down  so  that  the  object  reaches  a  certain  desti- 
nation/ I  translate  therefore:  'He  who  says,  "I  shall 
sacrifice,"  and  does  not  sacrifice,  is  cut  down  f6r  the  deities,' 
— i.  e.  he  is  dedicated  or  forfeited  to  the  deities  and  is  thus 
destroyed  (comp.  a  different  explanation  of  4-vraj£  by 
Delbruck,  Altindische  Syntax,  143).  In  other  passages 
not  the  dative  but  the  locative  is  used  for  indicating  the 
being  to  whom  somebody  is  forfeited;  see  Atharva-veda 
•XII,  4,  6.  12.  20  ;  XV,  12,  6.  10. 

A  Rig-vedic  passage  containing  A-vrar£  (with  the  dative) 
is  X,  87,  1 8.  &  vm^yantdm  dditaye  dur^vAA,  'May  the 
evil-doers  be  forfeited  to  Aditi.' 

Several  times  we  find  the  first  person  aor.  med.  in  the 
same  form  as  in  our  passage,  &  vr/kshi ;  see,  for  instance,  the 
Nivid  formula  to  the  VLrve  dev^A,  5&nkh£yana  Srautasfttra 
VIII,  21.  In  this  Nivid,  the  text  of  which  as  given  by 
Hillebrandt  is  not  quite  identical  with  that  of  Ludwig,  we 
read  according  to  Hillebrandt's  edition :  mA  vo  devA  avuasd, 
mi  vUasayur  &  wz'kshi.  This  m&  ...  &  vrzkshi  looks  quite 
similar  to  our  passage.  The  same  may  be  said  of  Taittiriya 
SawhitS.  I,  6,  6,  i.  yat  te  tapas  tasmai  te  m4vr/kshi. 
Considering  such  passages  it  is  difficult  not  to  believe  that 
it  is  the  verb  &  vraj/t  which  we  have  before  us  in  our 
verse.  It  must  be  admitted  indeed  that  the  accusative 


M AND  ALA    I,    HYMN    27.  21 

does  not  agree  with  the  construction  of  the  later 
Vedic  passages.  Can  the  accusative  stand  in  the  ancient 
language  of  the  Rig-veda  in  the  same  connection  in  which 
we  have  found  the  dative  and  the  locative?  So  that 
£-vras6  (in  the  middle  or  passive)  with  the  accusative  would 
mean :  to  be  cut  down  in  the  direction  towards  another 
being,  i.  e.  being  forfeited  to  that  being  ?  In  that  case  the 
translation  of  our  passage  would  be :  '  May  I  not,  O  gods, 
fall  as  a  victim  to  the  praise  (or  rather,  to  the  curse)  of  "my 
better/  If  this  explanation  of  the  accusative  is  thought 
too  bold,  we  should  propose  to  correct  the  text  so  as  to 
get  a  dative  or,  which  would  suit  the  metre  better,  a  loca- 
tive :  m£gy£yasaA  jdwsdya  (or  jdwse)  &,  vr/kshi  dev&A. 


22  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAA>7?ALA  I,  HYMN  31. 
ASH7AKA  I.  ADHYAYA  2.  VARGA  32-35. 

1.  Thou,  O  Agni,  (who  art)  the  first  Ahgiras  J?zshi, 
hast  become?  as  god  the  kind  friend  of  the  gods. 
After  thy  law  the  sages,  active  in  their  wisdom1, 
were  born,  the  Maruts  with  brilliant  spears. 

2.  Thou,  O  Agnif  the  first,  highest  Ahgiras,  a 
sage,  administerest  the  law  of  the  gods,  mighty*  for 
the  whole  world,  wise,  the  son  of  the  two  mothers l, 
reposing  everywhere  for  (the  use  of)  the  living2. 

3.  Thou,   O  Agni,   as   the   first,  shalt    become1 
manifest  to  Mfttarmran,  through  thy  high  wisdom,  to 
Vivasvat.     The  two  worlds  trembled  at  (thy)  elec- 
tion as  Hotrz.     Thou  hast  sustained  the  burthen ; 
thou,  O  Vasu,  hast  sacrificed  to  the  great  (gods)2. 

4.  Thou,  O  Agni,  hast  caused  the  sky  to  roar1 
for  Manu,  for  the  well-doing  Purflravas,  being  thyself 
a  greater  well-doer.     When  thou  art  loosened  by 
power  (?)a  from  thy  parents,  they  led  thee  hither 
before  and  afterwards  again. 

5.  Thou,  O  Agni,  the  bull,  the  augmenter  of  pros- 
perity, art  to  be  praised  by  the  sacrificer  who  raises 
the  spoon,  who  knows  all  about  the  offering1  and  (the 
sacrifice  performed  with)  the  word  Vasha/.     Thou 
(god)  of  unique  vigour  art  the  first  to  invite9  the 
clans. 

6.  Thou,  O  Agni,  leadest  forward  the  man  who 
follows  crooked  ways1,  in  thy  company  at  the  sacri- 
fice*, O  god  dwelling  among  all  tribes,  who  in  the 
strife  of  heroes,  in  the  decisive  moment  for  the 


MAJWALA    I,    HYMN    31.  23 

obtainment  of  the  prize 3,  even  with  few  companions 
killest  many  foes  in  the  battle4. 

7.  Thou,  O  Agni,  keepest   that  mortal1  in   the 
highest  immortality,  in  glory  day  by  day,  (thou)  who 
being  thirsty  thyself8  givest  happiness  to  both  races 
(gods  and  men),  and  joy  to  the  rich. 

8.  Thou,  O  Agni,  praised  by  us,  help  the  glorious 
singer  to  gain  prizes.     May  we  accomplish  our  work 
with  the  help  of  the  young  active  (Agni).    O  Heaven 
and  Earth  !     Bless  us  together  with  the  gods. 

9.  Thou,  O  Agni,  in  the  lap  of  thy  parents,  a  god 
among  gods,  O  blameless  one,  always  watchful,  be 
the  body's  creator  and  guardian  to  the  singer.    Thou, 
O  beautiful  one,  pourest  forth  all  wealth. 

10.  Thou,  O  Agni,  art  our  guardian,  thou  art  our 
father.     Thou  art  the  giver  of  strength  ;  we  are  thy 
kinsmen.    H  undredfold,  thousandfold  treasures  come 
together  in  thee,  who  art  rich  in  heroes,  the  guardian 
of  the  law,  O  undeceivable  one. 

n.  Thee,  O  Agni,  the  gods  have  made  for  the 
living  as  the  first  living1,  the  clan-lord  of  the 
Nahusha2.  They  have  made  (the  goddess)  1/4  the 
teacher  of  men  (manusha),  when  a  son  of  my  father 
is  born3. 

12.  Thou,  O  Agni,  protect  with  thy  guardians, 
O  god,  our  liberal  givers  and  ourselves,  O  venerable 
one  !  Thou  art  the  protector  of  kith  and  kin1  and 
of  the  cows,  unremittingly  watching  over  thy  law. 

i3l.  Thou,  O  Agni,  art  kindled  four-eyed,  as  the 
closest  guardian  for  the  sacrificer  who  is  without 
(even)  a  quiver8.  Thou  acceptest  in  thy  mind  the 
hymn  even  of  the  poor3  who  has  made  offerings4, 
that  he  may  prosper  without  danger. 

14.    Thou,  O  Agni,  gainest1  for  the  widely-re- 


24  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


nowned  worshipper  that  property  which  is  desirable 
and  excellent.  Thou  art  called  the  guardian  and 
father  even  of  the  weak2;  thou  instructest  the 
simple,  thou,  the  greatest  sage,  the  quarters  of  the 
world3. 

1 5.  Thou,  O  Agni,  protectest  on  every  side  like 
well-stitched  armour  the  man  who  gives  sacrificial 
fees.     He  who  puts  sweet  food  (before  the  priests), 
who  makes  them  comfortable  in  his  dwelling,  who 
kills  living  (victims),  he  (will  reside)  high  in  heaven l. 

1 6.  Forgive,  O   Agni,  this  our  fault  (P)1,  (look 
graciously  at)  this  way  which  we  have  wandered 
from  afar.     Thou  art  the  companion,  the  guardian, 
the  father  of  those  who  offer  Soma;  thou  art  the 
quick  one2  who  makes  the  mortals  jffi'shis3. 

17.  As  thou  didst  for  Manus,  O  Agni,  for  Angiras, 
O  Angiras,  for  Yay£ti  on  thy  (priestly)  seat,  as  for  the 
ancients,  O  brilliant  one,  come  hither,  conduct  hither 
the  host  of  the  gods,  seat  them  on  the  sacrificial  grass, 
and  sacrifice  to  the  beloved  (host). 

1 8.  Be   magnified,   O   Agni,  through   this  spell 
which  we  have  made  for  thee  with  our  skill  or  with 
our  knowledge.    And  lead  us  forward  to  better 
things.     Let  us  be  united  with  thy  favour,  which 
bestows  strength. 

NOTES. 

The  JRishi  of  the  hymn  is  Hira*yastApa  Angirasa.  To 
him  tradition  ascribes  the  authorship  of  the  collection  1, 31- 
35,  probably  because  in  X,  149,  5  the  poet  invokes  Savitr*, 
'  as  Hiraayastdpa  the  Angirasa  has  called  thee,  O  Savitri'.' 
Vedic  theologians  of  course  tried  to  find  out  where  this 
invocation  of  Hiraayastfipa  to  Savitri  \Vas  preserved,  and 
the  hymn,  I,  35,  seemed  to  agree  best  with  the  conditions 


MAJWALA    I,    HYMN    31.  25 

of  the  case  (comp.  Zeitschrift  der  D.  Morg.  Ges.  XLII,  230). 
By  this  and  many  similar  cases  it  is  made  probable  that  at 
the  time  when  the  Anukrama»l  was  composed,  all  real 
knowledge  as  to  authors  to  whom  the  collections  of  the 
first  Mamfala  belong/ was  lost. 

The  metre  is  Cagatf ;  only  the  verses  8,  16,  18  are 
Trish/ubh.  Verse  i  =  VS.  34,  12.  Verse  8  =  MS.  IVf  nf 
I.  Verse  12  =  VS.  34,  13.  With  verse  16  comp.  AV.  Ill, 
15.4. 

Verse  L 

Hote  1.  VidmanSpasaA  seems  to  be  nom.  plur.,  not  gen. 
aing.  Comp.  I,  in,  i.  takshan  ratham  .  .  .  vidman£pasa/i, 
fl  they  (the  J?ibhus),  active  in  their  wisdom,  have  wrought 
the  chariot.' 

Verso  2. 

note  1.  As  to  dvimlta'  sayu/it  comp.  Ill,  55,  6  (jayiiA 
paristAt  ddha  nil  dvimSti) ;  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  II, 
50. — On  Agni's  two  mothers  and  his  double  birth  see 
Bergaigne,  Religion  Wdique,  II,  52. 

Note  2.  By  'living'  I  have  translated  ayii.  See  on 
this  word,  Bergaigne,  Rel.  V£d.,  I,  59  seq. 

Verse  8. 

Note  L  Probably  Bergaigne  (Rel.  V£d.  I,  55,  note  2)  is 
right  in  conjecturing  bhavaA  for  bhava.  In  this  case  we 
should  have  to  translate :  '  Thou  as  the  first  hast  become 
manifest  to  MitarLsvan.1 

Note  2.  I  believe  that  to  mahiA  we  have  to  supply 
devfo  ;  see  II,  37,  6 ;  III,  7, 9 ;  VI,  16,  2 ;  48, 4,  &c.  '  Can 
it  not  be  an  adverb?  See  vol.  xxxii,  p.  307;  Lanman, 
p.  501,'  M.  M. 

Verse  4. 

Vote  1.  Comp.  V,  58,  6.  let  Dyu  (sky)  roar  down,  the 
bull  of  the  dawn.  V,  59,  8.  may  Dyaus  Aditi  (the  un- 
bounded) roar  for  our  feast. 


26  VF.DIC    HYMNS. 


Note  2.  The  translation  of  w£tra  is  purely  conjectural. 
It  rests  on  the  supposition  that  the  word  is  related  to 
jftjuve,  javas,  &c.  (thus  Grassmann).  Boehtlingk-Roth 
connect  it  with  svad,  which  is  phonetically  impossible ; 
they  give  the  meaning  '  schmackhaft,'  and  paraphrase  our 
passage :  das  mit  einer  Lockspeise  (z.  B.  mit  einem  Spahn) 
von  den  Reibholzern  abgenommene  Feuer  kann  man  bin 
und  her  tragen.  Ludwig :  mit  Geprassel.  I  do  not  see  how 
this  translation  would  fit  for  a  number  of  the  passages  in 
which  the  word  occurs. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  With  the  third  P£da  compare  VI,  i,  9.  y&A 
£hutim  pdri  vdda  ndmobhiA. 

Note  2.  Avfvdsasi  cannot  belong  to  the  relative  clause. 
The  accent  must  be  changed  accordingly. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  It  is  very  curious  to  find  here  Agni  as  the  pro- 
tector of  the  w/^inavartani,  the  man  who  follows  crooked 
ways.  Ludwig  tries  to  explain  the  passage  by  under- 
standing the  vidatha,  in  which  Agni  is  here  said  to  protect 
the  sinner,  as  an  asylum,  but  we  have  no  reason  to 
believe  that  the  word  could  have  this  meaning.  See  the 
next  note. 

Note  2.  On  the  derivation  and  meaning  of  viditha 
various  opinions  have  been  pronounced  in  the  last  years, 
which  have  been  collected  by  Prof.  Max  Miiller  in  his  note 
on  V,  59,  2  (voL  xxxii,  p.  349  seq. ;  see  also  Bartholomae, 
Studien  zur  indogermanischen  Sprachgeschichte,  I,  41). 
Without  trying  to  discuss  here  all  different  theories,  I  im- 
mediately proceed  to  state  my  own  opinion,  though  I  am 
far  from  claiming  certainty  for  it.  It  will,  however, 
I  believe,  solve  the  difficulties  tolerably  well.  I  propose  to 
derive  viddtha  from  vi-dha  ;  the  dh  was  changed  into  d  by 
the  same  'Hauchdissimilationsgesetz'  (Brugmann,  Grundriss 
der  vergleichenden  Grammatik,  vol.  i,  p.  355  seq.),  accord- 
ing to  which  Arian  *bhdudhati  was  changed  into  Sanskrit 


M  AMD  ALA    I,    HYMN    3!.  2^ 

txSdhati.     No  one  will  doubt  that  the  operation  of  this 
'Hauchdissimilationsgesetz'  could  be  annihilated  by  oppo- 
site forces,  but  it  must  be  admitted  that  the  forms  with 
*  Hauchdissimilation  *  could  also  remain  intact.    The  verb 
vi-dh4  means  *  to  distribute,  to  arrange,  to  ordain ; '  thus 
the  original  meaning  of  viddtha  must  be,  like  the  meaning 
of  vidh£na, '  distribution,  disposition,  ordinance.'     In  V,  3, 6 
we  read  viddtheshu  dhn£m :  this  phrase  receives  its  explana- 
tion by  VII,  66,  1 1.  vf  yi  dadhiiA  jarddam  m£sam  £t  ahaA ; 
ahoratr&si  vidddhat,  X,  190,  a  ;  mlc5m  vidh5nam,  X,  138, 
6  ;  r/tfln  ...  vi  dadhau,  I,  95,  3.     We  may  call  attention 
also  to  VI,  51,  2.  veda  yd/*  trim  viddthini  esh&m  dev£n&m 
^inma, '  he  who  knows  their  threefold  division,  the  birth  of 
the  gods;'  VI,  8,  i.  pra  nu  vo£am  viddthd  ^tdvedasa//, 
c  I  will  proclaim  the  ordinances  of  G&tavedas.1    Within  the 
sphere  of  the  Vedic  poets'  thoughts,  the  most  prominent 
example  of  something  most  artificially  'vfhita'  was  the 
sacrifice  (comp.  v(  y£  dadhuA  .  .  .  ya^;7am,  VII,  66,  n  ; 
jdwsati  uktham  ya^ate  vf  ft  dh£//,  IV,  6,  1 1  ;  [the  moon] 
bh£gdm  dev^bhyaA  vf  dadhdti  d-ydn,  X,  85,  19;  and  the 
following  very  significant  passage:  ya^dsya  tva  viddthA 
priJk&Aam  atra  kdti  hot^raA  ritusAA  ya^fanti,  V^..Sawh. 
XXIII,  57).     Thus   ya£-#a   and   viddtha,  'sacrifice'   and 
'  ordinance/   became    nearly   synonymous  (comp.   Ill,  '3, 
3,  &c.).      It  would   be   superfluous   to  quote  the   whole 
number  of  passages  which  show  this,  but  I  believe  that  an 
attentive  reader  will  discern  at  least  in  some  of  them  the 
traces  of  the  original  meaning  of  viddtha ;  see,  for  instance, 
II,  1,4 ;  III,  28,4. — Finally  viddtha  seems  to  mean  *  the  act 
of  disposing  of  any  business '  or  the  like ;  this  meaning 
appears,  I  believe,  in  passages  like  the  well-known  phrase, 
brflidt  vadema  viddthe  suvtrAA  (comp.  suvTrdsaA  vidatham 
&  vadema) :  '  may  we  with  valiant  men  mightily  raise  our 
voice  at  the  determining  (of  ordinances,  &c.).'     Thus  the 
words  viddtha  and  sabh£  approach  each  other  in  their 
meaning;   a  person  influential  in  council  is  called  both 
vidathya  and  sabh^ya  (see  Boehtlingk-Roth,  s.  v.  vidathya). 
Note  8.  The  exact  meaning  of  paritakmya  is  not  quite 


28  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


free  from  doubt.  Comp.  Bartholomae,  Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage,  XV,  203,  note  i. 

Note  4.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  translates  this  verse :  *  Thou 
savest  the  man  who  has  gone  the  wrong  way  in  the  thick 
of  the  battle,  thou  who  art  quick  at  the  sacrifice ;  thou  who 
in  the  strife  of  heroes,  when  the  prize  (or  the  booty)  is  sur- 
rounded (beset  on  all  sides),  killest,'  &c. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  The  phrase  begins  as  if  a  relative  clause  were  to 
follow  attached  to  the  words  '  that  mortal.'  But,  instead  of 
this,  afterwards  a  relative  clause  follows  referring  to"  thou, 

0  Agni.'  v 
Note  2.  Roth  (Ueber  gewisse  Kurzungen  des  Wortendes, 

p.  4)  and  Bartholomae  (Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXIX,  559) 
think  that  a, dative  (like  t£t/7sha#£ya)  is  required;  Agni 
gives  comfort  to  both  thirsty  races,  gods  and  men.  Roth 
takes  t£t?7'shdtt£[£]  for  an  abbreviation  of  tdtr/shdtffya ; 
Bartholomae  conjectures  tatr/shSya.  It  would  be  more 
easy  to  change  the  form  into  a  dative  with  the  ending 
-A  (  =  -ai);  comp.  Kluge,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXV,  309; 
Pischel-Geldner,  I,  61  ;  Aufrecht,  Festgruss  an  Bdhtlingk, 

1  ;  J.  Schmidt,  Pluralbildungen,  234.    But  why  not  leave 
the  nominative?     Agni,  being  thirsty  himself,  quenches 
the  thirst  of  other  beings.     Comp.  J.  Schmidt,  Pluralbil- 
dungen, 309. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  AyiSm  dydve.    See  verse  2,  note  2. 

Note  2.  The  names  Nahus,  Nahusha  have  much  the 
same  value  as  Manus,  Manusha.  But  it  seems  that  not  all 
the  Aryan  tribes,  but  only  a  certain  part  of  them,  were  con- 
sidered as  descendants  of  Nahus.  Comp.  Bergaigne,  Rel. 
V£dique,  II,  324. 

Note  3.  The  last  words  are  very  obscure.  Mamaka 
occurs  only  in  one  other  passage,  belonging  to  the  same 
collection  of  hymns,  I,  34,  6 :  there  the  A-rvins  are  invoked 
to  bestow  blessings  on  'my  son1  (m£mak£ya  sftndve). 
*  When  a  son  of  my  father  is  born '  may  mean  '  When  I  am 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN   31.  2Q 

born/  or  'When  a  new  issue  is  born  within  our  tribe:' 
then — thus  we  may  possibly  supply — the  goddess  I/A,  the 
teacher  of  mankind,  will  be  the  new-born  child's  teacher 
also.  Another  possible  explanation  would  be  to  take 
Mamaka  as  a  proper  name.  Or  Prof.  Max  Muller  may  be 
right,  who  writes  :  'Could  not  pitiiA  yat  putrAA  mdmakasya 
^tfyate  refer  to  Agni,  who,  in  III,  29,  3,  was  called  i/AyAA 
putraA.  Her  father  and  husband  (Manu)  is  also  the  father 
of  mankind,  therefore  of  the  poet  who  says :  Whenever  the 
son  of  my  father  is  born,  they  made  I/A  (his  mother)  the 
teacher  of  man.9 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  Tr£t£  tokasya  tdnaye  seems  to  be  nothing  else 
but  tr£t£  tokasya  tinayasya,  which  would  have  had  one 
syllable  too  much. 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  Comp.  on  this  verse,  Pischel,  I,  216  seq. 

Note  2.  Agni  is  to  protect  the  man  who  has  no  quiver, 
and  cannot,  therefore,  protect  himself.  The  four  eyes  of 
the  divine  guardian  seem  to  signify  that  he  can  look  in  all 
directions,  and  perhaps  also  that  he  has  the  power  of  seeing 
invisible  bad  demons.  The  watchdogs  of  Yama  also  are 
four-eyed,  X,  14,  10.  n  ;  comp.  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda, 
474,  note  4-  Comp.  nishahgin,  Rig-veda  HI,  30, 15  ;  V,  57, 
2;  X,  103,3. 

Note  3.  On  kirf,  comp.  Pischel  loc.  cit. 

Note  4.  RAtdhavyaA  means  either  a  man  who  has  made 
offerings,  or  a  god  to  whom  offerings  are  made.  That  it 
stands  here  in  the  first  sense  is  shown  with  great  proba- 
bility by  VIII,  103,  13,  where  the  kirf h  rAtahavyaA 
svadhvardA  is  described,  the  man  who,  though  poor,  makes 
offerings  and  is  a  good  sacrificer.  But  if  we  are  right  in 
our  translation  of  rAtahavyaA,  the  verb  van6shi  cannot 
belong  to  the  relative  clause;  I  propose  to  read  vanoshi 
without  accent.  The  way  in  which  Pischel  tries  to  explain 
the  accent  of  vanoshi,  by  taking  the  words  \dr6A  kit  man- 
tram  manasa  as  a  parenthesis,  is  too  artificial. 


3O  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  14. 

Note  1.  I  think  that  we  should  here,  as  in  verse  13, 
read  vanoshi  without  accent, 

Note  2.  This  must  be  at  least  the  approximate  meaning 
of  £dhra.  '  For  ddhrasya  one  expects  radhrasya,'  M.  M. 

Note  3.  I  think  that  the  quarters  of  the  world  have 
nothing  to  do  here,  but  that  instead  of  pra  disaA  we  should 
read  (with  Ludwig)  pradtaa//.  A  similar  mistake  regarding 
the  word  pradij  occurs  several  times  in  the  text  of  the  Rig- 
veda.  I  propose  to  translate  the  corrected  text :  *  Thou 
instructest  the  simple,  well  knowing  the  (divine)  command- 
ments.' Comp.  vayiinAni  vidv£n,  dtity£ni  vidvfin,  &c. 

Verse  15. 

Note  1.  c  Der  ist  des  himels  ebenbild  '  (Ludwig).  But 
this  word  upam£  is,  as  far  as  we  can  see,  not  very  ancient. 
I  take  upamcL,  with  Boehtlingk-Roth,  as  an  adverbial  instru- 
mental like  dakshi«£,  madhy£,  &c.  Prof.  Max  Muller 
translates  '  close  or  near  to  heaven.' 

Verse  16. 

Note  1.  Sariwi  designates  in  the  Atharva-veda  VI,  43,  3 
a  fault  or  defect,  the  exact  nature  of  which  cannot  be  deter- 
mined. Boehtlingk-Roth  propose  Widerspanstigkeit,  Hart- 
nackigkeit ;  Max  Muller,  Abweg,  Fehltritt. 

Note  2.  On  bhr/mi,  comp.  M.  M.'st  note  on  II,  34, 1. 

Note  3.  Comp.  Ill,  43,  5.  kuvit  m&  r/shim  papiv£«*sam 
sutdsya  (supply  karase),  '  Wilt  thou  make  me  a  /frshi  after 
I  have  drunk  Soma  ? ' 


MAMDALA    I,    HYMN    36.  31 


MANDALA  I,  HYMN  36. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  3,  VARGA  8-11. 

1.  We  implore1  with  well-spoken  words  the  vigo- 
rous2 Agni  who  belongs  to  many  people3,  to  the 
dans  that  worship  the  gods4, N whom  other  people 
(also)  magnify. 

2.  Men  have  placed  Agni  (on  the  altar)  as  the 
augmenter  of  strength.     May  we  worship  thee,  rich 
in  sacrificial  food.    Thus  be  thou  here  to-day  gracious 
to  us,  a  helper  in  our  striving  for  gain,  O  good  one  ! 

3.  We  choose  thee,  the  all-possessor,  as  our  mes- 
senger and  as  our  Hotrz.     The   flames  of  thee, 
who  art  great,  spread  around;  thy  rays  touch  the 
heaven. 

4.  The  gods,  Varuwa,    Mitra,   Aryaman,   kindle 
thee,  the  ancient  messenger.     The  mortal,  O  Agni, 
who  worships  thee,  gains  through  thee  every  prize. 

5.  Thou  art  the  cheerful  Hot/?'  and  householder, 
\j  Agni,  the  messenger  of  the  clans.    In  thee  all  the 
firm  laws  are  comprised  which  the  gods  have  made1. 

6.  In  thee,  the  blessed  one,  O  Agni,  youngest 
god,  all  sacrificial  food  is  offered.     Sacrifice   then 
thou  who  art  gracious  to  us  to-day  and  afterwards1, 
to  the  gods  that  we  may  be  rich  in  valiant  men. 

7.  Him,  the  king,  verily  the   adorers   approach 
reverentially.      With   oblations  men  kindle  Agni, 
having  overcome  all  failures. 

8.  Destroying  the  foe1,  they  (victoriously)  got 
through  Heaven  and  Earth  and  the  waters;  they 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


have  made  wide  room  for  their  dwelling.  May  the 
manly  (Agni)2,  after  he  has  received  the  oblations, 
become  brilliant  at  the  side  of  Ka«va;  may  he 
neigh  as  a  horse  in  battles. 

9.  Take  thy  seat;  thou  art  great.     Shine  forth, 
thou  who  most  excellently  repairest  to  the  gods. 
O  Agni,  holy  god,  emit  thy  red,  beautiful  smoke, 
O  glorious  one ! 

10.  Thou  whom  the  gods  have  placed  here  for 
Manu  as  the  best  performer  of  the  sacrifice,  O  carrier 
of  oblations,  whom  Ka#va  and  MedhyStithi,  whom 
VWshan    and    Upastuta1    (have    worshipped,)   the 
winner  of  prizes. 

11.  That  Agni's  nourishment  has  shone  brightly 
whom   Medhydtithi   and   Ka#va   have   kindled  on 
behalf  of  Rita.1.     Him  do  these  hymns,  him  do  we 
extol. 

12.  Fill  (us  with)  wealth,  thou  self-dependent  one, 
for  thou,  O  Agni,  hast  companionship  with  the  gods. 
Thou  art  lord  over  glorious  booty.     Have  mercy 
upon  us ;  thou  art  great. 

1 3.  Stand  up  straight  for  blessing  us,  like  the  god 
Savitr/,  straight  a  winner  of  booty,  when  we  with 
our  worshippers  and  with  ointments1  call  thee*  in 
emulation  (with  other  people). 

14.  Standing  straight,  protect  us  by  thy  splendour 
from  evil;  burn  down  every  ghoul1.     Let  us  stand 
straight  that  we  may  walk  and  live.     Find  out  our 
worship2  among  the  gods. 

15.  Save  us,  O  Agni,  from  the  sorcerer,  save  us 
from  mischief,  from  the  niggard.    Save  us  from  him 


MAM>ALA    I,    HYMN    36.  33 

who  does  us  harm  or  tries  to  kill  us,  O  youngest  god 
with  bright  splendour ! 

1 6.  As  with   a  'club1   smite  the  niggards  in  all 
directions,  and  him  who  deceives  us,  O  god  with 
fiery  jaws.     The  mortal  who  makes  (his  weapons) 
very  sharp  by  night,  may  that  impostor  not  rule 
over  us. 

17.  Agni   has   won   abundance  in  heroes,  Agni 
prosperity  (for  Ka/*va).     Agni  and  the  two  Mitras 
(i.e.  Mitra  and  Variwa)  have  blessed  Medhyitithi, 
Agni  (has  blessed)  Upastuta  in  the  acquirement  (of 
wealth)1. 

18.  Through  Agni  we  call  hither  from  afar  Tur- 
vnsa,  Yadu,  and  Ugradeva.    May  Agni,  our  strength 
against  the   Dasyu,  conduct    Navavastva,  B/Vhad- 
ratha,  and  Turvlti1. 

19.  Manu  has  established  thee,  O  Agni,  as  a  light 
for  all  people.     Thou  hast  shone  forth  with  Ka#va, 
born  from  /frta,  grown  strong,  thou  whom  the  human 
races  worship. 

20.  Agni's  flames  are  impetuous  and- violent ;  they 
are  terrible  and  not  to  be  withstood.     Always  burn 
down  the  sorcerers,  and  the  allies  of  the  Ydtus,  every 
ghoul1. 

NOTES. 

The  authorship  of  this  hymn,  and  of  the  whole  collection 
to  which  it  belongs  (1, 36-43),  is  ascribed  to  Karcva  Ghaura. 
Numerous  passages  show  indeed  that  it  was  the  family 
0f  the  Ka«vas,  or  rather,  to  speak  more  accurately,  a  branch 
of  that  family,  among  which  this  group  of  hymns  has  been 
composed.  But  it  is  as  great  a  mistake  in  this  as  in 


34  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


a  number  of  sii  ir  cases  to  accept  the  founder  of  one 
of  the  great  Brahmanical  families  as  an  author  of  Vedic 
poems.  Comp.  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morg.  Gesell- 
schaft,  XLII,  215  seq. 

The  metre  is  alternately  Brihati  and  Satobrihatt,  so  that 
the  hymn  consists  of  strophes  (Pragitha)  of  two  verses. 
Verse  i  =  5V.  I,  59-  Verse  9  =  VS.  XI,  37  ;  TS.  IV,  i,  3, 
3  <V,  \>4,S) :  TAr.  IV,  5,  2  (V,  4, 6) ;  MS.  II,  7,  3  ;  IV,  9,  3. 
Verse  ifl-SV.  I,  57  ;  VS.  XI,  42  ;  TS.  IV,  i,  4,  3  (V,  i,  5, 
3);  MS.  i;,7,4.  Verses  13, 14=TB.  Ill,  6,  i,  2  ;  TAr.  IV, 
20,  :  ;  Mb.  IV,  13,  i.  Versr  I9  =  SV.  I,  54. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Literally,  we  entreat  for  you.  Comp.  on  this 
use  of  the  pronoun  va//,  Delbruck,  Altindische  Syntax,  206. 
See  also  Neisser,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XX,  64. 

Note  2.  The  meaning  of  yahva  cannot  be  determined 
with  full  certainty. 

Note  3.  There  is  no  sufficient  reason  to  change  with 
Ludwig(IV,  254)  purflwa'm  to  PfirQ;/£m,  and  thus  to  convert 
the  metrically  correct  Pada  into  an  irregular  one. — Comp. 
Bollensen,  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenl.  Gesellschaft, 

XXII,  593- 

Note  4.  On  devayatfnAm,  comp.  Lanman,  p.  399. 

Vene  5. 

Note  1.  'On  thee  all  the  eternal  works  are  united,  i.e. 
depend,  which  the  gods  have  wrought ;  such  as  sun,  stars, 
lightning.'  M.M. 

Vene  6. 

Note  1.  With  the  third  PAda  compare  the  third  Pada  of 
verse  2.  It  is  a  galita. 

Vm-^mm    a 
OZBO    9m 

Note  1.  The  word  '  the  foe'  (vritra)  alludes  to  the  name 
of  the  demon  conquered  by  India  ;  see  H.O.,  Religion  des 
Veda.  135,  note  2. 


MAiTOALA    I,    HYMN    36.  35 

Note  2.  The  metre  would  become  more  correct  by 
reading  vrishabhMi  instead  of  vr/sh£.  Or  W /shawi,  *  with 
Vrishan '?  Comp.  verse  10. 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  Medhy^tithi  or  Medhdtithi  is  very  frequently 
mentioned  in  connection  with  Kawva. 

Vr/shan  is  taken  as  a  proper  name  by  Boehtlingk-Roth 
and  by  Grassmann  (not  by  Ludwig)  in  VI,  16, 15.  Possibly 
they  are  right,  but  in  no  case  can  W/shan  of  the  sixth 
book,  named  by  the  side  of  Dadhya#£  and  Atharvan,  be 
identified  with  any  probability  with  the  Vr/shan  mentioned 
in  our  passage,  who  evidently  belongs  to  the  ancestors  of 
the  Kaftvas. 

Upastuta  is  mentioned  again  together  with  Kawva  and 
Medhydtithi  in  verse  17  of  our  hymn,  together  with  Kaava 
in  VIII,  5,  35.  Comp.  I,  112, 15  ;  VIII,  103,  8;  X,  115,  8.  9  ; 
Bergaigne,  ReL  V£d.,  II,  448. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  Comp.  I,  139,  2.  ydt  ha  tydt  mitr4varu«4v  ritft 
ddhi  adad£the  anr/tam  svena  manyiin^;  X,  73,  5.  mdn- 
dam£naA  Ht&t  ddhi. 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  AngibhiA  can  possibly  mean  'who  have  salved 
themselves/  There  is  no  reason  to  think  of  the  anointing 
of  the  yftpa  (sacrificial  post),  to  which  S&ya/ia  refers  the 
word. 

Note  2.  On  vi-hvd,  comp.  Pischel-Geldner,  1, 144-  There 
must  be  a  technical  reason,  unknown  to  me,  for  the  con- 
nection in  which  this  verb  repeatedly  occurs,  as  is  the  case 
in  our  passage,  with  the  noun  vdghat :  comp.  Ill,  8,  10  (see 
below);  VIII,  5,  16.  purutrS  £it  hf  v4m  nar&  vihvayantc. 
manishffta/;  vaghadbhi//  ajvina  £  gatam. 

Verse  14. 

Note  1.  The  exact  meaning  of  atrin  is  unknown. 

Note  2.  Geldner's  conjectures  on  duvas  seem  rather  bold 

D  2 


36  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


to  me  (Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVII,  233).     Comp.  vol.  xxxii, 
pp.  203-306  (I,  165,  14). 

Verse  16. 
Hote  1.  On  ghan^va,  see  Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  334. 

Verse  17. 

Koto  1.  On  Medhy£tithi  and  Upastuta,  see  the  note  on 
verse  10.  Aufrecht  (Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVI,  612)  believes 
that  in  mitr<5ta  an  abbreviation  of  the  name  Mitrttithi 
(X,  33,  7)  is  contained  ;  he  translates :  '  Agni  has  promoted 
Mitritithi,  Medhyatithi,  and  Upastuta  in  the  acquirement 
of  wealth.'  This  is  very  ingenious,  but  I  do  not  think  that 
the  reason  which  Aufrecht  gives  is  sufficient :  it  cannot  be 
understood,  he  says,  why  Mitra  (or  Mitra  and  Varu«a) 
should  be  mentioned  in  a  hymn  exclusively  addressed  to 
Agni.  But  similar  cases  are  quite  frequent. — Prof.  Max 
Miiller  writes :  .'  Could  mitra  stand  for  mitrawi  ?  Agni  has 
protected  his  friends  and  also  Medhydtithi.'  Comp.  also 
Lanman,  p.  342. 

Verse  18. 

Rote  1.  On  Turvaja  and  Yadu,  comp.  Muir,  V,  286  ; 
Bergaigne,  II,  354  seq.  ;  Zeitschr.  der  D.  Morg.  Ges.  XLII, 
220.  There  is  not  the  slightest  reason  for  Ludwig's  state- 
ment (IV,  254)  that  this  hymn  is  a  '  gebet  urn  sig  fiir  den 
auf  einem  kriegszuge  befindlichen  Turva9akonig.' 

Ugradeva  is  not  mentioned  again.  On  Navavdstva  and 
Brihadratha,  comp.  X,  49,  6  ;  VI,  20,  n  ;  on  Turvlti,  the 
materials  collected  by  Bergaigne,  Rel.  Ved.,  II,  358  seq. 

Verse  2O. 
Vote  1.    See  verse  14,  note  i. 


MAJWALA    Ip   HYMN   44.  37 

MAJVTZ7ALA  I,  HYMN  44. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  3,  VARGA  28-30. 

1.  Agni,  at  the  rising  of  the  dawn1  bring  splendid 
wealth,  immortal  G&tavedas,  to  the  worshipper,  (and 
bring  hither)  to-day  the  gods  awakening  with  the 
dawn. 

2.  For  thou  art  the  accepted  messenger,  the  bearer 
of  sacrificial  food,  O  Agni,  the  charioteer  of  worship. 
United  with  the  two  Arvins  and  with  the  Dawn 
bestow  on  us  abundance  of  valiant  heroes,  and  high 
glory. 

3.  We  choose  to-day  as  our  messenger  Agni,  the 
Vasu,  the  beloved  of  many,  whose  banner  is  smoke, 
whose  ...  1  is  light,  at  the  dawning  of  the  day,  the 
beautifier  of  sacrifices2. 

4.  I  magnify  at   the  dawning  of  the  day  Agni 
£&tavedas,  the  best,  the  youngest  guest,  the  best 
receiver  of  offerings,  welcome  to  pious  people,  that 
he  may  go  to  the  gods1. 

5.  I  shall  praise  thee,  O  food  on  which  everything 
lives,  immortal  one1,  Agni,  the  immortal  protector. 
O  holy  god,  the  best  sacrificer,  O  bearer  of  sacrificial 
food. 

6.  Be  kind-spoken  to  him  who  praises  thee,  O 
youngest  god,  honey-tongued,  the  best  receiver  of 
offerings.     Lengthening    Praskaava's  life,   that   he 
may  reach  old  age,  do  homage1  to  the  host  of  the 
gods. 

7.  The  clans  kindle  thee,  the  all-possessing  Hotr/ : 


38  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


therefore   conduct   hither    speedily,    much-invoked 
Agni,  the  provident  gods — 

8.  Savitrz,  the   Dawn,  the   two  A^vins,  Bhaga, 
Agni1,  at  the  dawning  (of  the  day),  (at  the  end)  of 
night2.    The  Ka/tvas,  having  pressed  Soma,  inflame 
thee,  the  bearer  of  sacrificial  food,  O  best  performer 
of  worship. 

9.  As  thou,  O  Agni,  art  the  lord  of  worship,  the 
messenger  of  the  clans,  conduct  hither  to-day  the 
gods  awakening  with  the  dawn,  of  sun-like  aspect, 
that  they  may  drink  Soma. 

10.  Agni,  rich    in  splendour!    thou   hast   shone 
after  the  former  dawns,  visible  to  all     Thou  art  the 
guardian  in  the  hamlets,  the   Purohita ;    thou  be- 
longest  to  men  at  the  sacrifices  V 

1 1.  O  Agni,  let  us  put  thee  down  (on  the  altar)  as 
Manus  did,  O  god,  to  be  the  performer   >f  the  sacri- 
fice, the  Hotrz',  the  wise  priest,  the  quick  immortal 
messenger. 

12.  When  thou,  the  Purohita  of  the;  gods,  who  art 
great  like  Mitra,  goest  on  thy  errand  as  messenger 
in  their  midst,  then  the  flames  of  Agni  shine  like  the 
roaring  waves  of  the  Sindhu1. 

13.  Agni  with  thy  attentive  ears,  hear  me,  together 
with  the  gods  driven  (on  their  chariots)1  who  accom- 
pany thee.     May  Mitra  and  Aryanuin  sit  down  on 
the  sacrificial  grass,  they  who  come  to  the  ceremony 
early  in  the  morning. 

14.  May  the  Maruts,  they  who  give  rain,  the  fire- 
tongued  increasers  of  /?/ta,  hear  my  praise.     May 
Varuwa,  whose  laws  are  firm,  drink  the  Soma,  united 
with  the  two  Awns  and  with  the  Dawn ! 


MAJTOALA   I,    HYMN    44.  39 


NOTES. 

The  hymn  is^ascribed  to  Praskawva  KA«va,  who  is  the 
reputed  author  of  the  whole  group  of  the  hymns,  I,  44-50. 
It  is  certain  that  these  hymns  really  belong  to  a  branch  of 
the  great  Ka;/va  family,  for  which  the  name  Praskaava  is 
characteristic*  Comp.  my  Prolegomena,  p,  260. 

The  metre  is  B£rhata  Pragatha.  Verse  I  =  SV.  I,  40. 
Verses  1-2  =  SV.  II,  1130-1131.  Verse  n  =  TB.  II,  7, 
12,  6.  Verse  13  =SV.  I,  50  ;  VS.  33,  15  ;  TB.  II,  7,  12,5. 

This  Agni-hymn  contains  a  number  of  allusions  which 
show  that  it  was  uestined  for  the  morning  service.  The 
same  may  be  said  of  the  next  hymn,  1,45,  anc*  °f  ^e  whole 
collection  of  Praska;/va  hymns,  which  are  addressed  ex- 
clusively to  the  devaA  prataryav£;/a//,  viz.  Agni  in  his 
special  character  as  a  matutinal  deity,  the  two  Ajvins,  the 
Dawn,  the  rising  Sun.  From  the  mention  of  the  Soma 
tiroahnya  45, 10  ;  47,  i,  and  from  other  circumstances,  Ber- 
gaigne  has  very  ingeniously  drawn  the  conclusion  that 
in  the  Praskawva  collection  an  ancient  A^vina^astra  is 
preserved ;  see  Recherches  sur  1'histoire  de  la  Liturgic 
Wdique,  45. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  I  believe  that  the  text,  I  may  perhaps  not  say 
requires,  but  very  strongly  invites,  a  slight  correction. 
The  tradition  gives  agne  vivasvat  ushasaA  £itram  r£dha// 
amartya.  To  connect  vivasvat  with  r£dhaA  and  to  make 
the  genitive  ushasaA  depend  on  r£dha/;  would  give  an 
expression  which  is  not,  strictly  speaking,  impossible  but 
in  every  case  very  unusual.  Nothing,  on  the  other  hand, 
is  more  frequent  than  combinations  of  the  locative  of 
a  noun  derived  from  vi-vas  with  the  genitive  ushdsaA, '  at 
the  rising  of  the  dawn*  (ushasaA  vyush/au,  vyush/ishu, 
vyiishi ;  comp.  the  phrase  vdsto  usr&A  treated  of  by  £aegi, 
Festgruss  an  Bohtlingk,  48 ;  vastoA  usrfiA,  Barthoiomae, 
Bezzenbergers  Beitrage,  XV,  185).  I  think  that  such 


4O  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


a  phrase  should  be  restored  in  our  verse,  and  propose  to 
read  igne  vivdsvan  ushisaA,  &c.  The  word  vivasvan  occurs 
in  VIII,  102,  22.  agnfm  Idhe  vivasvabhi//.  The  expression 
used  here  would  thus  be  similar  to  that  of  III,  15,  2.  tvam 
naA  asy&A  ushdsaA  vyush/au  .  .  .  bodhi  gop&A ;  comp.  IV 
i,  5,  Re- 
verse 3. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  of  bha//-r/^ika  is  quite  uncertain. 
The  accent  would  well  agree  with  the  explanation  of  the 
word  as  a  possessive  compound ;  dhumaketum  bhS//-r(gikam 
would  then  be  exactly  parallel :  whose  banner  is  smoke, 
whose  rigika.  is  light.  We  have  then  go-r/^ika  as  an 
epithet  of  Soma,  '  he  whose  r/^ika  the  cows  are,'  i.e. 
'whose  rjgika  is  milk/  and  aviVj-r/^ika  as  an  epithet  of 
Dadhikravan  (* he  whose  njglka  is  visible').  All  this  taken 
together  is  clearly  insufficient  for  giving  a  result,  and  there 
is  scarcely  a  better  prospect  for  etymological  guesses. 
Bergaigne's  (Rel.  Wd.,  I,  206)  translation  of  rigika.  by 
1  flfeche '  would  do  for  bh&A-rigflta,,  but  it  is  not  very 
tempting  in  the  cases  of  g6-rig ika  and  dvi^-r^ika.  Roth 
(Zeitschrift  ^der  D.  Morg.  Ges.  48,  118)  translates  'licht- 
glanzend.' 

Note  2.  Pischel's  explanation  of  adhvara^ri  (Vedischc 
Studien,  I,  53, '  Zum  Opfer  kommend J)  does  not  seem  con- 
vincing to  me. 

Verse  4. 

Hote  1.  Ludwig's  translation  '  dasz  er  die  gotter  her- 
bringe '  is.  not  exact  \ As  to  the  real  meaning  of  our 
passage,  comp.  VII,  9, 5.  4gne  y^hi  dOtyam  .  . .  dev£n  £&&/*&, 
*  Agni,  go  as  a  messenger  ...  to  the  gods/ 

Verse  5. 

Hote  1.  Boehtlingk-Roth  propose  to  read  amr/tabho- 
#ana.  I  think  the  traditional  text  is  right.  Agni  is  called 
vlrvasya  bhqjana  similarly,  as  it  is  said  in  I,  48,  jo  (with 
regard  to  Ushas),  vkvasya  h/  pr^//anam  g fvanam  tve. 
Amrita  may  be  vocative  s.  neuter  or  masculine.  Comp. 
Lanmau,  339. 


MAMDALA    I,    HYMN    44.  4! 


Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Benfey  (Quantitatsverschiedenheiten,  IV,  2,  27) 
and  Ludwig  take  namasya'  for  a  first  person. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  If  the  accusative  agnmi  is  right,  as  it  probably 
is,  Agni  would  be  invoked  to  conduct  Agni  to  the  sacrifice. 
This  is  quite  a  possible  idea.  Com  p.  the  formula  of  the 
*  devatanam  avahanam/  '  agnim  agna  avah^.  ^",;-,am  avaha, 
agnim  avaha/  i.  e.  *  Agni,  conduct  hither  Agni,  conduct 
hither  Soma.  conduct  hither  Agni/  See  Ilillebrandt,  Das 
Altindische  Neu-  und  Vollmondsopfcr,  p.  84. 

Note  2.  Lanman,  482,  takes  kshapa//  as  an  ace.  plur. 
I  think  it  is  gen.  sing.,  and  the  accent  should  be  kshapa//. 
Comp.  VIII,  19,  31  ;  III,  49,  4,  and  the  phrase  akto//: 
vyush/au. 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  translates:  'Thou  art  the 
guardian  in  the  hamlets,  the  chief-priest;  thou  art  the 
human  chief-priest  at  the  sacrifices/ 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  With  the  third  Pada  comp.  IX,  50,  i,  where  it 
is  said  that  the  mighty  strength  of  Soma  shows  itself 
'  si'ndho/*  urme/r  iva  svanei///  i.  e.  '  like  the  roar  of  the 
waves  of  the  Sindhu.' 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  I  cannot  follow  the  translation  of  Dr.  Neisser, 
Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XVIII,  316. 


42  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA  I,  HYMN  45. 
ASH^AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  3,  VARGA  31-32. 

1.  Sacrifice  here,  thou,  O  Agni,  to  the  Vasus,  the 
Rudras,  and  the  Adityas,  to  the  (divine)  host  that 
receives    good     sacrifices !,    the    Gh;'/ta-sprinkling 
offspring  of  Manu  2. 

2.  The  wise  gods,  O  Agni,  are  ready  to  listen 
to    the    worshippers :     conduct    them    hither,    the 
thirty-three,  O  lord  of  red  horses,  thou  who  lovest 
our  praises. 

3.  As   thou  hast  heard   Priyamedha   and   Atri1, 
O    6atavedas,    as    thou    hast    heard    Virupa    and 
Angiras,  thus   hear   the   invocation   of   Praska;/va, 
O  lord  of  high  laws. 

4.  The     Mahikerus1,    the     Priyamedhas     have 
invoked  for  their  protection   the  lord  of  worship, 
Agni  with  his  bright  splendour. 

5.  O  thou  to  v  horn  Ghr/ta  oblations  are  poured 
out,  good  (Agni),  hear  these  praises  with  which  the 
sons  of  Kawva  invoke  thee  for  their  protection. 

6.  O    Agni,   whose   glory   is   brightest,    beloved 
of  many,  the  people  in  the  clans  invoke  thee,  the 
radiant-haired,  to  convey  the  sacrificial  food. 

7.  The  priests   have  established  thee,  O    Agni, 
in    the    striving    for    day1,    as    their    Hotrt,    the 
ministrant,    the   greatest   acquirer  of  wealth,   with 
attentive  ears,  the  most  widely  extended2. 

8.  The  wise  who  have  pressed  Soma  have  made 
thee  speed  hither  to  the  feast  (which  is  offered  to 
the  gods),  bringing  great  light1  and  sacrificial  food, 
O  Agni,  on  behalf  of  the  mortal  worshipper. 


MAtfDALA   I,    HYMN   45.  43 

g.  O  strength-made,  good  (Agni),  make  the  gods 
who  come  in  the  morning,  the  divine  host,  sit  down 
here  to-day  on  our  sacrificial  grass,  O  Vasu,  to 
drink  the  Soma. 

10.  Sacrifice,  O  Agni,  with  joint  invocations,  and 
bring  hither  the  divine  host.  This  is  the  Soma, 
O  rain-giving  gods.  Drink  (the  Soma)  which  has 
been  kept  over  night l. 

NOTES. 

The  hymn  is  ascribed  to  Praska/iva.  It  is  evidently 
addressed  to  Agni  in  his  matutinal  character ;  comp.  the 
note  on  I,  44.  The  metre  is  Anush/ubh.  Verse  i  =  SV. 
I,  96.  Verse  6  =  VS.  XV,  31  ;  TS.  IV,  4,  4,  3 ;  MS.  II, 

i^- 
Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VIII,  5,  33.  bkkh*  svadhvardm ^inam. 

Note  2.  As  to  the  gods  being  considered  here  as  off- 
spring of  Manu,  comp.  especially  X,  53,  6.  manu//  bhava 
^aniya  dafvyam  ^anam,  '  become  Manu,  procreate  the 
divine  hosts/  See  also  Bergaigne,  Rel.  V^dique,  I,  69. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  This  passage  is  one  of  those  which  show  that 
the  Atris  stood  in  especially  friendly  connection  with  the 
Kawvas.  Of  the  Priyamedhas  the  same  may  be  said,  or 
perhaps  we  may  even  go  further  and  consider  them  as  one 
branch  of  the  Ka;/vas,  For  a  fuller  discussion  of  these 
questions  I  refer  to  my  paper,  *  Ueber  die  Liedverfasser 
dca-Rig-veda,'  Zeitschr.  der  D.  Morg.  Gesellschaft,  XLII, 
213  seq. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  M^hikerava//,  which  I  have  translated  as  a  proper 
name,  may  be  an  adjective  belonging  to  Priyimedha//. 
Possibly  it  is  derived  from  the  root  kar, '  to  praise  : '  '  the 


44  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Priyamedhas  with  mighty  hymns/     Comp.  Bartholomae, 
Kuhn's  Zcitschrift,  XXVII,  341. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  As  g6-ish/i  means  '  the  striving  for  cows/  thus 
dfv-ish/i  means  'the  striving  for  day,'  or  possibly  'the 
Striving  for  heaven.1  Ludwig  (III,  383)  takes  it  for  'mor- 
genopfer,'  and  it  is  true  that  most  of  the  passages,  in  which 
the  word  occurs,  are  addressed  to  matutinal  deities.  Thus 
our  passage  belongs  to  a  hymn  addressed  to  the  matutinal 
Agni  ;  I,  48^*9  is  addressed  to  Ushas  ;  I,  139,  4  ;  VII,  74, 
i  ;  VIII,  87,  3  to  the  A^vins ;  IV,  46,  I ;  47,  I  to  V&yu 
who  was  invoked  in  the  Praiiga-jastra  belonging  to  the 
PrataA-savana,  and  who  received  the  Soma  offering  before 
the  other  deities.  There  is,  nevertheless,  at  least  one 
passage  which  shows  that  Ludwig  has  gone  too  far :  VIII, 
76,  9.  piba  ft  indra  manitsakha  sutam  s6mam  divishrishu, 
'  Drink,  O  Indra,  with  the  Maruts  thy  friends  the  Soma 
which  has  been  pressed  at  the  divish/is.'  The  Soma  obla- 
tion offered  to  Indra  Marutvat  formed  part  of  the  second 
(midday)  Savana. 

Note  2  '  Saprathastamam,  the  most  renowned,  r^pandu.' 

M.  M. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Comp.  IV,  5,  i .  kath£  dlrema  agndye  br *hat 
bha7/,  *  how  may  we  offer  great  light  to  Agni  ? ' — which 
seems  to  mean,  *  how  may  we  make  Agni  brilliant  ? '  Thus 
in  our  passage  the  meaning  seems  to  be :  the  priests  kindle 
Agni  and  perform  oblations. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  The  tird^-ahnya  Soma,  which  was  kept  frem 
one  day  to  the  next  day  (not,  as  Ludwig  translates,  '  dcr 
von  vorgestern '),  was  offered  to  the  Ajvins  at  the  Atir&tra 
sacrifice.  Comp.  Rig-veda  I,  47,  i  ;  III,  58,  7  ;  VIII,  35, 
19  ;  K£ty4yana  SrautasQtra  XII,  6,  10  ;  XXIV,  3,  42. 
There  the  commentary  says,  AjvinarastrakayAgasamban- 
dhina/;  /fcamasastha^  soma/i  pftrvadinanishpannatvat  tiro- 
hnyfi  ity  u^yante. 


MAJWALA    I,    HYMN    58.  45 

MAJV0ALA  I,  HYMN  58. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  4,  VARGA  2S-24. 

1.  The  strength-begotten  immortal  never  grows 
tired1,    when    he,    the    Hotrz,    has    become    the 
messenger  of  Vivasvat2.     He  passes   through  the 
air  on  the  best  paths.      In   the  divine  world   he 
invites  (the  gods)  with  the  sacrificial  food, 

2.  Seizing  his  own  food  the  undecaying,  greedy 
(Agni)  stands  on  the  brushwood  wishing  to  drink. 
When  he  has  been  sprinkled  (with  ghee),  he  shines 
like  a  racer  with  his  back1.    Thundering  he  has 
roared  like  the  ridge  of  heaven. 

3.  As  soon  as l  the  Rudras,  the  Vasus  have  made 
him  their  Purohita,  the  immortal  sitting  down  as 
Hotrz,  the  conqueror  of  wealth,  pressing  forward 
like  a  chariot  among  the  clans,  among  the  Ay  us2, 
the  god  in  due  course  discloses  desirable  boons. 

4.  Stirred  by  the  wind  he   spreads   among   the 
brushwood  lightly1  (driven  forward)  by  the  sacrificial 
ladles,   with    his    sickle2,   loudly   roaring.       When 
thou,   O    Agni,   thirstily  rushest    on    the   wooden 
sticks  like  a  bull3,  thy  course,  O  never-aging  god 
with  fiery  waves,  becomes  black4. 

5.  He  who  has  fiery  jaws,  stirred  by  the  wind, 
blazes  down  on  the  forest l  as  a  strong  bull  (rushes) 
on  the  herd.     When  he  proceeds1  with  his  stream 
of  light  to  the  imperishable  atmosphere,  then  what 
is  moveable  and  immoveable  (and)  the  winged  (birds) 
are  afraid. 

6.  The  Bhrzgus  have  placed  thee  among  men, 
who  art  beautiful  like  a  treasure,  who  art  easy  to 


46  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


invoke  for  people ;  thee  the  Hotr/,  O  Agni,  the 
excellent  guest,  a  delightful  friend  like  Mitra  to  the 
divine  race'! 

7.  I  worship  with  good  cheer  Agni  the  steward1 
of  all   treasures,   whom   the  seven  ladles2  (of  the 
priests),  the  worshippers  choose  as  the  Hotrz,  the 
best  sacrificer  at  the  rites,  and  I  pray  for  treasure3. 

8.  Son  of  strength,  great  like  Mitra,  grant  to-day 
flawless  protection  to  us  who  magnify  thee.     Agni ! 
guard  from  distress  with  strongholds  of  iron  him 
who  praises  thee,  O  offspring  of  vigour ! 

9.  Be   a   shelter   to   him   who    praises   thee,    O 
resplendent  one ;  be  protection,  generous  giver,  to 
the  generous.     Agni !  guard  him  who  praises  thee 
from  distress.     May  he  who  gives  wealth  for  our 
prayer,  come  quickly  in  the  morning1. 


NOTES. 

The  hymn  is  ascribed  to  Nodhas  Gautama,  who  is 
considered  as  the  JRishi  of  the  whole  collection,  I,  58-64. 
This  tradition  is  based  on,  and  confirmed  by,  several 
passages  of  the  text:  I,  61,  14 ;  62,  13  ;  64,  i. 

The  metre  is  G*agati  verses  1-5,  TrishAibh  verses  6-9. 
None  of  the  verses  of  this  hymn  occurs  in  the  other 
Sa  whites. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  I  believe  that  Professor  Aufrecht  (Kuhn's  Zeit- 
schrift,  XXV,  435)  is  right  in  reading  ntf  kit  sahaA-^// 
amr/taA  nii  tandate.  Comp.  as  to  nu  £it  mi,  I,  120,  a  ; 
VI>  37»  3  5  VII>  *2>  8-  Agni  is  frequently  called  dtandra/s 
dtit&i  or  similarly.  Possibly  we  might  read,  instead  of  mi 
tandate,  ni  tandate,  though  parallel  passages  for  the  com- 
bination of  this  root  with  nf  are  not  known. — Prof.  Max 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN    58.  47 

Miiller's  opinion  is  different.  He  writes:  We  say,  dcr 
Funke  schlagt  oder  fangt.  Why  should  not  the  Hindu 
have  said  that  Agni  strikes  out.  That  would  be  vi  tundate, 
Agni  schlagt  aus  im  Augcnblick.  But  even  ni  tundate 
may  have  been  used  in  the  sense  of  the  spark  striking 
down  on  the  tinder— the  atas&s,  mentioned  in  verse  2 — 
which  he  ignites.  I  should  translate :  c  The  strength- 
begotten  immortal  strikes  down  or  breaks  forth  (vi) 
quickly,  whenever  the  Hotri  (Agni)  becomes  the  messenger 
of  the  sacrificer  (?).' 

Note  2.  I  cannot  follow  Aufrecht  in  his  translation 
czum  boten  des  opfernden.1  Comp.  on  Agni  as  the 
messenger  of  Vivasvat,  Bergaigne,  Rcl.  Vedique,  I,  87  ; 
H.O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  xaz,  275. 

Verae  2. 

Note  1.  Literally,  his  back  shines  like  a  racer.  On  this 
kind  of  comparison,  see  Bergaigne,  Melanges  Renier,  86 ; 
Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  107. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Kra/i£ :  comp.  von  Bradke,  Dyfius  Asura,  Ahura 
Mazd&  und  die  Asuras,  p.  36 ;  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien, 

1,70- 

Note  2.  Bergaigne,  Rel.V&lique,  I,  59  seq. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  On  vr/thft,  see  Geldner.  Vedische  Studien,  1, iitf  ; 
tfeisser,  Bezzenberger*s  Beitrage,  XIX,  148  seq. 

Note  2.  The  meaning  is  :  with  his  flames  which  are  sharp 
like  a  sickle.  Srfnl  is  written  here  as  a  paroxytonon  ; 
in  several  other  passages  it  is  an  oxytonoru  Such  differ- 
ences are  not  quite  rare,  and  there  is  no  reason  for  taking 
on  this  account  srtnyb.  as  an  instr.  plur.  fern,  of  the  adjective 
sr/;/ya, '  mit  verkiirzter  Endung'  (Geldner,  loc.  cit.).  '  His 
sickle  is  the  sharp  edge  of  Agni.'  M.  M.  —  On 
comp.  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  II,  in. 


48  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Note  3.  As  to  vn'shiyisc  with  the  accusative,  comp. 
Gaedicke,  74.  RV.  X,  44,  4-  tiitfi/i  skambhdm  .  .  .  vri- 
sh&yase. 

Note  4  With  the  last  Pada  comp.  IV,  7,  9.  krish»am  te 
cma  rujata^  puriA  bhi/r. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  That  is,  among  the  fuel. 

Note  2.  I  think  that  we  have  here  probably — (though,  of 
course,  this  explanation  can  be  avoided) — an  anacoluthon. 
The  poet  began  with  the  nominative  (abliivra^an),  and  then 
he  changed  the  construction  and  went  on  as  if  he  had 
begun  with  the  ablative,  taking  sthdtu/J  £aratham  (comp. 
Lanman,  422)  as  the  subject  instead  of  Agni. — Patatrfaa^ 
seems  to  be  nom.  pi. ;  comp.  I,  94,  n  (see  below). 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  The  translation  of  aratf  is  only  approximative 
and  conjectural. 

Note  2.  Comp.  Pischel,  Ved.  Studien,  II,  113. 

Note  3.  Comp.  Ill,  54,  3-  saparyimi  prayasi  yami 
ratnam. 

Verse  0. 

Note  1.  The  last  Pada  is  the  standing  conclusion  of  the 
Nodhas  hymns. 


MAtfDALA    I,    HYMN    59.  49 

MAJV77ALA    I,   HYMN   59. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  4,  VARGA  25. 

1.  The  other  Agnis  (the  other  fires)  are  verily 
thy  branches,  O  Agni.     In  thee  all  the  immortals 
enjoy    themselves1.      Valrvdnara !    Thou    art    the 
centre2  of  human   settlements ;    like   a   supporting 
column  thou  holdest  men 3. 

2.  The  head  of  heaven,  the  navel  of  the  earth  is 
Agni;,  he  has  become  the  steward1  of  both  worlds. 
Thee,  a  god,  the  gods  have  engendered,  O  Vai$- 
v&nara,  to  be  a  light  for  the  Arya. 

3.  As  in  the  sun  the  rays  are  firmly  fixed,  thus  iu 
Agni  Vaisvdnara  all  treasures  have  been  laid  down1. 
(The  treasures)  which  dwell  in  the  mountains,  in 
the  herbs,  the  waters,  and  among  men — of  all  that 
thou  art  the  king. 

4.  As   the  two  great  worlds  to  their  son1,  like 
a   Hot^z,  like  a  skilful  man,  (we  bring)  praises — 
manifold  (praises)  to  him  who  is  united  with  the  sun, 
to  the  truly  strong  one,  new  (praises)  to  VaLsvdnara, 
the  manliest  god. 

5.  Thy  greatness,  O  G&tavedas,  Vaisvdnara,  has 
exceeded   even   the   great   heaven.     Thou  art  the 
king  of  the  human  tribes ;    thou  hast  by  fighting 
gained  wide  space  for  the  gods. 

6.  Let   me  now  proclaim  the  greatness   of  the 
bull   whom    the    Pfirus    worship   as    the    destroyer 
of  enemies1.     Agni  Vai^vSnara,   having   slain   the 
Dasyu,   shook   the    (aerial)  arena    and    cut    down 
•Sambara. 

[46]  E 


50  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


7.  Agni  Vabvdnara,  extending  by  his  greatness 
over  all  dominions,  who  is  to  be  worshipped,  the 
bright  one,  rich  in  loveliness,  is  awake  (or,  is 
praised)  among  the  Bharadv^as,  in  the  homestead 
of  Punmttha  6&tavaneya,  with  his  hundredfold 
blessings. 


NOTES. 

The  same  JRtshi  as  in  I,  58.  Metre,  TrishAibh.  None 
of  the  verses  of  this  hymn  occurs  in  the  other  Sawhit&s. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VII,  11,  i.  na  r/tc  tvat  am;-/taV;  m£day- 
ante,  'the  immortals  do  not  enjoy  themselves  without  thee.' 

Note  2.  Literally,  *  the  navel.1     Comp.  Muir,  V,  214. 

Note  3.  Comp.  IV,  5,  i  (see  below),  upa  stabhayat 
upami't  nd  r6dha//. 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  Comp.  the  remark  on  I,  58,  7  (note  i). 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  I  cannot  follow  Prof,  von  Roth  (Zeitschrift  der 
D.  Morgenl.  Gesellschaft,  XLVIII,  116),  who  explains 
dadhire  as  a  third  person  sing,  of  dim'. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  incompleteness  both  of  the  construction 
and  of  the  metre  shows  that  the  text  of  the  first  P&da  is 
corrupt.  I  doubt  whether  it  ever  will  be  possible  to  restore 
the  correct  reading  with  full  certainty,  but  I  shall  be  glad 
if  others  succeed  better  than  I  did — and  I  may  add,  better 
than  Prof,  von  Roth  (Zeitschrift  der  D.  Morg.  Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII,  117  seq.)  seems  to  me  to  have  succeeded — in  cor- 
recting and  in  interpreting  the  text.  I  think  that  after  sfindve 


MAJTOALA    I,    HYMN    59.  51 

r<Sdasl  clearly  one  syllable  is  wanted  to  complete  the  P£da  : 
possibly  we  should  read  therefore  sOnive  r6dasyoA  (cornp. 
verse  2,  Plda  2,  aratU  r6dasyo£,  which  words  form  the  end 
of  the  PAda).  Agni,  as  is  well  known,  is  the  son  of  the 
two  worlds,  the  sOnuA  r6dasyo£.  In  the  beginning  of  the 
PAda  brzhatf  must  either  refer  to  the  two  worlds :  in  this 
case  we~have  to  read  brzhaty6£  (instead  of  brihati  iva) ; 
or  brihati  may  refer,  as  this  adjective  frequently  does,  to 
the  gfraA,  and  we  shall  possibly  have  to  read  brihatU  vaA 
(as  to  vaA,  comp.  Delbriick,  Altindische  Syntax,  206). 
But  of  course  all  these  are  mere  guesses.  In  every  case 
the  verb  on  which  the  accusative  gfraA  depends  ('we 
bring/  or  something  like  that)  must  be  supplied. 

Vene  0. 

Note  1.  Or,  as  the  killer  of  Vrrtra.    See  H.  O.,  Religion 
des  Veda,  13.5,  note  2. 


£  2 


52  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANDALA   I,   HYMN   60. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  4,  VARGA  26. 

1.  Matarijvan  brought  (Agni)  to  BImgu  as  a  gift 
precious  like  wealth,  of  double  birth1,  the  carrier,  the 
famous,  the  beacon  of  the  sacrifice 2,  the  ready  and 
immediately  successful  messenger. 

2.  Both  follow  his  command,  the  \3s\g s x  offering 
sacrificial  food,  and  the  mortals.     The  Hotr/  (Agni) 
has  sat  down  before  daybreak  among  the  clans,  the 
lord  of  the  clans,  whose  leave  should  be  asked,  the 
performer  of  worship. 

3.  May  our  new,  f  Dutiful  praise,  born1  from  our 
heart,  reach  him  the  honey-tongued  (Agni),  whom 
the  human   priests  in  our   settlement2,    the   Ayus, 
offering  enjoyment  have  engendered. 

4.  The  Ujig"1,  the  purifier,  the  Vasu   has  been 
established  among  men,  the  best  Hotrt  among  the 
clans,  the   domestic2  master  of  the   house   in   the 
house :    Agni    has    become    the    treasure-lord    of 
treasures. 

5.  Thus  we,  the  Gotamas,  praise  thee,  O  Agni, 
the   lord   of  treasures,  with  our  (pious)   thoughts, 
rubbing  thee  as  (they  rub  down)  a  swift  r  cer  that 
wins  the  prize.     May  he  who  gives  wealth  for  our 
prayer,  come  quickly  in  the  morning  lm 

NOTES. 

Rishi  and  metre  are  the  same.    No  verse  occurs  in  the 
other  Sa*thit£s. 

Verse  1. 

Hole  1   The  celestial  and  the  terrestrial  birth  of  Agni. 
Comp.  Bergaigne,  Rel.  V£d.,  II,  53. 


MAJV0ALA    I,    HYMN    6O.  53 

Note  2.  The  text  has  vidlthasya.  Comp.  I,  31,  6, 
note  2. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  uj(f  ('the  willing  one1),  as  denoting  the 
mythical  priests  who  have  first  established  Agni  and  have 
sacrificed  as  the  first,  comp.  Bergaigne,  I,  57  seq.  The 
ubhdy&sa£  seem  to  be  these  mythical  ancestors  and  the 
actual  sacrificers. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  I  propose  to  read  ^£yam4na.  Comp.  I,  171,  2. 
stoma/fc  .  .  .  hrtdi  tash/aA;  II,  35,  2.  hridM  S,  sutash/am 
mdntram;  VIII,  43,  2.  igne  £*£n£mi  sushAit/m ;  V,  42,  13. 
gfram  .  .  .  ^£yam£n£m,  &c. — Comp.  Lanman,  356. 

Note  2.  On  the  meaning  of  vrtg^na.,  see  Max  Miiller, 
vol.  xxxii,  pp.  xx,  208,  304 ;  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I, 
139  seq.,  with  my  remarks,  Gottinger  Gelehrte  Anzeigen, 
1890,  410  seq.;  Ludwig,  Ueber  Methode  bei  Interpretation 
des  ^ig-veda,  27  seq. ;  CoJinet,  Les  Principes  de  l'Ex£g&se 
V^dique  d'apr^s  MM.  Pischel  et  Geldner,  28  seq.;  von 
Bradke,  Zcitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morg.  Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII,  500 ;  Bechtel,  Nachrichten  der  Gottinger  Gesell- 
schaft der  Wiss.,  1894,  392  seq. 


Note  1.  See  verse  2,  note  i. 

Note  2.  Bartholomae's  theory  (Bezzenberger's  Beitrage, 
XV,  194)  that  the  stem  dimunas  has  been  developed  out  of 
the  phrase  damfi  na/j,  'in  our  house/  does  not  carry 
conviction. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  See  I,  58,  9,  note  i. 


54  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAA^ALA  I,  HYMN  65. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  9. 

i  *.  Thee  who  hidest  thyself  in  secret  like  a  thief 
with  an  animal2  (which  he  has  stolen)— who  hadst 
harnessed  3  adoration  and  carriedst  adoration — 

2.  The  wise  unanimously  followed  by  thy  foot- 
marks l.    All  (gods)  deserving  worship  (reverentially) 
sat  down  near  thee. 

3.  The  gods  followed  the  laws  of  ^?ita.     There 
was  an  encompassing  as  the  heaven  (encompasses) 
the  earth  '. 

4.  In  the  lap,  in  the  womb  of  7?*'ta,  the  waters 
nourish  the  fine  child  with  praise,  him  who  is  well 
born. 

5.  Like  good  fortune,  like  a  broad  abode,  like  the 
fertile  hill1,  like  the  refreshing  stream, 

6.  Like  a  racer  urged  forward  in  the  race,  like  the 
rapids  of  the  Sindhu  1 — who  can  hold  him  back  ? 

7.  (He  is)  the  kinsman  of  the  rivers,  as  a  brother 
of  his  sisters.     He  eats  the  forests  as  a  king  (eats, 
i.e.  takes  the  wealth  of)  the  rich  '. 

8.  When   he   has    spread    through   the    forests, 
driven  by  the  wind,  Agni  shears  the  hair  of  the 
earth. 

9.  Sitting  in  the  waters  he  hisses  like  a  swan. 
(He  is)  most  famous  by  his  power  of  mind,  he  who 
belongs  to  the  clans,  awakening  at  dawn — 

10.  A  performer  of  worship  like  Soma,  the  god 
born  from  J?*'ta,  like  a  young  (?)1  beast,  far-extending, 
far-shining. 


MAtfDALA    I,    HYMN    65.  55 


NO^ES. 

The  authorship  of  the  whole  collection,  I,  65-73,  *s 
ascribed  to  Par&rara  Saktya.  These  hymns  are  addressed 
exclusively  to  Agni.  The  greater  part  of  them  (65-70)  is 
composed  in  the  Vir^f  metre;  comp.  on  this  metre  my 
Prolegomena.  95  seq.  I  have  given  there  my  reasons  for 
considering  that  each  verse  consists  of  twenty,  not  of  forty 
syllables. 

This  section  ascribed  to  Para^ara  has  been  treated  of  by 
Bollensen,  Zeitschrift  der  D.  Morg.  Gesellschaft,  XXII, 
569  seq.  No  verse  of  these  hymns  composed  in  the  metre 
Dvipadd  Vir£^  (I,  65-70)  occurs  in  the  other  Sarahitas. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Prof^sor  Max  Muller  proposes  the  following 
translation  for  verses  i  and  2:  The  wise  (gods)  together 
followed  thee  (Agni)  when  in  hiding,  by  means  of  footsteps, 
as  one  follows  a  thief  by  the  animal ;  they  followed  thee 
who  accepts  and  carries  adoration  (to  the  gods).  All  the 
worshipful  gods  sat  down  (reverentially)  near  thee. 

Note  2.  There  is  no  reason  for  reading  with  Bartholomae 
(Studien  zur  indogermanischen  Sprachgeschichte,  I,  48) 
pasv&n  (gen.  piur.)  nd  tdyum. 

Note  3.  Ludwig  proposes  yuv^ndm,  which  is  quite  un- 
necessary.— See  also  Gaedicke,  173. 

Verse  2. 

Note  I.  We  have  here  the  well-known  myth  of  the 
hidden  Agni  discovered  by  the  gods.  The  'wise  ones,' 
(dhfrAA)  are  no  doubt  the  searching  gods,  the  same  who  are 
called  yd^atrSA  in  the  last  P£da,  and  who  are  expressly 
designated  as  dev£A  in  verse  3.  Comp.  Bergaigne,  I,  no. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Regarding  the  construction,  see  Gaedicke,  192. — 
Professor  Max  M tiller's  opinion  on  this  phrase  differs  from 


56  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


mine*  He  writes  :  '  I  should  prefer  parishri.  But  parish/i 
seems  to  mean  a  running  about,  reconnoitring,  searching. 
"There  was  searching  on  earth  as  in  heaven,"  lit.  earth, 
like  heaven,  was  reconnoitring-ground.' 

'     Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VIII,  50,  2.  girfA  nd  bhu^ma'.  I  believe 
that  Boehtlingk-Roth,  Bollensen,  and  Grassmann  are  right 
in  correcting  our  passage  accordingly;  ra«v5,  prithv?, 
jambhu  follow  the  gender  of  the  corresponding  substantives, 
and  the  same  may  be  expected  here.  Comp.  Lanman,  530. 
The  meaning  is  that  Agni  yields  nourishment  to  all  beings 
as  a  mountain  fertilises  the  country  by  the  waters  which 
come  down  from  it  ;  comp.  VIII,  49,  2.  gir£A  iva  pra  rasa/* 
asya  pinvire  d£tra»i 


Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Regarding  the  construction,  comp.  Gaedicke, 
252  seq.  ;  Bergaigne,  Melanges  Renier,  95.  Joh.  Schmidt 
(Die  Pluralbildungen  der  indogerm.  Neutra,  305)  and  Lud- 
wig  (V,  524)  are  wrong  in  taking  ksh6da//  as  a  locative  or 
as  an  instrumental  respectively. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Pischel-Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I, 
p.  xvi. 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  Can  sisv£  be  the  nominative  of  a  stem  j/jvan 
which  stands  by  the  side  of  slsu  as  r/bhvan  of  ribhu? 
Prof.  Max  Muller  proposes  :  '  Large  like  a  cow  with  young, 
like  a  pregnant  cow.' 


M AND ALA    I,    HYMN    66.  57 

M  AND  ALA  I,  HYMN  66, 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  10. 

1.  Like  unto  excellent  wealth,  like  unto  the  shine 
of  the  sun,  like  unto  living  breath,  like  unto  one's 
own1  son — 

2.  Like  unto  a  quick  takvan l  he  (Agni)  holds  the 
wood,   like   milk,   like  a  milch   cow2,   bright   and 
shining. 

3.  He  holds  safety,  pleasant  like  a  homestead, 
Ijke  ripe  barley,  a  conqueror  of  men, 

4.  Like  a  ^?zshi  uttering  (sacred)  shouts,  praised 
among  the  clans ;  like  a  well-cared-for  race-horse l, 
Agni  bestows  vigour. 

5.  He  to  whose  flame  men  do  not  grow  accus- 
tomed *,  who  is  like  one's  own  mind 2,  like  a  wife  on 
a  couch,  enough  for  all  (happiness). 

6.  When  the  bright  (Agni)  has  shone  forth,  he  is 
like  a  white  (horse  [P])1  among  people,  like  a  chariot 
with  golden  ornaments,  impetuous  in  fights. 

7.  Like  an  army  which  is  sent  forward  he  shows 
his  vehemence,  like  an  archer's  shaft  with  sharp 
point 

8.  He  who  is  born  is  one  twin ;  he  who  will  be 
born  *  is  the  other  twin — the  lover  of  maidens,  the 
husband  of  wives 2. 

9 l.  As  cows  go  to  their  stalls,  all  that  moves  and 
we,  for  the  sake  of  a  dwelling,  reach  him  who  has 
been  kindled. 

10.  Like  the  flood  of  the  Sindhu1  he  has  driven 
forward  the  downwards-flowing  (waters)2.  The  cows 
lowed  at  the  sight  .of  the  sun  \ 


5  8  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 
The  same  Rtshi  and  metre. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Comp.  .  I,  166,  2;  185,  2;  X,  39,  14.  The 
second  passage  (nftyam  na  sfintim  pitr6>i  upasthe  dy£v& 
rdkshatam  prithivi  na^  abhvdt)  would  be  sufficient  to  show 
that  we  cannot  translate  'wie  ein  uberlebender  cohn' 
(Ludwig). 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.    We  do  not  know  what  animal  the  takvan  is. 
Comp.  I,  134,  5  with  M.  M.'s  note. 
Note  2.    See  Bergaigne,   Mel.  Renier,   101  ;   Gaedicke, 


Verse  4. 
Note  1.  Comp.  X,  101,7.  primtd  ajv&i  hitdm  ^ay&tha. 

Verse  5. 

Note  L  Comp.  VII,  4,  3.  durokam  agmV/  slyavc  susofa. 

Note  2.  Prof.  Max  Muller  believes  that  kratu  here 
means,  c  like  kartr/,  a  sacrificer,  so  that  kratuA  na  nityaA 
sounds  like  sflnuA  na  nityaA,  one's  own  sacrificing  son. 
But  all  this  is  very  obscure/ 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  second  Pada  is  translated  by  Grassmann  : 
4wie  Licht  in  Hausern;'  by  Ludwig:  'fast  weiss,  bei  den 
menschenstammen.'  I  think  that  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that  the  words  svetiti  nd  contain  a  comparison  like  all  the 
other  comparisons  of  which  these  hymns  are  full;  this 
comparison  is  unduly  effaced  in  Ludwig's.  translation.  Nor 
is  Grassmann  right  in  translating  svetM  bei  *  Licht  ;'  the 
word  is  an  adjective  meaning  *  white'  and  nothing  else. 
We  must  supply  here,  as  in  many  passages,  a  substantive, 
and  I  do  not  see  any  reason  why  this  should  not  be  that 


I,    HYMN    66.  59 


substantive  with  which  ^veta  is  most  frequently  combined 
in  the  Rig-veda,  namely  ajrva;  comp.  1,  116,  6;  118,  9 
[119,  10]  ;  VII,  77>  3  5  X,  39,  10.  In  V,  i,  4  it  is  said  of 
Agni  :  svetAA  vStgt  ^Ayate  dgre  dhndm,  c  the  white  racer  is 
born  in  the  beginning  of  the  days/ 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  traditional  text  is  yamdA  ha  g&'kh  yamaA 
^dnitvam.  Ludwig  translates  'bewaltiger  des  gebornen, 
bewaltiger  auch  des,  was  erst  geboren  wird.'  It  will 
scarcely  be  necessary  to  state  the  reasons  which  make 
against  this  translation.  YamaA  .  .  .  yamd//  evidently 
means  :  *  the  one  twin  .  .  .  the  other  twin.'  Now  if  we 
leave  the  text  unchanged,  we  cannot  but  translate  :  '  the 
one  twin  is  he  who  has  been  born,  the  other  twin  is  that 
which  will  be  born*  —  which  sounds  very  strange.  In  I, 
89,  10  we  have  adititi  ^Atam  dditiA  ^anitvam  ;  IV,  18,  4. 
antaA^fit^shu  utd  yd^anitva^  ;  X,  45,  10.  iit^it6na  bhinddat 
lit  ^einitvaiA.  In  all  these  cases  ^eitd  and  ^dnitva  stand 
parallel  ;  there  is  no  such  difference  as  in  our  passage, 
according  to  the  traditional  text,  between  him  (masc.)  who 
is  ...  and  that  (neuter)  which  will  be  ...  Thus  I  propose 
to  read  ^dnitvaA,  of  which  conjecture  Ludwig  has  thought 
also  (see  his  note,  IV,  259):  that  present  Agni  who  has 
been  born,  and  that  future  Agni  who  will  be  born,  are 
twins.  —  Prof.  Max  Miiller  has  discussed  this  passage  in  his 
Science  of  Language,  II,  630  scqq.  He  interprets  the  twin 
who  has  been  born  as  Agni  representing  the  morning  ; 
the  twin  who  will  be  born  as  the  evening. 

Note  2.  The  maidens  very  probably  are  the  dawns  (comp. 
Prof.  Max  Muller's  discussion  quoted  in  the  last  note).  Are 
the  wives  the  sacrificial  ladles  which  approach  Agni,  or  the 
offerings  of  ghee,  or  the  prayers?  See  Bergaigne,  Rel. 
V&iique,  II,  9  seqq. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  This  verse  is  very  obscure,  and  I  am  quite  aware 
of  the  merely  tentative  character  of  the  translation  which 


60  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


I  propose.  I  leave  vaA  untranslated  (comp.  Delbruck, 
Altindische  Syntax,  206),  which  must  be  done  in  most  of 
the  numerous  verses  beginning  with  the  words  tdm  va/z. 
I  then  read  £ardth£  (comp.  68,  i  ;  70,  3.  7).  Vasatyfi  seems 
to  be  either  a  dative  similar  to  the  newly-discovered  datives 
in  -£  of  a-stems,  or  we  possibly  should  read  vasatyaf 
(vasatyS  in  the  Sa;«hitd-pd/^a). — Prof.  Max  Miiller  thinks 
of  a  correction  £ar£ma/*  and  would  translate  :  '  To  him 
(whom  you  know — va/i)  when  lighted  we  go  for  our  dwelling, 
as  the  cows  reach  their  home.' 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  Comp.  above,  65,  6. 

Note  2.  Or  the  downwards-streaming  libations  of  Ghr/ta 
and  the  like  ?     Comp.  below,  I,  72,  10  with  note  4. 
Note  3.  Comp.  below,  69,  10. 


MAtfDALA    I,    HYMN    67.  6  1 


I,  HYMN  67. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  11. 

1.  Victorious1  in  the  forests,  a  friend  among  men, 
he  demands  obedience  like  a  king,  the  undecaying 
one2. 

2.  Like  good  peace,  like  fortunate  wisdom,  may 
he  (Agni)  be  a  kind  Hotr/,  a  carrier  of  offerings. 

3.  Having  taken  in  his  hand  all  manly  powers, 
he  has  made  the  gods  fear,  when  sitting  down  in  his 
hiding-place. 

4.  There  the  thoughtful  men  find  him,  when  they 
have  recited  the  spells  which  they  had  fashioned  in 
their  heart. 

5.  As  the  goat  *  (supports)  the  earth  s,  thus  he 
supports  the  earth  ?  ;    he  upholds  the  sky  by  his 
efficacious  spells. 

6.  Protect   the   dear1  footsteps    of  the   cattle2. 
O  Agni,  thou  who  hast  a  full  life,  thou  hast  gone 
from  covert  to  covert  3. 

7.  He  who  has  seen  him  the  hidden  one,  he  who 
has  got  near  to  the  stream  of  /?/ta  }  — 

8.  They  who  get  him  off,  doing  service  to  Rita,, 
to  him1  he  then  indicates  riches. 

9.  He   who   grows   up   with    might  within    the 
plants,   and   within   the  children1,  and  within   the 
sprouting  grass  2  — 

10.  The  splendour  [?]  in  the  home  of  the  waters1, 
the  full-lived.     The  sages  made  him  as  if  building 
a-  seat. 


62  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  samd  R z'shi  and  metre. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  '  G&yuA  :  aus  gy&yuh,  wie  der  compar. 
^yesh/7/aA  zeigt,'  Ludwig.  But  what  shows  that  ^y£y£n  is 
the  comparative  of  g&yuk  and  that  the  utterly  impossible 
change  of  gy  into  g  is  possible  ?  Ludwig's  translation 
'  iiberwindend '  is  right ;  comp.  I,  119,  3. 

Note  2.  I  propose  to  read  aguryaA.  Prof.  Max  Miiller 
conjectures — as  Roth  (Pet  Diet.)  has  done— that  mish/i 
may  mean  '  obedient,  servant ;'  he  translates  :  c  He  desires 
a  servant  ^or  worshipper)  who  is  not  aged.1 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  On  the  mythical  goat  whose  office  it  is  to 
support  the  worlds,  comp.  I,  164,  6  ;  VIII,  41,  10;  X, 
82,  6  ;  Bergaigne,  III,  21  ;  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  72. 

Note  2.  For  '  earth '  the  text  has  two  different  words, 
ksh£m  and  pr/thivim.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  conjectures  dySm 
for  ksh£m :  •  He,  Agni,  supports  the  earth,  as  the  buck 
the  sky.' 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Literally,  '  the  dear  footsteps ; '  but  the  meaning 
of  priyd  may  be  compared  to  that  of  the  Homeric  ^t'Ao?, 
his  own. 

Note  2.  One  could  be  tempted  to  refer  the  word  pam 
to  Agni,  whose  footsteps  (pad£ni)  the  *  wise  ones '  follow 
(65,  2),  and  whom  they  find  out  in  his  hiding.  Thus  we 
cculd  translate,  f  Look  at  the  dear  footsteps  of  the  beast.' 
But  the  comparison  of  70,  6  makes  it  more  probable  that 
the  imperative  nf  p&hi  is  addressed  to  Agni.  I  believe 
therefore  that  Grassmann  is  right  in  translating  '  Die  lieben 
Statten  der  Heerden  schiitze/  Ludwig's  translation  is 


MAMDALA    I,    HYMN    67.  63 

similar  to  this.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  translates  :  *  Observe 
the  footsteps  of  the  animal  (the  stolen  animal  of  the  thief 
Agn).' 

Note  3.  With  guh£  giiham  comp.  1,53,  7-  yudh£  yiidham, 
pur£  puram. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Dh£r£m  r/tasya  :  comp.  V,  1  2,  2.  ri  tdsya  dh£r£^ 
anu  tr/ndhi  ptirvtt,  'open  the  many  streams  of  /?*'ta;' 
VII,  43,  4.  r/tasya  dh£rd/*  sudughA^  duh£n&£,  «  milking  the 
streams  of  J??ta  flowing  with  plenty.'  The  stream  of  JRita. 
seems  to  mean  the  stream  of  blessings  (such  as  rain,  ghee, 
&c.)  which  flows  to  mankind  according  to  the  eternal  laws 
of  /?*'ta. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  poet  passes  over  from  the  plural  to  the 
singular. 

Verse  9. 


Note  1.  Bollensen's  conjecture  pra^su  (instead  of  pr 
uta)  seems  very  probable  to  me.  Prof,  von  Roth  (Ueber 
gewisse  Kiirzungen  des  Wortendes,  p.  2)  takes  a  different 
view. 

Note  2.  Comp.  I,  95,  10  (see  below);  VII,  9,  3.  ap£m 
garbha/*  prasva/r  a  vive^a,  *  the  son  of  the  waters  has  entered 
upon  the  sprouting  grass/ 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  c  Why  not  kltih  ap£m  dame,  that  is,  the  (burning) 
pile  in  the  home  of  the  waters.1  M.  M. 


64  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MANDALA  I,  HYMN  68. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHVAYA  5,  VARGA  12. 

1.  Cooking1  (the  oblations?)  the  quick  one  has 
approached  the  sky.     He  has  revealed  the  nights 
and  what  stands  and  moves 2 — 

2.  When  he  the  god,  alone  of  all  these  gods1 
encompassed  (the  others)  by  his  greatness. 

3.  When  thou,   O  god,  hadst  been  born  living 
from  the  dry  (wood),  then  all  (gods  and  men  ?)  were 
pleased  with  thy  wisdom. 

4.  They  all   obtained  the   name  of  divinity,  of 
immortality  \  serving  the  ./fota  in  due  way. 

5.  The  instigations  of  7?/ta,  the  thought  of  ^?zta l : 
they  all  performed  the  works  of  [?]  the  full-lived 
one2. 

6.  Bestow  wealth,  thou  who  art  the  knowing  one, 
on  him  who  worships  thee  or  who  does  service  to 
thee l. 

7.  He  who  sits  down  as  the   Hotrz  among  the 
offspring  of  Manu :   he  verily  is  the  master  of  all 
these  riches. 

8.  They  longed  together  for  the  seed  in  their 
bodies  \  and  the  wise  ones  were  concordant  among 
each  other  in  their  minds. 

9.  They  took  pleasure  in  his  will,  as  sons  (take 
pleasure)  in  their  father's  (will),  the  quick  ones  who 
have  listened  to  his  command. 

10.  He  who  is  rich  in  food  has  opened  the  gates 
of  wealth l.     The  householder  (Agni)  has  adorned 
the  sky  with  stars. 


M  AND  ALA.    I,    HYMN    68.  65 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rishi  and  metre. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Boehtlingk-Roth  are  wrong  in  deriving  srinan 
(which  should  more  correctly  be  written  jri;/an,  comp.  my 
Prolegomena,  477)  from  the  root  sri.  They  supply  an 
object  like  sokik  and  translate :  '  Licht  verbreitend  hebt  er 
sich  zum  Himmel.' 

Note  2.  Lanman,  422. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Bollensen  conjectures  dev£neim  devaA  (instead 
of  deva/*  dev£n£m)  which  seems  to  be  right  (comp.  below, 
69,  2),  though  this  conjecture  is  not  absolutely  necessary 
(see  my  Prolegomena,  97). 

Vc^rse  4. 

Note  1.  Amr/tam  belongs  to  n£ma ;  comp.  V,  57,  5. 
amr/tam  n£ma  bhe^ire^  X,  123,  4.  vidat  gandharva//  amr/- 
tani  n^ma. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  With  rftasya  dhhi/t  comp.  I,  71,  3;  IV,  23,  8  ; 
IX,  76,  4;  97,  34;  in,  2. — Prof.  Max  Miiller  thinks  that 
rtta.  should  be  taken  as  a  name  of  Agni :  *  for  the  righteous 
(Agni)  are  the  prayers,  for  the  righteous  the  devotion.' 

Note  2.  Is  visvciyu/i  an  adverb  meaning  '  eternally '  ?  As 
vijvSyu  is  an  epithet  of  Agni  frequently  used  in  the  Rig- 
veda  and  especially  in  the  Parajara  hymns  (see  67,  6.  10 ; 
68,  5  ;  73,  4),  one  feels  tempted  to  read  visv£yo&  (comp. 
IV,  42,  i.  rdsh/ram  kshatnyasya  visvSyofi). 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Ill,  59,  2.  ydA  te  Aditya  j/kshati  vrat^na. 
[46]  F 


66  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Some  light  is  thrown  on  this  obscure  verse  by 
the  hymn,  I,  72,  a  hymn  belonging,  as  our  hymn  does,  to 
the  Par&rara  collection.  It  is  shown  by  the  second  verse  of 
that  hymn  (see  below)  that  the  searching  ones,  *  amtir£^,'  are 
the  gods  who  seek  Agni.  It  seems  probable,  consequently, 
that  the  'seed*  is  Agni  (comp.  I,  164,  35,  where  Soma  is 
said  to  be  vr/sh;/a//  Asvasya  r^taA,  *  the  seed  of  the  manly 
horse').  Of  the  same  searching  gods  in  I,  72,  5  the  ex- 
pression saw^dnan^//  is  used  ;  comp.  sdm  ^anata  in  our 
passage. 

Verse  1O. 


Note  1.  R£ya//  must  be  a  genitive  ;  comp.  I,  72,  8. 
duraA  vi  ritegnSJi  ag£nan.     Probably  the  accent  should  be 
comp.,  however,  Lanman,  431. 


MAATDALA    I,    HYMN    69.  67 

MAA^ALA  I,  HYMN  69. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  13. 

1.  Bright,  flaming,  like  the  lover  of  the  Dawn1, 
he    has,   like  the  light  of  the  sky,  filled  the   two 
(worlds  of  Heaven  and   Earth)   which  are  turned 
towards  each  other. 

2.  As  soon  as  thou  wert  born  thou  hast  excelled 
by  thy  power  of  mind  ;  being  the  son  of  the  gods 
thou  hast  become  their  father. 

3.  (Agni   is)  a  worshipper  (of  the  gods),  never 
foolish,    (always)    discriminating;    (he   is)   like   the 
udder  of  the  cows  ;  (he  is)  the  sweetness  of  food l — 

4.  Like   a   kind   friend   to   men,  not   to   be  led 
astray  *,  sitting  in  the  midst,  the  lovely  one,  in  the 
house  ; 

5.  Like  a  child  when  born,  he  is  delightful  in  the 
house;  like  a  race-horse  which  is  well  cared  for1, 
he  has  wandered  across  the  clans 2. 

6.  When  I  call  (to  the  sacrifice)  the  clans  who 
dwell  in  the  same  nest  with  the  heroes,  may  Agni 
then  attain  all  divine  powers  *. 

7.  When  thou  hast  listened  to  these  heroes,  no 
one  breaks  those  laws  of  thine. 

8.  That  verily  is  thy  wonderful  deed  that  thou 
hast  killed1,  with  thy  companions,  (all  foes),  that, 
joined  by  the  heroes,  thou  hast  accomplished  thy 
works 2. 

9.  Like  the  lover  of  the  Dawn  \  resplendent  and 
bright,  of  familiar  form  :  may  he  (thus)  pay  attention 
to  this  (sacrificer). 

F  2 


68  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


io.  Carrying  (him)  they  opened  by  themselves 
the  doors  (of  heaven).  They  all  shouted  at  the 
aspect  of  the  sun  l. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rishi  and  metre. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  lover  of  the  Dawn  is  here  the  Sun.  See 
Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  31. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Agni  is  the  sweetness  of  food  (comp.  V,  7,  6. 
svadanam  pittin£m) ;  it  is  not  probable  that  svadma  and 
fldhaA  should  depend  on  vi^inan,  as  Ludwig  believes. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  I  adopt  Boehtlingk-Roth's  conjecture  ahuryiA. 
AhflryaA  would  mean,  *  he  who  js  to  be  led  astray.' 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  See  above,  66,  4. 

Note  2.  *  He  has  overcome  the  (hostile)  clans/   M.  M. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Perhaps  devatvci  is  an  instrumental,  as  Ludwig 
takes  it.  In  this  case  we  should  have  to  translate :  '  may 
Agni  by  his  divine  power  attain  everything.' — Prof.  Max 
Muller  translates  this  verse :  '  When  I  with  my  men  call 
the  Hans  of  the  same  nest  (the  gods),  Agni  will  obtain  all 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  first  hemistich  of  this  verse  has  eleven 
syllables  instead  of  ten  and  shows  the  regular  Trish/ubh 
type.  The  same  irregularity  occurs  in  70,  4.  io.  As 
I  have  shown  in  my  Prolegomena,  p.  97,  this  metrical 
irregularity  does  not  necessitate  corrections  of  the  text, 


MAJV/ULA   I,    HYMN   69.  69 

and  the  comparison  of  X,  147,  I  (see  next  note),  where  it 
is  said  ahan  yat  vr/tram  .  .  .  vive//  apd//,  seems  even  to 
confirm  the  traditional  reading.  It  cannot  be  denied, 
however,  that  the  double  yat  and  the  use  of  ahan  without 
an  object  raises  some  suspicion.  In  I,  34,  3  ;  186,  4  we 
have  samane  ahan.  Possibly  we  may  read,  tat  tii  te 
da;;/sa/i  ahan  samane,  *  this  wonderful  deed  of  thine  has 
been  accomplished  on  one  and  the  same  day  (with  that 
mentioned  in  verse  7).'  I  am  fully  aware  of  the  uncertainty 
of  such  guesses.  The  removal  of  yat  has  already  been 
proposed  by  Bollensen  (Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morg. 
Gesellschaft,  XXII,  592). 

Note  2.  Here  we  may  correct  the  text  with  greater 
ceitainty  than  in  the  first  hemistich,  or  to  speak  more 
accurately,  we  shall  have  to  correct  not  the  traditional 
text  itself,  but  that  ancient  grammatical  commentary  on 
the  text  which  has  been  preserved  to  us  in  the  Padapa///a. 
The  words  vivcrapa;;/si  of  the  Sa;//hit&pa//ra  are  written  in 
the  Padapa///a  vivc/i  rapa;;/si.  Now  we  read  IV,  19,  10. 
apa;;/si  .  .  .  nary  A.  aviveshi//,  '  thou  hast  performed  manly 
works'  In  X,  147,  i  we  have  ahan  yat  vr/tram  naryam 
vivcV*  apaA :  here  the  adjective  narya  clearly  shows  that 
apa/;  is  a  blunder  for  apa/i,  and  we  must  translate,  '  when 
thou  hast  killed  Vr/tra  and  performed  thy  manly  work/ 
This  passage  shows  that  in  X,  76,  3  also  vive//  apa//  should 
be  corrected  (v.  apa/i).  Thus  we  have  three  passages  in 
which  aviveshi//  or  vive//  has  the  object  apa//,  apa;;/si,  and 
we  may  infer  with  full  certainty  that  in  our  passage 
viverapa;//si  docs  not  correspond  to  a  Padapa//*a  reading 
vivcvi  rapawsi  but  vivc//  apa;//si.  The  same  may  be  said 
with  regard  to  VI,  31,  3  (mushaya/i  £akram  avive//  rapa;;/si; 
Sa;;/h.  avive  rapa;;/si). 

Verse  9. 
Note  1.  Comp.  above,  verse  i. 

Verse  10. 
Note  1.  Comp.  above,  66,  10. 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA  I,  HYMN  70. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  14. 

1.  May  we,  the  poor1,  succeed  in  many  (pious) 
thoughts2.      May   Agni    vith    his    pure   splendour 
attain  everything — 

2.  He  who  understands  the  divine  laws  and  the 
birth  of  the  human  race. 

3.  He  who  is  the  child  of  the  waters,  the  child 
of  the  trees,  the  child  of  that  which  stands,  and  the 
child  of  that  which  moves. 

4.  Even  in  the  rock  (they  have  done  homage  [?]) 
to  him,  in  his  dwelling l.    (He  is)  like  a  protector  [?]2 
of  the  clans,  the  immortal  one,  he  who  is  of  a  good 
mind. 

5.  For   he,   Agni,   (shows  himself  as)  an  earth- 
protecting  (lord)  of  riches  !  to  the  man  who  satisfies 
him  with  well-spoken  (prayers). 

6.  Protect,   O  knowing  one,  these  beings,  thou 
who  knowest  the  birth  of  gods  and  men l. 

7.  He  whom  many  nights  (and  dawns),  in  their 
different  forms1,  may  increase,  whom    that  which 
moves 2  and  that  which  stands  (increases),  the  god 
penetrated  by  /frta — 

8.  That  Hotre  who  has  sat  down  in  the  sun1, 
has  been  successfully  worshipped2  (by  the  human 
sacrificers),  he  who  truly  accomplishes  all  his  works. 

9.  On  the  cows,  on  the  trees  thou  hast  conferred 
excellence.     May  all  men  bring  us  tribute  in  the 
sun l. 


MAW0ALA   I,    HYMN    70. 


10.  In  many  places  men  have  worshipped  thee. 
They  have  brought  (thee)  to  different  places1  as 
sons  (divide)  the  property  of  an  aged  father  2. 

ii1.  (He  is)  like  a  greedy  man2  who  goes 
straight  (to  his  aim),  like  a  mighty  archer,  like 
a  fearful  avenger  [?]  3,  impetuous  in  contests  *. 


NOTES. 
The  same  Rishi  and  metre. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  I  adopt  Bergaigne's  opinion  on  the  word  an 
(see  Religion  Vldique,  II,  218  seq.). 

Note  2.  The  PadapSMa  has  manisha'  instead  of  manisha'/i. 
See  my  Prolegomena,  385  ;  Lanman,  363.  Prof.  Max  Miiller 
proposes  to  translate:  f  May  we  by  wisdom  overcome  many 
enemies!1  He  writes:  'Is  not  vanema  almost  a  standing 
formula  as  applied  to  enemies  ?  Let  us  conquer  the  enemies. 
The  enemies  are  masculine  in  VI 1, 48, 3.  v/jvan  arya/; . . .  van- 
van,  feminine  in  VI,  16,  27.  vanvdnta/;  arya//  ariti//.  VIII, 
39,  2.  vIsvZA  arya/:  arati/r.  X,  133, 3.  v/jvaA  arataya/:  arya/r. 
IV,  50,  n.  ^a^astam  arya/t  vanusham  arati//  (repeated 
VII,  97,  9;  cf.  I,  29,  4).'  For  my  translation  I  refer  to 
II.  5i  7-  st6mam  .  .  .  van£rna;  II,  n,  12.  dh/yam  vanema  ; 
I,  122, 14.  arydA  gfraA  ;  X,  148,  3.  aryd//  va  gira//  abhf  ar>ta 
vidv£n. 


Note  1.  Or :  even  in  the  rock  (they  have  done  homage) 
to  him,  and  in  the  (human)  dwelling?  I  believe  we  must 
supply  a  verb  on  which  the  dative  asmai  depends.  Ludwig 
proposes  to  read  duro»dm:  'within  the  stone  is  his 
dwelling.'  .  Comp.  II,  J,  I;  VI, 48, 5. 

Note  2.  I  do  not  understand  visAm  na  vfrva/;.  Ludwig 
translates  '  er  ist  der  menschen  allgemeiner,  unsterblicher 


72  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


fursorger.'  But  vkva  does  not  mean  'allgemein,'  and 
Ludwig  omits  na,  'like/  One  should  expect  a  phrase 
like  vwam  na  vfrpdtU,  which  of  course  is  metrically 
impossible.  Is  it  too  bold  to  correct  vkva//  into  visp&A, 
a  word  hitherto  not  found  in  the  texts,  but  formed 
exactly  like  stip£,  pamp£,  tantip£  and  others?—  Prof.  Max 
Muller  takes  asmai  as  dependent  on  sv£dhi!A  and  vkvaft  as 
belonging  at  the  same  time  to  amr/ta^  and  to1  vis£m.  He 
translates  :  '  To  him  also  who  dwells  in  the  rock  and  in  the 
house,  every  immortal  like  every  one  among  men  is  well 
disposed.1 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.    Comp.  VII,   JO,  5.  sd   hi   kshdp&van  dbhavat 


Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Most  probably  we  have  here  not  the  accusative 
martdn  but  the  genitive  martam,  which  was  confounded  by 
the  arrangers  of  the  traditional  text  with  the  accusative 
and  treated  according  to  the  Sandhi  rules  which  govern 
the  ending  -£n.  See  Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  353  ; 
Bartholomae,  Studien  zur  indogermanischen  Sprachge- 
schichte,  I,  48. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Lanman  (p.  422)  takes  kshapaA  vi'rupa/*  as  ac- 
cusatives, and  translates,  '  Whom  through  many  nights  and 
mornings  all  beings  worship.'  I  believe  that  they  are 
nominatives,  and  that  we  should  accentuate  kshapaA.  As 
virupa  is  a  regular  epithet  of  ndktosh£s£,  I  think  that 
kshapa/z  is  to  be  understood  as  an  elliptic  plural  similar  to 
the  elliptic  duals  ush£sa  or  ahani  (comp.  Delbriick,  Alt- 
indische  Syntax,  102),  and  that  it  means,  '  the  nights  (and 
mornings).'  —  Comp.  ¥1,38,4.  vardhan  m£s£A  jaradaA  dy£va// 
indram,  '  May  months,  years,  days  increase  Indra's  great- 
ness.' 

Note  2.  Of  course  £a  rdtham  is  a  mistake  for  /fcardtham, 
as  first  pointed  out  by  Benfey. 


MAJVDALA   I,    HYMN    70.  73 


Verse  8. 

Note  1.  On  the  locative  svar,  see  Lanman,  488;  Joh. 
Schmidt  in  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVII,  306 ;  Bartholomac 
in  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XV,  42.  Comp.  X,  61,  14.  sva// 
na  ye  trishadhasthe'  nishedii//. 

Note  2.  Comp.  X,  53,  2.  aradhi  hot&  nishddd  ya^iyan. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  Is  it  not  more  probable  that  tribute  was  brought 
to  Agni  (comp.  V,  i,  10)  than  to  the  human  worshippers? 
Possibly  we  should  change  sva//  na//  (svar  m/i  of  the 
Sa;;/hitapa///a)  into  svar//a/*,  a  vocative  of  the  stem 
svar//;7  =  svar;/ara.  The  translation  would  be,  'All  men 
have  brought  tribute  to  thee,  O  sun-hero  ! J 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  Comp.  V,  u,  4.  agnfm  nara//  vi  bharante  gr/he- 
grihc. 

Note  2.  Regarding  the  metre,  comp.  above,  69.  8,  note  i. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  This  verse  may  possibly  be  a  later  addition. 
See  Bergaigne,  Rccherches  sur  1'Histoire  de  la  Sa;;/hita, 
I,  61. 

Note  2.  On  gr/dhnu,  comp.  Pischel,  Ved.  Studicn,  I,  23 1 . 

Note  3.  Comp.  I,  32,  14.  ahe//  yatd'ram. 

Note  4.  See  above,  66,  6. 


74  VEDIC  HYMNS. 


MAA^ALA  I,  HYMN  71. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  15-16. 

1.  The  loving  (women)  have  (amorously)  excited l 
their  lover,  as  wives  of  the  same  nest  (house)  their 
own  husband.     The  sisters  have  delighted  in  the 
dark  and  in  the  red  (goddess)  2,  as  the  cows  in  the 
brightly  shining  dawn. 

2.  Our  fathers,  the  Angiras  *,  have  broken  even 
the  strong  fortresses  by  their  hymns,  the  rock  by 
their  shouting.     They  have  opened  to  us  the  path 
of  the  great  heaven;  they  have  obtained  day  and 
sun  and  the  shine  of  the  dawn  2. 

3.  They  founded  the  JRzta. ;  they  set  into  motion 
the  thought  of  it1.     Thus  then  the  widely-spread 
(prayers)2  of  the  poor 3  which  seek  to  obtain  (wealth), 
which  are  free  from  thirst 4,  the  active,  approach  5 
the   tribe   of   the   gods 6,    strengthening    them    by 
offering  them  delight. 

4.  When  MdtarLrvan  had  produced  him  by  attrition, 
he,  the  reddish,  the  noble  one,  who  was  brought  to 
many  places  \  has  come  to  every  house.     Then  the 
Bhrz'gu-like2  -has   undertaken   the   ruessengership 3 
(for   the   mortal)    as    for    a    mightier    king,   being 
attached  to  him. 

5.  When  he  had  created  sap  to  the  great  father 
Heaven,  the  knowing  one  stealthily  .approached  the 
speckled  (cows).     The  archer  fiercely  shot -an  arrow 
at   him.      The   god   turned   his   impetuous   power 
against  his  daughter l. 

6.  Augment,  O   Agni,  twofold  the   strength   of 


MANtfALA   I,    HYMN    Jl.  75 

the  man  who  worships l  thee  in  his  house,  or  offers 
adoration  to  the  loving  one 2  day  by  day.  May  he 
whom  thou  incitest  be  united  with  riches 3. 

7.  Every  nourishment  goes  towards  Agni  *,  as  the 
seven  young2  rivers  (flow)  into  the  ocean.  Our 
strength  does  not  shine  from  kinsmen3.  Do  thou 
therefore  who  knowest  this,  procure  among  the  gods 
kindness  for  us. 

81.  When  the  sharp  splendour2  reached  the  lord 
of  men  to  incite  him3,  the  bright  sperm  poured 
down  from  Heaven  (or,  from  the  god  Dyaus)4,  Agni 
produced6  and  furthered  the  blameless,  young,  well- 
wishing  host6. 

9.  He   who    traverses    the   paths    quickly1   like 
thought,  the  Sun  alone  rules  over  wealth  altogether. 
(There  are)  the  two  kings  Mitra  and  Varuwa  with 
graceful  hands2,  who  watch  over  the  beloved  am- 
brosia3 in  the  cows. 

10.  Do  not  forget,  O  Agni,  who  art  a  sage  pos- 
sessed of  knowledge  *,  our  paternal  friendship.    Old 
age  impairs  the   appearance   (of  men)  as  a  cloud 
(covers   the   sun   or   the   sky).     Before   this  curse 
(attains  us),  think  thou  (of  us)2. 

NOTES. 

The  same  J?ishi.     Metre,  Trish/ubh. 

Though  the  hymns  71-73  are  not  composed  in  the  VirS^ 
metre  like  the  preceding  hymns,  it  is  shown  by  manifold 
evidence  that  they  had  the  same  origin.  Verse  8  =  VS. 
XXXIII,  ii ;  TS.  I,  3,  14,  6;  MS.  IV,  14,  15. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Geldner,  Vediscbe  Studien,  II,  134. 
Note  2.  If  the  text  is  correct,  ttre  •  sisters '  may  either 


76  VED1C    HYMNS. 


be  the  ten  fingers  which  generate  Agni  by  attrition  (III,  29, 
13  ;  IV,  6,  8),  or  the  streams  of  water  among  which  Agni 
grows  up,  or  streams  of  Ghr/ta  or  the  like  (comp.  II,  j,  5  ; 
sec  below).  Why  these  sisters  are  said  to  delight  in  the 
dark  and  in  the  bright  goddess,  the  Night  and  the  Dawn, 
remains  doubtful. 

But  I  think  there  are  reasons  which  strongly  recommend 
a  correction  of  the  text.  In  III,  55,  11  we  read  jryavi  £a 
.  .  .  cirushi  £a  svasarau,  'the  two  sisters,  the  dark  one  and 
the  red  one.1  Is  it  not  probable  that  in  our  passage  also 
it  is  the  sister-s  who  are  described  as  dark  and  red  ?  The 
dark  goddess  and  the  red  goddess  of  course  are  Night  and 
Dawn,  and  Night  and  Dawn,  as  is  well  known,  are  sisters 
in  Vedic  poetry.  And  furthermore  the  '  sisters '  are  de- 
scribed in  our  verse  as  amorously  exciting  the  god  Agni : 
for  it  cannot  well  be  doubted  that  the  svasara//  of  the  third 
Pada  are  identical  with  the  uratf//  of  the  first :  similarly  it 
is  said  in  70,  7 — in  a  hymn  belonging  to  the  same  collection 
with  our  Sukta — that  the  Nights  and  Dawns  augment 
Agni's  greatness;  in  other  passages  Agni  is  represented  as 
beloved  by  the  Dawn,  or  as  suckled  by  Night  and  Dawn 
(Bergaigne,  Religion  Vedique,  II,  14.  i 5).  The  'sisters '  then 
arc  stated  in  our  verse  to  delight  (a^ushran),  probably  in 
Agni :  now  we  read  in  II,  2,  2.  abhi  tva  nakti//  ushasaA 
vava^ire  agnc  vatsam  nasvasarcshu  dhenava/// The  Nights 
and  Dawns,  Agni,  have  lowed  at  thce  as  the  milch-cows  in 
their  stalls  at  their  calves  ; '  comp.  Bergaignc,  II,  15.  Thus 
everything  is  clear,  if  we  take  the  uszti/i  and  the  svasaraA 
for  the  bright  and  dark  goddesses,  i.  c.  for  the  Dawns  and 
Nights.  The  correction  of  the  text  to  which  this  inter- 
pretation leads,  is  svasara//  sy&vi/i  arushf//  a^ushran,  'the 
dark  and  the  red  sisters  have  delighted  (in  Agni).'  It  is 
easy  to  understand  that  the  corruption  of  the  text  was 
occasioned  by  the  simile  of  the  fourth  Pada.  The  words 
ushasam  na  g£va//  seemed  to  demand  a  parallel  nominative 
and  a  parallel  accusative  in  the  third  Pada.  The  nomina- 
tive was  svas^ra//,  but  there  was  no  accusative.  Thus 
probably  arose  the  reading  sy£vim  arushim. 


MAtfDALA    I,    HYMN    71.  77 


Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  the  Angiras  as  the  fathers  of  the  priestly 
tribes,  see  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  278. 

Note  2.  The  phrase  ushdsaA  ketuA  occurs  several  times 
in  the  Rig-veda.  I  think  that  ketiim  usr£A  means  exactly 
the  same ;  it  has  been  shown  by  Kaegi,  Festgruss  an 
Boehtlingk,  p.  49,  and  by  Bartholomae,  Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage,  XV,  185,  that  a  genitive  sing.  usr£/*  existed. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Ludwig  refers  asya  to  the  sacrificer,  Bollensen  to 
Agni,  and  so  does  Saya;/a.  I  believe  that  asya  should  be 
explained  as  rztasya ;  the  phrase  r/tasya  dhitf  is  frequently 
used,  comp.  IV,  23,  8  ;  IX,  76,  4;  97,  34  ;  in,  2.  See  also 
Ludwig's  note  on  III,  3 1,  i  (vol.  v,  p.  65). — Prof.  Max  Miiller 
refers  r/ta  to  Agni.  '  One  might  translate  it  by  righteous : 
They  established  the  righteous  (Agni),  they  moved  his 
mind  (made  him  attend  ?).' 

Note  2.  The  substantive  (of  feminine  gender)  which  is  to 
be  supplied  to  didhishvaA,  atrishyantl/*,  &c.,  seems  to  me 
to  be  gi'raA  or  the  like.  Ary&A  stands  frequently  together 
with  gira/*. — Prof.  Max  Miiller  writes :  '  Could  not  ari  be 
a  feminine  like  £arsha;/i  and  vi.r;  see  before,  I,  70,  i.  We 
should  then  translate,  and  then  the  people  emulous,  widely 
spread,  never  flagging  [the  stones  also  are  called  atrishita// 
atnshtfs^aA,  X,  94,  n],  and  active  go  tovxards  the  gods/ 

Note  3.  See  above,  70,  i,  note  i. 

Note  4.  Are  the  prayers  called  '  free  from  thirst '  because 
they  are  accompanied  by  libations  of  Ghr/ta,  Soma,  &c.  ? 

Note  5.  I  believe  that  devSn  ^inma  depends  both  on 
£kkh&.  and  on  vardhdyantiA. 

Note  6.  Devan,  or  rather  dev£m,  is  gen.  plur. ;  see  above, 
70,  6,  with  note  i. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  place  in  which  vfbhr/taA  stands  would  seem 
to  show  that  it  is  an  epithet  of  Matamvan,  and  so  it  is 
understood  by  Ludwig  and  by  Bergaigne  (Rel.  Ved.  I,  54). 


78  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


But  it  is  Agni  himself,  not  M^taruvan,  who  is  very  fre- 
quently mentioned  as  vfbhr/ta  or  the  like.  As  we  read 
here,  vfbhr/ta/*  .  .  .  grth&-grihe,  it  is  said  in  V,  n,  4. 
agnfm  nara/*  vf  bharante  grih6-grihe, l  the  men  carry  Agni 
hither  and  thither,  to  every  house;'  comp.  I,  70,  10;  III, 
55,4  ;  X,  i,  2  ;  45,  2  ;  80, 4.  Thus  I  believe  the  poet  means 
to  say  that  Mdtarijvan  first  kindled  Agni,  in  one  place  of 
course, and  that  Agni  then  was  brought  to  many  places,  to 
all  human  dwellings.  I  think  that  the  text  indeed  can  be 
understood  in  this  way,  if  we  suppose  that  the  author,  for 
the  sake  of  the  metre,  allowed  himself  a  hyperbaton  or 
synchysis. 

We  must  not  omit  to  mention  that  the  first  Pada  of  I, 
148,  i  is  nearly^ identical  with  our  passage:  mathit  ydt  im 
vish/a/2  m£tarkva.  This  Pdda  is  deficient  by  one  syllable. 
If  we  were  to  read  vibhrzta/*,  as  in  cur  passage,  this  would 
lead  indeed  to  the  conclusion  that  there  is  no  hyperbaton 
in  our  verse — for  the  verse,  I,  148,  i,  could  not  be  explained 
in  that  way — but  that  vi'bhrzta//  refers  to  M£tarLyvan. 
I  think,  however,  that  it  is  more  than  doubtful  that  the 
verse,  I,  148,  i,  really  ought  to  be  corrected  in  this  way ; 
whatever  may  have  been  the  original  form  of  that  verse,  it 
is  quite  possible,  and  even  probable,  that  it  differed  from 
our  passage  just  in  that  one  word. 

Note  2.  The  exact  meaning  of  Bhr/gavd;/a  is  doubtful. 
It  is,  of  course,  derived  from  Bhr/gu  as  vdsavAna,  takavAna, 
from  vasu,  taku.  Agni  is  called  Bhr/gav£//a  also  in  IV,  7, 
4.  Comp.  Bergaigne,  I,  54. 

Note  3.  With  the  words  &  dfltyam  vivSya  comp.  IV,  9,  6. 
v&hi  ft  u  asya  dfttyam. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  This  difficult  verse  evidently  treats  of  the  incest 
which  the  father  Dyaus  has  committed  with  his  daughter. 
Compare  on  this  subject  Bergaigne,  Rel.  Wd.  II,  109  seq. 
Agni  seems  td  be  represented  here  as  stimulating  the  desire 
of  the  father ;  the  '  sap '  (rdsa)  probably  is  the  sperm,  comp. 
I,  105,  2. 


MAA7)ALA    I,    HYMN    71.  79 

In  the  second  Pdda,  Agni,  having  done,  as  it  seems;  some 
mischief,  goes  away  to  the  '  speckled  cows/  We  cannot 
say  who  these  speckled  cows  were ;  they  evidently  are 
identical  with  those  mentioned  in  another  passage  treating 
of  the  same  story,  X,  61,  8. — Bergaigne  paraphrases  the 
second  P£da  of  our  verse,  wrongly  in  my  opinion, '  Agni 
sort  furtivement  de  cette  fille,  de  cette  vache,  prtsant' 

The  archer  who  shoots  at  Agni  (third  P£da)  is  not  better 
known  to  us  than  the  speckled  cows.  Bergaigne's  opinion, 
'  que  cet  archer  n'est  autre  que  le  pere  lui-meme/  is  not 
very  convincing. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  traditional  reading  vibh£ti  ('  he  who  shines 
for  thee  in  his  house ')  gives  no  satisfactory  sense.  I  pro- 
pose to  read  vidhati.  Cf.  I,  120,  i.  kathS  vidhati  apra^etii/*. 

Note  2.  I  have  some  doubts  as  to  the  correctness  of 
usat&&  (Sa;;/hitapa///a,  u^at6)  dnu  dyfin.  U.rat,  of  course,  is 
an  epithet  not  of  the  days,  but  of  Agni.  But  then  we 
expect  the  dative.  Correcting  the  text  (orate)  is  all  the 
easier,  because  before  a  following  vowel  the  dative  and  the 
genitive  were,  in  the  original  pronunciation,  identical  (ujatd« 
dnu  ;  see  my  Prolegomena,  447  sqq.) ;  the  spellings  of  the 
SawhiteLpd/Aa,  u^at6  anu  and  usa.t&  dnu,  belong  to  the  inven- 
tions of  Vedic  grammarians. 

Note  3.  Literally,  May  he  whom  thou  incitest  drive  on 
the  same  chariot  with  riches.  Comp.  such  expressions  as 
ratru/fc  r&ya/*  and  the  like. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Comp.  IV,  44,  2.  yuv6A  vdpuA  abhf  pr/kshaA 
sa&mte ;  VII,  90,  5. 

Note  2    Comp.  I,  26,  10,  note  i. 

Note  3.  Ludwig :  nicht  unter  unsern  freunden  ward 
auszfundig  gemacht  die  kraftspeise.  Grassmann  :  nicht  bei 
Verwandten  ward  uns  Nahrung  sichtbar.  Wilson :  Our 
food  is  not  partaken  of  by  our  kinsmen.  Griffith  :  Not  by 
our  brethren  was  our  food  discovered. — Ludwig  and  Grass- 
mann translate  as  if  the  text  had  ^Amfshu.  What  the 


80  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


instrumental  means  is  shown,  I  believe,  for  instance,  by 
IV,  14,  2.  vf  sflryayfc  rasmibhi/t  £ekitanaA, *  the  sun  shining 
with  his  rays/  Thus  in  our  passage  the  poet  seems  to  me 
to  say, '  We  have  no  strong  kinsmen  who  might  add  lustre 
to  our  strength.  Agni,  procure  thou  strength  to  us.' 
Comp.  X,  23,  7.  vidmd  hi  te  pramatim  deva  ^amivat, '  for 
we  know,  O  god,  thy  providing  care  like  that  of  a  kinsman.' 
— Prof.  Max  Muller  proposes  the  translation  :  '  Our  wealth 
is  not  known  by  our  kinsmen,  i.e.  we  cannot  support  them 
as  we  ought/ 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  poet  returns  here  to  the  myth  of  which  he 
had  spoken  in  verse  5.  Should  the  order  of  the  verses  be 
changed  ?— On  our  verse,  compare  Geldner,  Ved.  Studien, 

«.  34. 

Note  2.  Te^as  seems  to  be  here  a  synonym  of  retas,  as 
in  the  later  language. 

Note  3.  Is  the  lord  of  men  Agni  ?  See  the  third  Pslda. — 
Ish£  I  consider,  with  Geldner,  as  an  infinitive. 

Note  4.  My  translation  rests  on  the  supposition  that 
dyauA  is  to  be  corrected  into  dy6A ;  thus  the  ablative  is 
obtained,  of  which  the  word  abh?ke  is  usually  accompanied 
(comp.  Lanman,  433 ;  Collitz,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  X, 
15).  If  we  leave  the  reading  dyauA,  this  nominative  will 
be  the  subject  of  the  verb  Unat.  Then  t&aA  must  be  accu- 
sative dependent  on  £na/,  and  we  can  scarcely  avoid 
making  nn'patim  to  depend  on  the  infinitive  ishe.  This 
is  the  way  which  Geldner  has  followed  in  interpreting 
this  passage.  But  I  cannot  consider  this  separation  of 
nr/pdtim  from  the  verb  £na/  very  probable. 

Note  5.  The  exact  meaning  of  ^anayat  seems  to  be  here, 
'  he  caused  them  to  be  born/  Comp.  .Satapatha  Br£hma#a 
I,  7, 4, 4.  yathl  tad  devA  reta/*  pra^anayan  (comp.  Aitareya 
Brdhma;/a  III,  34 ;  see  also  Rig-veda  X,  61,  7). 

Note  6.  This  may  be  the  host  of  the  seven  7?/shis. 
Comp.  Ill,  31,  1-5  ;  IV,  i,  12  seq.  (?).  Or  the  Maruts  are 
alluded  to  (comp.  below,  72,  4),  though  that  seems  to  me 
less  probable. 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN    Jl.  8 1 


Verse  9. 

Note  1.  Literally,  in  one  day.  But  sadyd/J  has  already 
in  the  Rig-veda  the  secondary  meaning  'immediately, 
quickly.' 

Note  2.  Comp.  Ill,  56,  7.  r^g£n£  mitr£-vdru#£  sup£#7. 

Note  3.  See  below,  72,  6. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VII,  18,  2:  there  the  words  abhf  vidu/f 
kavf/j  sdn  are  identical  with  our  text.. 

Note  2.  Of  the  second  hemistich  Prof.  Collitz  has  treated 
in  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  X,  15,  note.  He  paraphrases 
the  meaning  in  the  following  way :  *  Der  Sinn  des  ganzen 
Verses  ist :  unsere  Freundschaft  mit  dir,  Agni,  stammt  aus 
alter  Zeit.  Nun  sagt  ,man  zwar  "  im  Alter  andert  sich  das 
Aussehn  wie  das  der  Wolke."  Aber  stehe  du  uns  bei  vor 
diesem  Fluche.'  I  do  not  believe  that  this  interpretation, 
though  very  ingenious,  gives  the  real  meaning  of  the  Vedic 
poet. — Comp.  I,  179,  i.  minSti  sriyam  g&nm£  tanflndm 


82  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MANDALA  I,  HYMN  72. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  17-18. 

i.  He  has  brought  down  (i.e.  surpassed)  the 
wisdom  of  many  a  worshipper1,  he  who  holds  in  his 
hand  all  manly  power.  Agni  has  become  the  lord 
of  treasures,  he  who  brought  together  all  (powers 
of)  immortality. 

2 1.  All  the  clever  immortals  when  seeking  did  not 
find  the  calf  though  sojourning  round  about  us. 
The  attentive  (gods),  wearying  themselves,  follow- 
ing his  footsteps2,  stood  at  the  highest,  beautiful8 
standing-place  of  Aghi. 

3.  When  the  bright  ones1  had  done  service2  to 
thee,  the  bright  one,  Agni,  with  Ghr/ta  through 
three  autumns,   they  assumed  worshipful   names; 
the  well-born  shaped  their  own  bodies. 

4.  Acquiring  (or,  exploring?)  for  themselves  the 
two  great  worlds,  the  worshipful  ones  brought  for- 
ward their  Rudra-like  powers1.     The  mortal,  when 
(beings)  were  in  discord2,  perceived  and  found  out 
Agni  standing  in  the  highest  place. 

5.  Being    like-minded    they1    reverentially    ap- 
proached him  on  their  knees.     Together  with  their 
wives  they  venerated  the  venerable  one2.     Aban- 
doning their  bodies  they  made  them  their  own3,  the 
(one)  friend  waking  when  the  (other)  friend  closed 
his  eyes4. 

6.  When  the  worshipful  (gods)  have  discovered 
the  thrice  seven  secret  steps1  (or,  places)  laid  down 
in  thee,  they  concordantly  guard  with  them  immor- 


MAtfDALA    I,    HYMN    72.  83 

tality.       Protect   thou    the   cattle   and   that   which 
remains  steadfast2  and  that  which  moves. 

7.  Knowing,  O  Agni,  the  established  orders1  of 
(human)  dwellings,   distribute   in   due   order  gifts2 
that  they  may  live.     Knowing  the  ways  which  the 
gods  go',  thou  hast  become  the  unwearied  mes- 
senger, the  bearer  of  oblations. 

8.  They  who  knew  the  right  way  and  were  filled 
with  good  intentions,  beheld  from  heaven  the  seven 
young1   (rivers)  and  the  doors  of  riches.     SaramA 
found  the  strong  stable  of  the  cows  from  which  human 
clans  receive  their  nourishment2. 

9.  The  Earth  has  spread  herself  far  and  wide 
with  them  who  are  great   in  their  greatness, ,  the 
mother  Aditi,  for  the  refreshment  of  the  bird1,  with 
her  sons  who  have  assumed  all  powers  of  their  own 
dominion2,  preparing  (for  themselves)  the  way  to 
immortality. 

10.  When  the  immortals  created  the  two  eyes  of 
heaven1,  they  placed  fair  splendour  in  him  (Agni)a. 
Then  they  rush  down8  like  streams  let  loose.     The 
red  ones  have  recognised,  O  Agni,  those  which  are 
directed  downwards4. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rtshi  and  metre.— Verse  i  =  TS.  II,  a,  i*,  i. 
Verse  3  =  TB.  II,  4,  5, 6.  Verses  8-9  =  TB.  II,  5,  8,  10. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  seems  to  me  to  be :  by  his  wisoom 
he  excels  all  human  wisdom.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  translates: 
1  Agni,  who  holds  in  his  hand  all  that  men  desire,  conquers 

G  2 


84  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


(or,  wins  for  himself)  the  praises  of  many  a  wise  worshipper.' 
And  the  last  P4da:  'he  who  brought  together  all  immortal 
blessings.'-On  jajvat,  see  VI,  61,  i;  VII,  18,  18;  VIII, 
23,  28. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Here  we  have  again  the  myth  of  the  hidden 
Agni  whom  the  gods  seek.  Agni  is  meant  by  the  calf. 

Note  2.  Going  on  foot,  Sayawa. 

Note  3.  I  follow  Saya;/a,  Bollensen,  and  Ludwig  in  taking 
&£ru  as  a  locative. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  *  Was  not  S&ya« a  right  in  taking  this  verse  as 

referring  to  the  Maruts?  Cf.  VI,  48,  21 su^ita  also  is 

an  epithet  of  the  Maruts,  I,  88,  3  ;  166,  12.'  M.  M. 

Note  2.  As  to  the  subjunctive,  comp.  Delbriick,  Syn- 
taktische  Forschungen,  I,  p.  67.  The  Taittirfya  Brdhma;*a 
(II,  4,  5,  6)  reads  saparydn. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  I  follow  the  Padap&/>fca  which  has  rudrfya.  But 
possibly  we  may  have  the  nom.  plur.  rudrfy&A:  'the 
worshipful  Rudriyas  (i.e.  Maruts)  rushed  forward.' 

Note  2.  The  translation  of  nemddhita  is  in  jeopardy. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Probably  the  mortals,  as  Ludwig  understands  it. 
Comp.  marta^,  verse  4. 

Note  2.  The  venerable  one  is  Agni. 

Note  3.  Possibly  the  text  is  corrupt.  In  IV,  24,  3  we 
read  ririkv4»fsa>4  tanvaA  kr/«vata  tr£m,  *  abandoning  (i.e. 
risking)  their  bodies  they  took  him  (Indra)  for  their  pro- 
tector '  (comp.  I,  100,  7).  Should  sv&h  have  supplanted 
another  word,  for  instance,  tr£m  ?  As  the  pronoun  svd  very 
frequently  stands  in  apposition  with  tanfl,  it  may  have 
found  its  way  aLo  into  passages  to  which  it  did  not 
belong. 


MAJVDALA   I,    HYMN    72.  85 

Note  4.  The  meaning  seems  to  be  that  whenever  the 
attention  of  one  of  the  friends  relaxed,  another  friend 
watched  instead  of  the  first.  Sec  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen 
Morgenl.  Gesellschaft,  XLIV,  328 ;  Bartholomae,  Studie.n 
zur  indogerm.  Sprachgeschichte,  I,  95. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Sayarra  explains  the  trift  sapti  padS  as  the 
three  times  seven  kinds  of  sacrifices,  the  seven  Pikaya^Aas, 
the  seven  Havirya^Vzas,  the  seven  Somaya^wfas.  But  this 
later  system  of  the  twenty-one  forms1  of  sacrifice  can 
scarcely  have  existed  at  the  time  of  the  Rig-veda  Sa*fthit£. 
Three  times  seven  is  a  favourite  number  in  Rig-vedic 
mysticism  ;  comp.  I,  191,  12.  14;  IV,  i,  16 ;  VII,  87,  4  ; 
VIII,  46,  26  ;  69,  7  ;  96,  2  ;  IX,  JO,  I  ;  86,  21  ;  X,  64i  8  ; 
90,  15.  Possibly  three  times  seven  pieces  of  wood  (samf- 
dha//)  are  alluded  to,  comp.  X,  90,  15,  but  everybody  who 
has  studied  Bergaigne's  Arithmetique  mythologique  (Rel. 
Ved.  II,  114  seq. ;  see  especially  p.  122)  will  admit  that 
there  are  ever  so  many  possible  interpretations  of  a  passage 
like  this.  Prof.  Max  Midler's  translation  is :  '  The  worship- 
ful gods  found  in  thee  the  twenty-one  words  which  are 
hidden  in  thee.  They  guard  with  them  the  immortal 
(Agni).'— Instead  of  avidan  (Padap&///a)  I  think  we  must 
read  avidan. 

Note  2.  Ludwig  certainly  is  wrong  in  translating  '  hiite 
du  den  wandel  von  tier  und  pflanze.'  The  author  of  this 
group  of  hymns  is  very  fond  of  the  phrase  sthfituA  £aritham 
and  the  like ;  see  I,  68P  i  ;  70,  3.  7.  The  same  phrase,  in 
one  or  the  other  of  its  possible  shapes,  has  evidently  been 
used  by  him  here  also.  The  plural  masculine  sthStr/n  is 
indeed  very  strange.  Possibly  J.  Wackernagel  is  right  In 
reading  sthituA  (Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXV,  287;  comp. 
Lanman,  p.  42-2);  the  reading  sth&trfu  may  be  due  to  the 
neighbourhood  of  parfn.  This  sort  of  blunder  is  very 
frequent  in  the  text  of  the  Rig-veda.  Prof.  Max  Muller 
suggests :  the  stabled  cattle  and  what  moves  about  (in  the 
meadows). 


86  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  7. 

Note  1.  On  vayiina,  comp.  Pischel,  Ved.  Studien,  I,  295. 
300.    c  The  thoughts  of  human  beings.'  M.  M. 
Note  2.  Sunidh  :  Pischel,  Ved.  Studien,  I,  32.  50. 
Note  3.  '  Which  lead  to  the  gods  ?'  M.  M. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Comp.  1, 26, 10,  note  i. — *  Beheld  the  seven  young 
rivers  coming  down  from  heaven/  M.  M. 

Note  2.  See  Delbruck,  Syntaktische  Forschungen,  I,  87. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  The  bird  seems  to  be  Agni. 

Note  2.  The  Padapd/Aa  gives  su-apaty£ni.  There  is  no 
doubt  a  word  su-apatyd,  'blessed  with  good  offspring/ 
This  is  frequently  used  together  with  such  nouns  as  rayi, 
kshaya,  ish  ;  it  stands  in  several  passages  by  the  side  of 
pra^vat  See  I,  117,  19  ;  II,  2,  12 ;  4,  8  ;  9,  5  ;  III,  3,  7  ; 
16,  i  ;  IV,  2,  ii ;  X,  30,  12.  But  from  this  word  should 
be  distinguished  sva-patyd,  derived  from  svd-pati  (X,  44, 
i,  &c.), '  a  man's  own  dominion/  or  '  own  rulership ; '  comp. 
£&spatyd.  This  word  is  found  here,  and  in  some  other 
passages,  for  instance,  VII,  91,  3.  vfcvd  ft  nira^  svapaty£ni 
fcakruA,  *  the  heroes  have  exercised  all  the  powers  of  their 
ov/ndominion ;'  VIII,  15, 10.  satr£  visvb  svapaty£ni  dadhishe, 
-'ihou  hast  assumed  (Indra)  all  powers  of  thy  own  dominion 
Altogether.' — Ludwig  translates  correctly,  'alle  selbsther- 
Uchkeit/ 

The  Taittirtya  Br&hma«a  reads  JkakruA  for  tasthiiA.  This 
teading  evidently  rests  on  Rig-veda  IV,  34,  9  ;  VII,  91,  3. 
There  is  no  reason,  however,  for  preferring  this  to  the 
traditional  reading  of  our  Rik-text 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.    The  sun  and  the  moon  ?    This  very  natural 
explanation  will  scarcely  be  modified  on  account  of  passages 
the  following  (Satapatha   Brahma^a   I,  6,  3,  38): 


MAJVDALA   I,    HYMN    J2.  87 

'  These  are  the  two  eyes  of  the  sacrifice,  the  (oblations  of 
butter  called)  A^yabhdgas.' 

Note  2.  Comp.  below,  73, 4. 

Note  3.  It  is  not  necessary  to  change  the  text ;  I  believe, 
however,  that  the  conjecture  adhdA  ksharanti  (they  stream 
downwards)  would  not  be  quite  improbable.  Comp.  my 
Prolegomena,  p.  369,  note  i. — The  subject  seems  to  be  the 
streams  of  sacrificial  libations. 

Note  4.  Both  expressions,  'the  red  ones'  and  'those 
which  are  directed  downwards/  are  feminine.  The  red 
ones  may  be  the  dawns.  But  these  cannot  be  called 
'  directed  downwards/  I  take,  therefore,  the  one  noun  as 
a  nominative,  the  other  as  an  accusative.  Cannot '  those 
which  are  directed  downwards '  be  the  libations  of  Ghrita. 
and  the  like,  which  the  dawns  see?— Prof.  Max  MUller 
translates :  '  People  recognised  the  red  netherward  mares 
(of  thec),  O  Agni.'  He  supplies  g\d\iJt  or  takes  arushiA  as 
mares,  cf.V,  56,  6. 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANDALA  I.  HYMN  73. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  19-20. 

1.  He  who  gives  vigour  like  wealth  acquired  by 
the  fathers1,  who  is  a  good  guide  like  the  instruction 
of  a  sage,  who  is  pleased  (by  worship)  like  a  comfort- 
ably resting  guest2,  (Agni)  has  crossed  the  (sacrificial) 
seat  of  the  worshipper  like  a  Hotrz. 

2.  He  who  being  truthful  like  the  god  Savitrz'1 
protects  by  his  power  of  mind  all  settlements2,  praised 
by  many  like  impetuous   splendour3,    the   truthful 
one  has  become  dear  like  vital  breath  and  worthy 
to  be  searched  for4. 

3 2.  (Agni)  who  possessing  every  refreshment  dwells 
on  the  earth  like  a  god,  like  a  king  who  has  made 
himself  (valiant)  friends2,  like  heroes  who  sit  in 
front  and  under  shelter,  like  a  blameless  wife  beloved 
by  her  husband — 

4.  Thee,  O  Agni,  who  art  constantly  kindled  in  the 
house,  men  have  worshipped  in  their  firm  dwellings. 
They  have  placed  in  him  rich  splendour1.     Be  thou 
possessed  of  all  life,  a  supporter  of  riches2. 

5.  May  the  liberal  givers,  O  Agni,  attain  nourish- 
ment, may  the  rich1  who  bestow  gifts  (on  us)  attain 
to  a  full  span  of  life.     May  we  win  in  battles  the 
booty  of  him  who  does  not  give1,  obtaining  a  (rich) 
share  before  the  gods,  that  we  may  win  glory2. 

6.  The  lowing  milch-cows  of  ^?/ta,  assigned  by 
Heaven,  were  exuberant  with  their  full  udders.    The 
rivers  imploring  the  favour  (of  the  gods)  from  afar 


MAATOALA   I,    HYMN    73.  89 

have  broken  through  the  midst  of  the  rock  with 
their  floods. 

7.  Imploring  favour  from  thee,  O  Agni,  the  wor- 
shipful (gods)  have  won  glory  in  the  sky.     They 
have  made  Night  and  Dawn  of  different  shapes; 
they  have  joined  the  black  and  red  colour  (to  Night 
and  Dawn). 

8.  And  may  we,  our  liberal  givers  and  ourselves, 
be   the   mortals  whom    thou   furtherest  to  wealth, 
O  Agni1.     Like  a  shadow  thou  followest  the  whole 
world,  having  filled   the  two  worlds  (Heaven  and 
Earth)  and  the  aira. 

9.  May  we,  O  Agni,  guarded  by  thee,  conquer  with 
our  racers  the  racers,  with  our  men-  the  mdn,  with 
our   heroes    the   heroes  (of  our   enemies).     Being 
masters  of  the  riches  which  their  fathers1  have  con- 
quered,  may   our    rich   (givers)   reach   a  hundred 
winters. 

10.  May  these  hymns,  O   Agni,  worshipper   (of 
the   gods),  be  grateful  to  thee,  to  thy  mind  and 
heart.     May  we  be   able  to  bridle  thee,  the  well- 
harnessed  wealth1,   acquiring  the  glory  which   the 
gods  have  assigned  us. 


NOTES. 

The  same  tf ishi  and  metre.— Verse  5  =  MS.  IV,  14, 15- 
Verse  7  =  TB.  II,  7, 12,  5.    Verse  10  =  MS.  IV,  14, 15- 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Agni  is  compared  to  wealth  acquired  by  the 
fathers,  being  himself  pitnvitta,  found  by  the  forefathers 


9O  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


of  the  BrShmanic  tribes.     Prof.  Max  Muller  proposes  to 
translate  :  '  wealth  inherited  from  the  fathers/ 
Note  2.  Comp.  VII,  42,  4,  and  see  also  VI,  16,  42. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  first  PAda  is  identical  with  the  fourth  of 
IX,  97,  48.  There  the  expressions  are  referred  to  Soma. 

Note  2.  On  vrgina,  comp.  the  quotations  given  above, 
I,  60,  3,  note  2  ;  cf.  IX,  87,  2.  vnginam  rdksham&#a^. 

Note  3.  Comp.  I,  64,  9.  am&tiA  n£  darratfi. 

Note  4.  Comp.  II,  4,  i  (see  below). 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  first  three  Pidas  are  nearly  identical  with 

III,  55,  »i. 

Note  2.  As  to  the  meaning  of  hitamitra,  comp.  X,  108,3. 
mitram  ena  dadhdma;  see  also  X,  132,5,  and  H.  O., 
Religion  des  Veda,  186,  note  i. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Comp.  I,  72,  10  (see  above). 

Note  2.  I  cannot  accept  Pischel's  translation  of  dhaniwaA 
ray!;*£m, '  der  Reichtum  fliessen  lasst '  (Vedische  Studien,  I, 
40). — 'Be'thou,  who  art  rich  in  all  food,  the  protector  of 
riches.'  M.  M. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  On  stirf  and  arf,  see  Bergaigne,  Rel.  V^d.  II, 
218  seq.  ArydA  may  also  be  nom.  pi.  and  mean  '  (we)  the 
poor  ones.' 

Note  2.  '  May  we  win  in  battles  the  booty  of  the  enemy, 
setting  aside  a  share  for  the  gods  to  their  glory/  M.  M. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  In  the  first  P£da  one  syllable  is  wanting. 
Perhaps  the  ace.  plur.  y£n  had  here  dissyllabic  value. 

Note  2.  The  last  Pdda  is  identical  with  the  second  of 
X,  139,  2. 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN    73.  91 

Verse  0. 
Note  1.  Comp.  above,  verse  i,  note  i. 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  Comp.  jakema  va^/naA  ydmam,  II,  5,  i  ;  ignc 
jakema  te  vayam  yamam  devasya  v^inaA,  III,  27,  3.  As 
sudhur  and  sudhura  are  epithets  of  horses,  the  poet  of 
course  could  say,  jakema  sudhuraA  yimam  te.  But  Agni 
is  not  only  a  horse;  he  is  also  wealth  (II,  i,  12;  IV,  2, 
5,  &c.).  The  combination  of  the  two  metaphors  exolains 
the  curious  expression  sudhuraA 


92  VED1C    HYMNS. 


MAAVJALA  I,  HYMN  74. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  21-22. 

1.  Going  forward  to  the  sacrifice  let  us  repeat 
a  prayer  to  Agni  who  hears  us,  may  he  be  afar 
or  with  us — 

2.  He  who  foremost1  in  ...  .2,  when  the  human 
tribes  met  (in  battle),  has  preserved  his  home  to  the 
worshipper. 

3.  And  let  the  people  say  '  Agni    is   born,   the 
slayer  of  foes   (or,   the  slayer  of  Vr/tra),   he  who 
wins  the  prize  in  every  battle/ 

4.  The  man  in  whose  home  thou  art  a  messenger, 
and  to  whose  sacrificial  food  thou  eagerly  comest 
for  feasting,  to  whose  worship  thou  impartest  won- 
derful power — 

5.  Such  a  man  the  people  call  a  giver  of  good 
oblations,  O  Angiras,  a  friend  of  the  gods,  O  son 
of  strength1,  and  a  possessor  of  a  good  Barhis  (or 
sacrificial  grass). 

6.  And    thou    shalt    conduct    them    hither,    the 
gods1,   that  we   may  praise   them,  that   they  may 
eagerly  come,  O  resplendent  one,  to  the  sacrificial 
offerings. 

7.  No  noise1  of  the  horses  of  the  moving  chariot2 
is  heard  any  way,  when  thou  goest  on  thy  messen- 
gership,  O  Agni. 

8.  When   guarded   by   thee   the   racer    becomes 
fearless;   the  worshipper,  O  Agni,  who  is  behind, 
gains  the  advantage1  over  him  who  is  ahead. 


MAJWALA    I,    HYMN    74.  93 

9.  And  thou  winnest,  O  Agni,  brilliant,  high 
bliss  in  strong  heroes  from  the  gods,  O  god,  for  the 
worshipper. 


NOTES. 

This  hymn  opens  the  section  ascribed  to  Gotama  Rahu- 
ga;/a,  and  belonging  indeed,  as  several  passages  show,  to 
the  family  of  the  Gotamas  (comp.  Zeitschrift  der  D.  Morg. 
Gesellschaft,  XLII,  221 ).  The  metre  is  G^yatri.— Verse  i  = 
VS.  Ill,  ii ;  TS.  I,  5,  5>  15  MS.  I,  5,  i  (I,  5,  £  6). 
Verses  1-3  =  SV.  II,  729.  730.  732.  Verse  3  =  TS.  Ill, 
5,  11,4;  MS.  IV,  10,  3. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Or  ptirvya//, ' the  old  Agni/  cf.  IX,  96, 10?  (M.  M.) 
Note  2.  I  have  left  untranslated  the  obscure  word 
sn?hitishu  (Saya;/a,  vadhakiriwishu).  It  seems  to  be  iden- 
tical with  sndhiti,  which  occurs  VIII,  96,  13.  dpa  sn&iiti// 
nrimar\£A  adhatta  (the  S&ma-veda  has  the  reading  snih°). 
Here  the  verb  apa  adhatta  (comp.  VI,  20,  5;  X,  164,  3) 
and  the  comparison  of  the  second  hemistichs  of  the  two 
following  verses,  14  and  15,  seem  to  show  that  the  word 
means  some  kind  of  hostile  powers,  which  would  do  very 
well  for  our  passage. — In  Taittiriya  Ara«yaka  IV,  23  the 
word  snfhiti  occurs  in  an  enumeration  of  the  'terrible 
substances'  (ghor£A  tanuvaA)  of  Agni. — Comp.  Ludwig, 
Ueber  die  neuesten  Arbeiten  auf  dem  Gebiete  der  JRig- 
veda-Forschung,  p.  93. 

Verse  5. 
Note  1.  See  above,  I,  26,  10,  note  i. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  See  Delbruck,  Syntaktische  Forschungen,  I,  20, 
in. 


94  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


Verse  7. 

Note  1.  On  upabdf,  which  literally  means  the  noise 
produced  by  going,  see  Joh.  Schmidt,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift, 
XXV,  55 ;  ,  Hiibschmann,  Das  indogermanische  Vocal- 
system,  124. 

Note  2.  Y6//  (comp.  X,  176,  3?)  seems  to  be  a  genitive 
of  yii, '  the  going  one ; '  comp.  sva-yii,  jubham-yii ;  Lanman, 
401. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  last  syllable  of  asthat  has  the  value  of  two 
syllables. 


MAtfDALA  I,    HYMN    7$.  95 

MAJV£>ALA   I,   HYMN   75. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  $3. 

1.  Accept    gladly    our    most    widely-sounding1 
speech,  the  most  agreeable  to  the  gods,  thou  who, 
in  thy  mouth,  offerest  the  sacrificial  food  (to  the 
gods). 

2.  And  may  we  then  pronounce  to  thee,  O  highest 
Angiras,  Agni,  best  worshipper,  a  prayer  agrees^ble 
to  thee  and  successful. 

3.  Who  is  thy  kinsman  among  men,  O  Agni  ? 
Who  performs  worship  to  thee1?     Who  art  thou, 
and  where  dost  thou  rest  ? 

4.  Thou,    O   Agni,   art   the   kinsman,   the  dear 
friend   ('  Mitra ')   of  men,  a  friend  who   is  to  be 
magnified  by  his  friends. 

5.  Sacrifice  for  us  to  Mitra  and  Varuwa.     Sacrifice 
to  the  gods,  (a  sacrifice  conforming  to)  the  great 
Rita  \     Sacrifice,  O  Agni,  to  thy  own  house. 

NOTES. 

The  same  jRishi  and  metre. — Verse  i  =  TB.  Ill,  6,  7,  i ; 
MS.  Ill,  10,  i  (IV,  13,  5).  Verses  3-5  =  SV.  II,  885-887. 
Verse  5  =  VS.  XXXIII,  3 ;  TB.  II,  7,  12,  i. 

Verse  1. 
Note  1.  Comp.  VI,  68,  9.  manma  . . .  saprdtha//. 

Verse  3. 

Vote  1.  May  we  not  take  dlni-adhvara  as  a  compound 
with  governed  final  member,  like  vidadvasu,  sadddyoni  &c.  ? 

Verse  5. 
Note  1.  Comp.  Gaedicke,  Der  Accusativ  im  Veda,  159. 


96  VEDIC  HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA   I,  HYMN   76. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  24. 

1.  What  supplication  is  to  thy  mind's  taste1? 
What    (pious)    thought    may    be,   O    Agni,    most 
agreeable  to  thee  ?    Or  who  has  won  for  himself 
thy  wisdom  by  sacrifices  ?     Or  with  what  thoughts 
may  we  worship  thee 2  ? 

2.  Come  hither,  Agni,  sit  down  here  as  a  Hotrt. 
Become  our  undeceivable  leader1.     May   Heaven 
and  Earth,  the  all-embracing,  protect  thee.     Offer 
the  sacrifice  to  the  gods  that'  they  may  be  highly 
gracious  to  us. 

3.  Burn  down  all  sorcerers,  O  Agni ;  become  a  pro- 
tector of  the  sacrifices  against  imprecations.     And 
conduct  hither  the  lord  of  Soma  (Indra)  with  his 
two  bay  horses.     We  have  prepared  hospitality  for 
him,  the  good  giver. 

4.  With  words  procuring  offspring,  carrying  thee 
(to  our  sacrifice)  with   my  mouth1,  I   call2  thee 
hither,  and  thou  shalt  sit  down  here  with  the  gods. 
Perform  the  service  of  a  Hotri  and  of  a  Potrz'3 
O  worshipful  one.     Be  thou  a  giver  and  a  father 4  of 
riches. 

5.  As  thou  didst  perform  sacrifice  to  the  gods 
with  the  sacrificial  food  of  the  wise  Manu  \  a  sage 
together  with  sages,  thus,  O  highly  truthful  Hot/7, 
perform  thou  the  sacrifice  to-day,  O  Agni,  with  thy 
joy-giving  sacrificial  ladle8. 


MAM) ALA   I,    HYMN    76.  97 


NOTES. 

The  same  JWshi.     Metre,  Trish/ubh. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  S&yaffa  takes  vira  in  the  sense  of  'holding  back' 
(comp,  I,  143,  5),  and  makes  manasa/;  depend  on  vdriya. 
He  says,  'he  agne  te  tava  manaso  varaya  nivara;/ayasii^sv 
avasth&paniya  kopetir  bhuvat  kidr/ram  upagamanaw  bha- 
vet.1     The  modern  translators  arc  evidently  right  in  as- 
signing to  vira  the  meaning  of  '  wish '  or  the  like  (comp. 
VII,  59,  a.  y&&  vaA  vdriya  dajati),  but  they  differ  as  to 
whether  manasaA  should  be  taken  as  belonging  to  varAya 
or   to    upeti/z.     Ludwig   translates,   'Welches  nahen   des 
geistes  ist  gegenstand  der  vval  dir?1  Grassmann,  'Welch 
Nahen  ist  nach  deines  Herzens  Wunsche  ? '     My  opinion 
is  that  the  tradition  of  the  text  is  not  quite  free  from 
suspicion.     My  doubts   are  based  on  VI,  21,  4.  kas  te 
yzgn&k  mdnase  jdm  variya,  '  What  sacrifice  (O  India)  is 
agreeable   to   thy   mind,  to   thy  wish?1     Here   we   have 
a  question  addressed  to  the  god,  beginning  with  kas  te, 
quite  similar  to  the  question  of  our  poet,  which  begins 
with  k£  te.     We  have  the  word  sim,  as  in  our  passage 
jAwtami.     We   have   vardya   exactly  as  in  our  passage. 
We  have,  by  the  side  of  varAya,  a  case-form  of  manas  as 
in  our  passage.     But  we  have  the  dative  manase  instead 
of  the  genitive  mdnasa//.     We   may  add   that  there   are 
some  other  passages  in  which  a  dative  of  a  similar  meaning 
stands  likewise  by  the  side  of  variya :   thus,  VIII,  82,3. 
iram  varaya  manyave  bhuvat  te  indra  jam  (comp.  bhuvat 
agm-  jawilama  in  our  passage)  hridt, '  May  it  be,  O  Indra, 
according  to  thy  wish  and  thy  mood,  may  it  be  agreeable 
to  thy  heart  ;f  VIII,  84,  4.  variya  deva  manyave,  -to  thy 
wish,  O  god,  to  thy  mood.1 

All  this  tends  to   raise  the  supposition    that    in   our 
L46]  H 


98  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


passage  also  we  should  read  manase  vdrdya,  which  datives 
seem  to  depend  on  jawtamd.  We  should  then  translate, 
'  What  supplication,  what  (pious)  thought  may  be,  O  Agni, 
most  agreeable  to  thy  mind  and  to  thy  wish  ? ' 

Note  2.  This  seems  to  be  a  P&da  of  the  defective  type, 
with  four  syllables  before  the  caesura  and  ending  as  if 
there  were  five  syllables  before  the  caesura;  comp.  my 
Prolegomena,  68  seq.  It  would  be  easy,  however,  to  restore 
the  normal  metrical  form,  for  instance,  by  reading  tiibhyam 
instead  of  te. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Pura^-et£,  literally, '  he  who  goes  before  some- 
body/ 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  It  would  be  unnatural  to  give  to  the  medium 
£  huve  the  passive  sense  and  not  to  translate  it,  as  it  must 
be  translated  in  so  many  passages,  '  I  call  (thee)  hither/ 
But,  if  so,  it  is  very  difficult  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that 
vdhni/j  SLS&  ('he  who  carries  somebody  with  his  mouth;' 
comp.  I,  129,  5;  VI,  n,  a;  16,  9;  VII,  16,  9;  X,  115,3; 
see  vol.  xxxii,  pp.  42  seq.)  refers  here  not  to  Agni,  the 
divine  carrier,  but  to  the  human  priest,  who  with  his 
mouth,  i.e.  by  his  songs,  carries  Agni  to  his  sacrifice. 
Vihni  is  used  very  frequently  indeed  of  human  worshippers, 
and  generally  the  transferring  of  epithets  of  the  divine 
priest  Agni  to  human  priests,  and  vice  versa,  is  quite  to 
the  taste  of  Vedic  poets. — Comp.  on  &  huve  and  vdhni/z 
is£,  Neisser,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XVIII,  320  seq.  ; 
XX,  69,  and  below,  I,  127,  8,  note  i;  S.B.E.,  vol.  xxxii, 
p.  42.  See  also  Delbriick,  Altindische  Syntax,  473,  who 
very  rightly  observes :  es  liegt  kein  Grund  vor,  dem  huve 
den  Character  einer  ersten  Person  zu  versagen. 

Note  2.  On  the  accent  of  huv£,  on  which  Ludwig  bases 
very  bold  conclusions,  see  Delbriick,  Altindische  Syntax, 
41  ;  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  XIII,  73. 

Note  3.  Comp.  X,  3,  3.-—  On  the  priestly  functions  of  the 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN    76.  99 

Potr*,  see  Weber,  Indische  Studien,.  X,  141,  366,  376  seq. ; 
H.  O  ,  Religion  des  Veda,  391. 

Note  4.  On  these  vocatives,  see  Delbruck,  Altindische 
Syntax,  106. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Manus  is  here  a  proper  name ;  comp.  Bergiigne, 
I,  65  seq.  On  his  priestly  character,  comp.  H.  O.,  Religion 
des  Veda,  275. 

Note  2.  On  ^uhvd,  comp.  Pischel,  Ved.  Studien,  II,  113. 
The  ladle  is  meant  for  the  flame  of  Agni. 


I  2 


IOO  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MAAT/?ALA   I,   HYMN    77. 
ASH7AKA  I,  AI>HVAYA  5,  VARGA  25. 

1.  How    shall    we    sacrifice    to    Agni  ?      What 
words,  agreeable   to   the   god,  shall   be   addressed 
to  him,  the  luminous  one,  who,  being  immortal  and 
righteous,  the  Hotrz",  the  best  sacrifices  conveys  the 
gods  to  the  mortals1  ? 

2.  Bring  hither  by  adoration  the   Hotrt  who  is 
most  beneficial  in  sacrifices  and  righteous.     When 
Agni  repairs  to  the  gods  on  behalf  of  the  mortal1, 
may  he   be   attentive   in   his   mind,   and   may   he 
perform  the  sacrifice2. 

3.  For  he  is  wisdom1,  he  is  manly,  he  is  straight- 
forward ;  like  Mitra  he  has  become  the  charioteer  of 
the    mysterious2.      Therefore     the    Aryan    clans3, 
longing  for  the  gods,  address  him,  the  wonderful 
one,  as  the  first  at  the  sacrifices. 

4.  May  that  Agni,  the  manliest  of  men,  triumphant 
with  riches  [?] l,  come  with  help  to  our  words,  to 
our  devotion,  and  (to  the  devotion)  of  those  most 
powerful    liberal   givers    who    bent   on   the   prize2 
have  constantly  stirred  up  our  prayers  'J. 

5.  Thus  Agni,  the  righteous  <Yatavedas,  has  been 
praised  by  the  priestly  Gotamas*.     May  he  augment 
their  splendour  a  ad  their  strength.     He  the  knowing 
one  gains  increase  according  to  his  desire. 

NOTES. 
The  same  Rtshi  and  metre. 

Verso  1. 

Note  1.  The  construction  is  yaA  kr/Vf 6ti  dev#n  mdrtyesnu. 
Comp.,  for  instance,  X,  40, i.  kdA  v«un  . .  .  hw/ute  sadhdsthe 


MAMDALA   I,   HYMN    77.  IOI 

1  Ludwig  translates:  der  unter  den  sterblichen  dcr 
unsterbliche  hotar  .  .  .  schafft  die  getter.—4  Could  it  be 
ishkrmrti?'  M.  M. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  third  P&da  of  this  verse  has  nine  syllables 
instead  of  eleven.  If  we  read,  as  several  times  must  be 
done,  mdrtyaya  for  mdrtiya,  we  get  ten  syllables,  and  the 
P&da  may  belong  to  the  defective  type  mentioned  above, 
76,  i,  note  2. 

Note  2.  Ka,  seems  to  me  to  stand  here,  as  it  several 
times  does,  in  the  first  of  the  members  of  sentence  con* 
nected  by  it  See  Delbriick,  Altindische  Syntax,  475. 
Prof.  Max  Muller  believes  that  it  depends  on  ydt:  ydt 
ve//,  yat  £a  sA  WdhSti,  '  Bring  hither  the  Hotri  ...  so 
that  Agni  may  invite  the  gods  . . .  and  that  he  (the  mortal 
or  Agni)  may  be  attentive,  &c.' 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Grassmann  gives  to  knitu  here  and  in  a  number 
of  other  passages  the  meaning  'der  Starke/  This  is  in- 
admissible; comp.  Bergaigne,  III,  304. 

Note  2.  Here  we  have  again  a  P£da-  of  ten  syllables 
(see  verse  2,  note  i),  unless  bhflt  has  dissyllabic  value. 
Prof.  Max  Muller  translates  this  Pdda:  'like  a  friend  he  is 
the  charioteer  of  enormous  wealth/ 

Note  3.  Comp.  I,  96,  3  (see  below). 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  On  ri^tdas,  comp.  above,  I,  a6, 4,  note  i. 

Note  2.  Comp.  I,  92,  8.  There  Ushas  receives  the 
epithet  v^aprasfttd. 

Note  3.  Comp.  VII,  87,  3.  spfca*  VAru«asya  .  .  .  yi 
ishdyanta  minma. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  This  is  again  a  PAda  often  syllables. 


IO2  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


I,    HYMN    78. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  26. 

1 .  O  G&tavedas,  who  dwellest  among  all  tribes,  we 
the  Gotamas  (praise)  thee  with  our  song — we  praise 
thee  aloud  with  (songs  full  of)  splendour. 

2.  Gotama1    desirous   of  riches   exalts   thee,   as 
thou   art,   with  his  song.      We   praise  thee   aloud 
with  (songs  full  of)  splendour. 

3.  We  call  thee,  such  as  thou  art,  the  highest 
winner  of  booty,  as  Angiras  did.     We  praise  thee 
aloud  with  (songs  full  of)  splendour. 

4.  (We  praise)   thee,   the  greatest  destroyer  of 
enemies  (or,  of  Vrrtra),  who  hurlest  the  Dasyus 
away — we  praise  thee,  such  as  thou  art,  aloud  with 
(songs  full  of)  splendour. 

5.  We   the  RahOgawas1  have   recited   a   honey- 
sweet  speech  to  Agni.     We  praise  thee  aloud  with 
(songs  full  of)  splendour. 


NOTES. 
The  same  jRtshi.    Metre,  GAyatrl. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.    This    probably   means,    'the    descendant    of 
Gotama.'    See  Zeitschrift  der  D.  Morg.  Gesellschaft,  XLII, 

209. 

Verse  6. 

Rote  1.  The  Rahftgaaas  seem  to  be  a  branch  of  the 
Gotamas;  see  Awal&yana  Srautasfttra  XII,  11,  i. 


MAM) ALA   I,    HYMN    79.  1 03 

MAM9ALA    I,    HYMN    79. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  27-28. 

I. 

1.  The   golden-haired   in   the   expanse1   of   the 
atmosphere,  the  roaring2  snake,  is  hasting  (through 
the  air)   like  the   wind ;    the   brightly   resplendent 
watcher  of  the  dawn 3,  he  who  is  like  the  glorious, 
ever  active  and  truthful  (goddesses)4. 

2.  By  thy  goings  the  beautifully-winged  (birds) 
were  disparaged l ;  the  black  bull 2  has  roared,  when 
here8  (all  this  happened).     He  has  come  as  if  with 
the  bounteous   smiling  (women) 4,     The  mists  fly, 
the  clouds  thunder. 

3.  When  they  have  led  him,  who  swells1  with  the 
milk  of  y?*'ta,  on  the  straightest  paths  of  7?zta,  then 
Aryaman,  Mitra,  and  Varu#a,  he  who  walks  round 
the   earth2,  fill  the  leather-bag  (the  cloud)  in  the 
womb  of  the  lower  (atmosphere  [?]) 3. 

II. 

4.  Agni,  who  art   lord   of  booty,   rich    in  cows, 
young  son  of  strength  a,  bestow  on  us,  O  <7atavedas, 
great  glory. 

5.  Being  lighted,  a  Vasu,  a  sage,  Agni  who  is  to 
be  magnified  by  (pious)  words,  O  (god)  with  many 
faces,  shine  to  us  so  that  riches  may  be  ours. 

6.  Reigning l  by  night  by  thy  own  power,  O  Agni* 
and  at  the  break  of  dawn,  O  god  with  sharp  teeth, 
burn  against  the  sorcerers. 


IO4  VED1C    HYMNS. 


III. 

7.  Bless  us,   O  Agni, .  with  thy  blessings,  when 
our  Gayatra  song  is  brought  forward  (to  thee),  thou 
to  whom  reverence  is  due  in  all  our  prayers. 

8.  Bring   us   wealth,    O    Agni,   which    may    be 
always  conquering,  excellent  and  invincible1  in  all 
battles. 

9.  Bestow  on  us,  Agni,  through  thy  kindness l 
wealth  which  may  last  all  our  life2,  and  have  mercy3 
on  us  that  we  may  live. 

IV. 

10.  O    Gotama  19   bring   forward  purified  words, 
bring   songs   to   the   sharp-flaming   Agni,  desirous 
of  his  favour. 

u.  May  he  who  tries  to  harm  us,  whether  nigh 
or  afar,  fall  down.  Do  thou  lead  us  alone  to  in- 
crease. 

12.  The  thousand-eyed  Agni,  who  dwells  among 
all  tribes,  scares  away  the  Rakshas.  The  praise- 
worthy Hotrz  (Agni)  is  praised l. 


NOTES. 

The  same  jfrshi.  Metre,  1-3  Trish/ubh ;  4-6  Ushwih ; 
7-12  Gdyatri. 

What  in  the  traditional  text  is  one  hymn,  consists  really 
of  four  independent  hymns  of  three  verses  each.  This  is  to 
be  concluded  from  the  well-known  laws  of  arrangement  of 
the  Sawhitd,  and  is  confirmed  by  the  change  of  metre 
and  by  the  reception  of  two  of  the  four  hymns  into  other 
Vedic  Sawhitfis :  the  second  (verses  4-6)  is  found  in  the 
Sima-veda  II,  911-913 ;  V4g.  Saa*hit4  XV,  35-37  ;  Taitt 


MAMPALA   I,    HYMN    79.  105 

IV,  4,  4>  5  5  Maitr.  Sawhitd  II,  13,  8;  the  third 
(verses  7-9)  in  the  S£ma-veda  II,  874-876.  Besides,  verses 
1-2  occur  Taitt.  Sawh.  Ill,  i,  11,  4-5;  verse  2,  Maitr. 
Sawh.  IV,  12,  5;  verse  4,  S&ma-veda  I,  99;  verses  8,  9, 
Maitr.  Sawh.  IV,  12,  4;  verse  9,  Maitr.  Sawh.  IV,  10,  6 ; 
Taitt.  Br.  II,  4,  5,  3- 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  As  to  visara  I  think  we  should  compare  VII, 
36,  i.  vi  sSnunS.  pr/thivf  sasre  urvf,  'The  wide  earth  has 
expanded  with  her  surface/  Prof.  Max  Muller  observes 
with  regard  to  this  Pdda:  when  the  sky  sends  forth  the 
rain,  the  lightning  appears. 

Note  2.  On  dhuni,  see  vol.  xxxii,  p.  112  (I,  64,  5),  and 
Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  268.  I  do  not  take  the  word 
with  Geldner  for  an  epithet  of  V£ta,  the  wind,  <but  of  the 
snake,  i.  e.  Agni,  who  very  probably  is  to  be  understood 
here  as  ia  the  whole  Tn'/f'a,  as  the  fire  of  the  lightning. 

Note  3.  Perhaps  we  have  here  again  a  Pada  of  ten 
syllables,  of  the  type  which  occurs  several  times  in  the 
preceding  hymns.  Or  possibly  the  text  should  be  corrected : 
ushasa/*  na  naveda/*,  '  a  knowcr  (of  sacrifices,  comp.  IV,  23, 
4;  V,  12,  3)  like  the  dawns/  or  ushas&m  navcdaA  (with 
dissyllabic  -am), '  a  knower  of  the  dawns.' — See  Lanman, 
P-  565. 

Note  4.  The  waters?     Or  the  dawns? 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  the  nasalization  of  aminantan  in  the  Saw- 
hit4  text,  see  my  Prolegomena,  p.  471. 

Note  2.  I.  e.  Par^anya,  the  thundering  cloud.  Comp.  V, 
83,  i ;  VII,  101,  i  ;  Bergaign^  Rel.  Vedique,  III,  27  seq. 

Note  3.  Regarding  yadi  idam,  cornp,  IV,  5,  11.  There 
the  verb  belonging  to  yddi  must  be  supplied ;  in  the  sam^r 
way  our  passage  must  be  interpreted  also,  unless  we  resort 
to  changing  the  text  and  accentuating  the  verb  noniva,  in 
which  case  the  translation  would  be, c  when  the  black  bull 
has  bellowed  here.' 


106  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Note  4.  The  women  may  be  the  showers  of  rain.  Or 
they  could  be  understood  as  the  dawns,  comp.  ushdsa^ 
ndvedd/*,  verse  i. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  I  propose  to  read  pfyanam. 

Note  2.  On  pdri^man,  see  Joh.  Schmidt,  Kuhn's  Zeit- 
schrift,  XXV,  86 ;  Bartholomae,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage, 
XV,  27  seq. ;  Bergaigne,  Rel.  V^d.  II,  505 ;  and  compare 
especially  X,  93,  4.  The  word  evidently  is  connected  not 
with  the  verb  gam,  but  with  ksham, '  the  earth/  of  which 
we  find  the  genitives  gmaA  andgma/t. 

Note  3.  It  does  not  seem  probable  to  me  that  upara 
means  here  the  lower  pressing-stone,  as  Grassmann,  Ludwig, 
and  Pischel  (Vedische  Studien,  I,  109)  suggest  (Grass- 
mann :  den  Schlauch  beim  untern  Pressstein.  Ludwig  :  den 
schlauch  ...  an  des  steines  ort.  Pischel :  sie  legen  das 
Fell  mitten  auf  den  Stein).  I  propose  to  supply  r^fasaA  ; 
comp.  I,  62,  5.  ragdJt  liparam;  IV,  i,  n.  rd^asa//  asyd 
y6nau,  and  especially  IV,  17,  14,  where  we  find  the  '  womb 
of  the  atmosphere '  (ra^asaA  asyd  y6nau)  mentioned,  quite 
as  in  our  passage,  together  with  the  leather-bag  (tva£),  i.  e. 
the  cloud. — Bergaigne  (Rel.  V6d.  II,  505)  translates  and 
explains,  'arrose  la  peau  dans  le  sdjour  de  1'inferieur,' 
c'est-i-dire  fait  couler  les  eaux  du  del  pour  1'Agni 
terrestre. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  See  above,  I,  26,  10,  note  i. 

Veree  6. 

Note  1.  R^g-an  seems  to  be  the  participle  of  r&g- ;  comp. 
VIII,  19,  31.  kshapd^  vdstushu  r&^asi.  Now  it  is  very  im- 
probable that  of  this  participle  a  vocative  should  occur; 
see  Lanman,  509.  I  believe,  therefore,  that  we  should 
accentuate  r%an  (comp.  the  remarks  of  Bartholomae, 
Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XV,  204). 

Verse  8. 
Note  1.  Comp.  IX,  63,  n.  rayim  .  . .  dush/aram. 


MAJVDAIA   I,    HYMN    ^<).  1 07 


Verse  9. 

Note  1.  As  to  su^etund,  comp.  I,  159,  5. 
Note  2.  Comp.  VI,  59,  9.  rayfm  vlrvSyuposhasam. 
Note  3.  Mdrafikam  is  a  second  object  of  dhehi,  not  an 
epithet  of  rayfm.     Comp^VIII,  7,  30. 

Verse  10. 
Note  1.  Comp.  above,  78,  2,  note  i. 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  On  the  use  of  the  middle  of  gri  with  passive 
meaning,  comp.  Delbriick,  Altindische  Syntax,  264. 


IO8  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MAJV£>ALA   I,   HYMN   94. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  6,  VARGA  30-32. 

1.  We  have  sent  forward1  with  thoughtful  mind 
this  song  of  praise   like  a  chariot   to  the  worthy 
G&tavedas.     For  blissful  is  his  care  for  us  in  his 
companionship.     Agni !    May  we  suffer  no  harm  in 
thy  friendship. 

2.  He  prospers  for  whom  thou  performest   the 
sacrifice ;     he     dwells     untouched l ;     he     acquires 
abundance   of  heroes.     He  is  strong ;(  no  distress 
overtakes  him.     Agni  I   May  we  suffer  no  harm  in 
thy  friendship. 

3.  May  we  be  able  to  light  thee.     Prosper  our 
prayers.     The  gods  eat  the  sacrificial  food  that  is 
offered  in  thee.     Bring  thou  hither  the  Adityas,  for 
we  long  for  them.     Agni !    May  we  suffer  no  harm 
in  thy  friendship. 

4.  Let  us  bring  fuel  and  prepare  sacrificial  gifts 
for  thee,  awaking  thy  attention  at  each  joint1  (of 
the  month).      Help  forward  our  prayers  that  we 
may  live.     Agni!    May  we  suffer  no  harm  in  thy 
friendship. 

5.  (He  is)  the  shepherd  of  the  clans1;  by  his 
nightly  light  the  creatures  walk,  the  two-footed  and 
four-footed.     Thou  art  the  bright,  great  splendour 
of  dawn.     Agni !    May  we  suffer  no  harm  in  thy 
friendship. 

6.  Thou  art  the  Adhvaryu  and  the  ancient  Hotr*, 
the    Prajistn'1,    the    Pom,    the    born    Purohita2. 
Knowing  the  duties  of  every  priest  thou  givest 


MAM) ALA   I,    HYMN   94.  IO9 

success,  O  wise  one.     Agni!    May  we  suffer  no 
harm  in  thy  friendship. 

7.  Thou  who  art  beautiful,  of  like  appearance  on 
all  sides,  thou  shinest  forth  even   when   afar  like 
lightning.      Thou   seest,   O    god,   even    over    the 
darkness  of  night.     Agni !    May  we  suffer  no  harm 
in  thy  friendship. 

8.  May  the  chariot  of  him  who  presses  Soma, 
be  to  tHe  front *,  O  gods.     May  our  curse  overcome 
the  malicious  ones.     Accept  (O  gods)  this  prayer 
and  make   it   prosper.     Agni !    May  we  suffer  no 
harm  in  thy  friendship. 

9.  Strike  away  with  thy  weapons  those  who  curse 
us,  the   malicious   onejs,  all  ghouls,  be  they   near 
or  afar.     And  make  a  good  path  to  the  sacrifice  of 
him  who  praises  thee.     Agni !    May  we  suffer  no 
harm  in  thy  friendship. 

10..  When  thou  hast  yoked  to  thy  chariot  the 
two  ruddy,  red  horses,  whom  the  wind  drives 
forward,  and  thy  roaring  is  like  that  of  a  bull, 
then  thou  movest  the  trees  with  thy  banner  of 
smoke1.  Agni!  May  we  suffer  no  harm  in  thy 
friendship. 

n.  And  when  thy  grass-consuming  sparks  are 
scattered,  the  winged  (birds)1  also  fear  the  noise. 
Then  all  goes  well  with  thee  and  thy  chariots, 
Agni !  May  we  suffer  no  harm  in  thy  friendship. 

12.  He  makes  Mitra  and  Varu«a  get  refreshing 
drink.     He  mysteriously  turns  away  the  anger  of 
the  Maruts1.     Be  merciful  towards  us.     May  their 
mind  be  again  (as  it  was  before).     Agni !   May  we 
suffer  no  harm  in  thy  friendship. 

13.  Thou  art  god  of  the  gods,  a  wonderful  Mitra 
(i.,e.  friend,  of  the  gods)1.     Thou  art  the  Vasu 


IIO  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


of  the  Vasusi  welcome  at  the  sacrifice.  May  we  be 
under  thy  most  wide-reaching  protection.  Agni! 
May  we  suffer  no  harm  in  thy  friendship. 

14.  That   is   thy  glorious    (nature)    that  when 
kindled  in  thy  own  house,  and  fed  with  Soma,  thou 
art  awake l,  the  most  merciful  one.    Thou  bestowest 
treasures   and  wealth   on    the  worshipper.     Agni! 
May  we  suffer  no  harm  in  thy  friendship. 

15.  May  we  be  of  those  to  whom  thou,  O  pos- 
sessor of  beautiful  wealth,  O  Aditi  \  art  pleased  to 
grant  sinlessness  in  health  and  wealth  2,  and  whom 
thou  wilt  quicken-  with  glorious  strength  and  with 
abundance  of  progeny. 

1 6.  Do  thou,  O  Agni,  thou  who  knowest  (how  to 
grant)  happiness,  prolong  our  life  here,  O  God! 
May  Mitra  and  Vanma  grant  us  this,  may  Aditi, 
the  Sindhu,  the  Earth,  and  the  Sky1! 


NOTES. 

This  hymn  with  the  whole  collection  which  it  opens  is 
ascribed  to  Kutsa  Angirasa.  The  metre  is  £agati ;  the 
two  last  verses,  as  is  frequently  the  case  in  £agati-hymns 
(see  H.  O.,  Prolegomena,  144  seq.),  are  composed  in 
Trish/ubh.  The  hymn  has  been  translated  by  Prof.  Max 
Miiller,  Physical  Religion,  p.  173. — Verse  I  =  MS.  II,  7, 3  ; 
SV.  I,  66 ;  AV.  XX,  13,  3.  Verses  if  3,  4  =  SV.  II,  414- 
416.  415- 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  translates,  'Let  us  build  up 
this  hymn  of  praise.'  To  me  it  rather  seems  that  the 
reading  should  be,  as  Boehtlingk-Roth  have  proposed,  s.  v. 
sam-hi,  sdm  ahema.  Comp.  1, 61, 4.  asmaf  ft  u  st6mam  sdm 


MAJTOALA    I,    HYMN   94.  Ill 

hinomi  rdtham  nd  tdshtfl-iva, '  to  him  I  send  forward  a  song 
of  praise  as  a  carpenter  (fits  out)  a  chariot'  Compare 
besides,  IX,  71,  5 ;  I,  184,  4  ;  II,  19,  7  ;  VI,  45,  H,  &c. 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  Comp.  vol.  xxxii,  p.  65,  I,  37,  i  note. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Parvan,  *  joint,'  seems  to  refer  here,  as  it  very 
frequently  does  in  the  later  Vedic  and  post-Vedic  texts,  to 
the  joints  of  the  month,  the  sacrificial  days  of  the  full  and 
change  of  the  moon  (the  parva#a-sacrifices).  As  to  the 
temporal  use  of  the  instrumental,  comp.  ritunb  and  ritubhlA  ; 
Delbruck,  Altindische  Syntax,  p.  130. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Ludwig  proposes  the  correction  of  vu£m  gop£A 
into  vis&m  gopa/*  (genitive).  But  I  think  it  will  be  suffi- 
cient to  write  asya  accented.  As  to  vis&m  gopHA,  comp. 

96»4- 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  Prasastri  (or  Upavaktr*),  literally,  'the 
commznder,'  is  the  same  priest  who  is  more  usually 
designated  as  the  Maitnivaru#a.  All  the  priests  mentioned 
here  (with  the  exception  of  the  Purohita,  see  next  note) 
belong  to  the  ancient  system  of  the  '  seven  Hotns,'  enum- 
erated, for  instance,  II,  i,  2.  Comp.  H.  O.,  Religion  des 
Veda,  383  seq. 

NotjB  2.  The  Purohita  or  house-priest  does  not,  pro- 
perly speaking,  belong  to  the  number  of  the  priests 
officiating .  at  a  sacrifice  (ri\.v\gaK)9  though  of  course  the 
Purohita  could  act 'as  a  ritvig.  Geldner  (Vedische  Studien, 
II,  144)  seems  to  be  wrong  in  concluding  from  our  passage 
that  'already  in  the  Rig-veda  the  Purohita,  being  the 
superintendent  of  the  holy  service,  was  a  real  rhv\g,  i.  e. 
officiating  priest'  Comp.  H.  O.,  loc.  cit,  374  seq. ;  379, 
note  2. 


112  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  8. 
Note  1.  On  pflrva//,  comp.  I,  34,  10;  V,  31,  11. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  The  regular  accentuation  of  a  determinative 
compound  ('banner  of  smoke')  would  be  dhumaketiind. 
But  it  is  very  natural  that  the  traditional  text  gives  the 
accent  of  the  Bahuvrihi  ('he  whose  banner  is  smoke') 
which  so  frequently  occurs. 

Verse  11. 
Note  1.  As  to  patatrfoaA,  comp.  above,  I,  58,  5. 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  Most  probably  .the  meaning  is  not  that  the 
Maruts  are  expected  to  turn  away  the  anger  of  somebody 
else,  but  thafthe  anger  of  the  Maruts  shall  be  turned  away 
by  Agni.  Comp.  I,  171,  i;  VI,  66,  5;  VII,  58,  5; 
Bergaigne,  Religion  Vedique,  II,  401.  It  seems,  conse- 
quently, that  we  should  read  avayAt£. — On  avaydtahe&A, 
scil.  Indra,  see  vol.  xxxii,  p.  292  (I,  171,  6),  and  also  IV,  i, 
4;  VI,  66,  5. 

The  genitives  Mitrdsya  Varu«asya  may  be  understood 
as  depending,  together  with  Mariitdm,  on  he/a^.  In  this 
case  the  translation  would  be:  'He  mysteriously  turns 
away  the  anger  of  Mitra  and  Varuwa  and  of  the  Maruts  in 
order  that  (men)  may  get  refreshing  drink.1 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  On  the  frequent  identification  of  Agni  with 
Mitra,  see  Bergaigne,  Religion  Vedique,  III,  134  seq. 

Verse  14. 

Note  1.  On  the  root  far  used  with  regard  to  Agni,  see 
the  remarks  of  Dr.  Neisser  in  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XIII, 
297  seq. 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN    94.  113 

Verse  15. 

Note  1.  Agni  is  invoked  here  by  the  name  of  Aditi,  with 
an  evident  allusion  to  the  goddess  Aditi,  as  granting  freedom 
from  bonds,  which  is  the  original  meaning  of  Aditi.  Comp. 
M.  M.,  vol.  xxxii,  pp.  241,  260,  262  ;  H.  O.,  Religion  des 
Veda,  p.  204. 

Note  2.  Comp.  Ill,  54,  19.  On  sarvatat  (sarvatdti),  see 
M.  M/s  note,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  260,  note  a,  and  compare 
Darmesteter,  Haurvat£/  et  Ameretd/,  p.  80.  See  also 
La'nman,  p.  386. 

Verse  16. 

Note  1.  The  last  hemistich  is  the  regular  conclusion  of 
the  Kutsa  hymns. 


[46] 


114  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANUAL  A  I,  HYMN  95. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  7,  VARGA  1-2. 

1.  Two  (sisters)  of  different  shapes  wander  along, 
pursuing  a   good   aim.      The   one   and   the   other 
suckles  the  calf1.     With  the  one  (the  calf)  is  golden, 
moving  according  to  its  worit2.     With  the   other 
it  is  seen  clear,  full  of  fine  splendour. 

2.  The    ten    unwearied l    young    women 2    have 
brought  forth  this  widely-spread  germ  of  Tvash//73. 
Him,  the  sharp-faced  (Agni)  who  is  endowed  with 
his   own   splendour,  the   shining  one,  they4  carry 
around  among  men. 

3.  They  celebrate  his  three  births:   one  in  the 
sea,  one   in  heaven,  one  in  the  waters1.     In  the 
eastern   region2   he    commanding    determines    the 
seasons  of  the  dwellers   on   earth  by  his   present 
power 3. 

4.  Who  among  you  has  understood  this  hidden 
(god)  ? l      The   calf  has  by   itself  given   birth   to 
its  mothers2.     The  germ  of  many  (mothers),  the 
great   seer,   moving   by   his    own   strength,    comes 
forward  from  the  lap  of  the  active  ones 3. 

51.  The  fair  (child  Agni)  grows  up  visibly  in 
them  in  his  own  glory,  standing  erect  in  the  lap 
of  the  down-streaming  (waters).  Both  (Heaven  and 
Earth)  fled  away  in  fear  of  (the  son  of)  Tvash/^'2, 
when  he  was  born,  but  turning  back  they  caress 
the  lion. 

6.  They  caress  him  both,  like  two  kind  women; 
like  lowing  cows  they  have  approached  him  in 
their  own  way.  He  has  become  the  lord  of  all 


MAJVDALA   I,   <HYMN    95.  115 

powers  \  he  whom  they  anoint  with  sacrificial  gifts 
from  the  right  side 2. 

7.  He    raises    his    arms   again   and   again    like 
Savitri1.      He    the    terrible    pressing    on    ranges 
both   wings  2   (of   his   army).      He   raises   up   his 
bright   vesture   from    himself   alone3.       He    gives 
new  garments  to  his  mothers. 

8.  He   assumes  his   fierce   appearance  which   is 
above  (i.e.  the  lightning?),  being  united  with  the 
cows  l,  the  waters  in  his  seat.     The  prayer  purifies 
the  bottom  of  the  seer  (?)  -.     This  was  the  meeting 
among  the  gods3. 

9.  The   wide   space   encompasses   thy  base,  the 
resplendent  foundation1  of  the  buffalo.    Agni !  Being 
kindled  protect  us  with  all  thy  undeceivable  guard- 
ians who  are  endowed  with  their  own  splendour. 

10.  On  the  dry  ground  he  produces  a  stream1, 
a  course,  a  flood.    With  his  bright  floods  he  reaches 
the  earth.     Whatever  is  old  he  receives  into  his 
belly.     He  moves  about  within  the  young  sprout- 
ing grass2. 

11.  Thus,  O  Agni,  being  strengthened  by  fuel, 
shine  thou  to  us  with  wealth-giving  shine,  O  purifier, 
for  the  sake  of  glory.    May  Mitra  and  Varuwa  grant 
us  this,  may  Aditi,  Sindhu,  the  Earth,  and  the  Sky ! 

NOTES. 

The  same  -foshi.  The  metre  is  Trish/ubh.— Verse  i  = 
VS.  XXXIII,  5;  TB.  II,  7,  12,  a.  Verse  a  =  TB.  II,  8, 
7,  4.  Verse  5  =  TB.  II,  8,  7,  4 ;  MS.  IV,  14,  8. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  two  females  are  evidently  Night  and  Dawn 

I  2 


1  1 6  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


(comp.  below,  96,  5).  The  calf  is  Agni  whose  bright 
appearance  by  night  is  contrasted  here  with  his  paler 
splendour  by  day  (comp.  below,  127,  5).  The  explanation 
of  Professor  Hillebrandt  (Vedische  Mythologie,  I,  331)  that 
'  das  von  ihnen  wechselnd  gesaugte  Kalb  der  bald  als  Sonne 
bald  als  Mond  erscheinende  Lichtgott,  d.  h.  Agni  ist,'  does 
not  seem  convincing  to  me. 

Note  2.  I  cannot  follow  Hillebrandt  (loc.  cit.  335)  in 
translating  svadh£v4n  '  an  Labung  reich/ 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  feminine  nominatives  in  -£sa/t  like  dtandrdsa//, 
see  Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  362. 

Note  2.  The  ten  young  women  are  the  fingers  which 
produce  the  fire  by  the  attrition  of  woods. 

Note  3.  On  Tvash/r/  as  the  father  of  Agni,  see  Hille- 
brandt, Vedische  Mythologie,  I,  522  seq.;  Bergaigne,  Rel. 
V&L,  III,  47  seq. 

Note  4.  Hillebrandt  (loc.  cit.)  takes  the  ten  fingers  as 
the  subject  of  pari  nayanti,  which  does  not  seem  probable. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  It  is  surprising  that  Agnifs  birth  in  the  sea  and 
his  birth  in  the  waters  are  distinguished.  The  poet's 
meaning  is  not  quite  clear.  Prof.  Max  Muller  thinks  of 
the  rising  sun  and  the  lightning  in  the  clouds.  Comp. 
H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  107. 

Note  2.  We  ought  to  read  pradkam ;  comp.  IV,  29,  3 ; 
IX,  111,3. 

Note  3.  Comp.  X,  85,  18,  where  it  is  said  of  the  moon 
that  she  '  is  born  again,  determining  the  seasons.'  Thus  it 
is  possible  that  the  poet  understands  here  Agni  as  dwelling 
in  the  moon  as  light.  Comp.  on  this  identification  Bergaigne, 
I,  159,  and  Hillebrandt,  Ved.  Mythologie,  I,  330  seq.  But 
this  interpretation  of  our  passage  is  by  no  means  certain. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Possibly  we  should  correct  V&h  iddm  vaA  mnyim\ 
comp.  VII,  56,  4 ;  61,  5.  The  translation  would  be : '  Who 


MAtfDALA  I,    HYMN    95.  II J 

among  you  has  understood  this  secret?' — the  secret  that 
a  calf  should  give  birth  to  cows. 

Note  2.  In  my  opinion  the  mothers  are  the  waters ;  the 
calf  is  Agni.  The  meaning  must  be,  consequently,  that,  as 
Agni  is  born  from  the  waters  thus  the  waters  are  born 
from  Agni.  Agni — we  may  try  to  interpret  the  poet's 
meaning — sends  his  smoke  to  the  sky.  The  smoke  is 
changed  to  clouds  ;  the  clouds  send  forth  water.  Exactly 
the  same  meaning  seems  to  be  expressed  in  I,  164,  51. 
Comp.  also  Manu  III,  76.  agnau  pr^st^hutiA  samyag 
adityam  upatish/Aate,  ddity^"  '^eiyate  vrzshtir  vr/sh/er 
anna/;/  tata//  p\'ag£/i. — Prof.  Max  Miiller  observes:  'The 
mothers  are  day  and  night,  or  heaven  and  earth.  The 
calf,  the  son,  Agni,  being  born  of  the  night  gives  birth  to 
the  day,  and  being  born  of  the  day  (in  the  evening)  gives 
birth  to  the  night  Or  it  may  be  that  Agni,  light,  makes 
Dyaus  and  Przthivi  to  be  visible/ — Prof.  Hillebrandt's 
interpretation  of  our  verse  is  quite  different ;  see  Vedischc 
Mythologie,  I,  335. 

Note  3.  I.  e.  the  fire  is  born  from  the  waters. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Hillebrandt,  Ved.  Myth.,  I,  371,  523. 

Note  2.  I.e.  the  son  of  Tvash/rz  (see  above,  verse  2) 
considered  as  identical  with  his  father.  Comp.  Bergaigne, 
III,  47,  and  see  also  Aufrecht,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  I,  356. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  On  daksha  and  its  relation  to  krdtu,  comp. 
Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  267. 

Note  2.  The  poet  seems  to  play  upon  words ;  '  power ' 
is  daksha, '  from  the  right  side*  dakshiwata//  (i.e.  approach- 
ing respectfully,  dakshiwtkn'tya). 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Bergaigne,  Rel.  V£d.,  Ill,  46- 
Note  2.  Observe  the  dual  form  steau  ending  in  -au,  not 
in  -4.     Comp.  Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  576.    Prof.  Max 


Il8  VEDIC    HYltfNS. 


Muller  translates  here:  '  He  the  terrible  tries  and  stretches 
out  the  hems  of  his  sleeves.'    This  may  indeed  be  the 
meaning  of  si£. 
Note  3.  See  Geldner,  Vcdische  Studien,  II,  189. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  cows  of  course  are  intended  for  the  sacrificial 
food  coming  from  the  cow,  such  as  milk  and  butter. 

Note  2.  The  two  nominatives,  kavfA  and  dhi7/,  can 
scarcely  be  right  The  subject  seems  to  be  the  prayer  which 
cleanses,  as  it  were,  Agni,  and  thus  augments  his  splendour 
(comp.  IV,  15,  6  ;  VIII,  103,  7).  Possibly  we  should  read 
kave^  budhndm.  Comp.,  however,  IX,  47, 4.  svayam  kavi'/j 
vidhartdri  vfpr£ya  rdtnam  \kkh&\\  yadi  marmngyate  dhfya/*. 
In  this  difficult  verse  so  much  is  clear  that  the  seer  (kavi'/j) 
is  subject,  and  that  he  is  stated  to  purify  the  prayers. 

Note  3.  The  meaning  seems  to  be  that  at  the  sacrificial 
fire  all  gods  assemble. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  On  dh£man,  comp.  M.  M.,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  383  seq. 
— Prof.  Max  Muller  proposes  the  following  translation: 
*  Thy  wide  effulgence  goes  round  the  firmament,  the  firm 
seat  of  the  strong  one  (buffatlo).' 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  Ludwtg  takes  srotaA  as  a  locative.  But  it  is 
very  improbable  that  we  should  have  here  a  survival  of  the 
ancient  locatives  of  stems  in  -s  without  a  case-ending  (Joh. 
Schmidt,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVII,  306;  Brugmann, 
Grundriss  der  vergl.  Grammatik,  vol.  ii,  p.  611).  In 
Ludwig's  opinion  '  it  follows  from  the  corresponding  g&tum 
Qrmim  that  srotas  stands  for  srotasi  as  dhanvan  for  dhan- 
vani.'  But  this  is  not  convincing. 

Note  2.'  On  Agni  as  inhabiting  the  sprouting  grass, 
comp.  HI,  5,  8 ;  VII,  9,  3.  c  I  believe  this  refers  to  the 
blades  of  grass  used  as  tinder  to  catch  the  sparks  of  fire.' 
M.  M. 


MAtfDALA   I,    HYMN   96.  119 

MAMPALA  I,  HYMN  96. 
ASHZAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  7,  VARGA  3-4. 

1.  Being  born  by  strength1  in  the  ancient  way, 
lo !  he  (Agni)  has  assumed  instantly  all  the  qualities 
of  a  sage.     The  Waters  and  the  Dhisha^a2  have 
furthered  the  friend  (Mitra 3).     The  gods  have  held 
Agni  as  the  giver  of  wealth. 

2.  By  the  ancient  Nivid  \  by  Ayu's 2  wisdom  he 
has  procreated  these  children  of  men.     With  his 
irradiating  look3  (he  has  procreated)  the  Sky  and 
the   Waters.     The   gods   have   held   Agni   as   the 
giver  of  wealth. 

3.  The  Aryan  clans  magnified1  him  as  the  first 
performer   of  sacrifices,   as   receiving  offerings,   as 
striving  forward,  the  son  of  strength,  the  Bharata  2, 
the  bestower  of  mighty  rain  (?) 3.     The  gods  have 
held  Agni  as  the  giver  of  wealth. 

4.  He,  Mdtarwvan1,  the  lord  of  bountiful  pros- 
perity, has  found  a  path  for  (his  ?)  offspring,  he  who 
has  found  the  sun,  the  shepherd  of  the  clans,  the 
begetter  of  the  two  worlds.     The  gods  have  held 
Agni  as  the  giver  of  wealth. 

5.  Night  and  Dawn,  who  constantly  destroy  each 
others  appearance,  suckle  one  young  calf1  unitedly-. 
The  piece  of  gold3  shines  between   Heaven   and 
Earth.     The  gods  have  held  Agni  as  the  giver  of 
wealth. 

6.  (He  is)  the  base  of  wealth,  the  assemt  fer  of 
all  goods1,  the  beacon  of  sacrifice,  the  fulfiller  of 
thought,  the  bird2.     In  order  to  guard  their  immor- 


I  20  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


tality  the  gods  have  held  him,  Agni,  as  the  giver 
of  wealth. 

7.  Him  who  is  now  and  who  was  formerly  the 
abode  of  wealth,  the  earth1  (i.e.  the  dwelling-place 
or  support)  of  what  is  born  and  of  what  will  be 
born,  the  shepherd  and  guardian  of  what  is  and 
of  much  that  comes  into  being.     The  gods  have 
held  Agni  as  the  giver  of  wealth. 

8.  May  (Agni,)  the  giver  of  wealth,  present  us 
with  quick  wealth.     May  the  giver  of  wealth  (pre- 
sent us, with  wealth)  united  with  strong  men1.     The 
giver  of  wealth   (should   grant  us)   food   together 
with  valiant  heroes.     The  giver  of  wealth  should 
grant  us  long  life. 


NOTES. 

The  same  jRishi  and  metre. — Verses  i,  a  =  MS.  IV,  10, 
6.  Verse  5  =  VS.  XII,  2 ;  XVII,  70;  TS.  IV,  i,  10,  4; 
$,5>*;  7,12,3;  MS.  11,7,  8. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  I.  e.  by  the  attrition  of  the  woods,  as  sdhasaA 
putraA. 

Note  2.  Two  new  discussions  on  dhisha^i  have  been 
given  by  Hillebrandt  (Ved.  Mythologie,  I,  175  seq.;  comp. 
the  criticisms  of  Ludwig,  Ueber  die  neuesten  arbeiten  auf 
dem  gebiete  der  R.gveda-forschung,  85  seq.)  and  Pischel 
(Ved.  Studien,  II,  82  seq.).  Hillebrandt  arrives  at  the 
conclusion  that  dhisha#£  is  the  Earth  (in  the  dual, 
\Hcaven  and  Earth ;  in  the  plural,  Heaven,  Air,  and  Earth), 
and  besides  the  Vedi,  i.  e.  the  excavated  spot  of  ground 
which  serves  as  a  kind  of  altar  for  the  sacrifice.  Similar  is 


MAA'DALA    I,   HYMN    96.  121 

Pischel's  opinion.  He  believes  that  the  singular  dhishd;/a 
is  everywhere  to  be  interpreted  as  a  proper  name:  the 
name  of  a  goddess  of  wealth  and  prosperity.  The  dual 
dhisha/*e  means  'Heaven  and  Earth:'  thus  the  original 
meaning  of  dhisha#&  must  have  been,  as  Pischel  concludes, 
either  Heaven  or  Earth.  He  tries  to  show  that  it  is  Earth, 
and  so  does  Prof.  Hillebrandt.  The  goddess  of  wealth 
originally  was  a  goddess  of  the  earth  conceived  as  the  liberal 
giver  of  wealth.  This  goddess,  Prof.  Pischel  thinks,  was 
closely  related  to,  or  even  identical  with,  the  goddess  Aditi, 
whom  the  same  scholar  also  believes  to  be  a  personification 
of  the  Earth. 

I  mlust  confess  that  even  this  close  agreement  of  these 
two  distinguished  scholars  has  failed  to  convince  me.  It 
is  quite  true  that  the  dual  dhishawe  means  Heaven  and 
Earth,  and  it  is  possible  that  the  singular  may,  at  least  in 
some  passages,  mean  the  Earth.  But  I  cannot  believe  that 
this  is  the  original  meaning  of  the  word.  Originally,  in 
my  opinion,  dhishdtfd  was  an  implement  used  at  the  sacri- 
fice, more  especially  at  the  Soma  sacrifice.  The  add 
(Soma-stones)  are  said  to  rest  in  the  lap  of  the  dhishi«4 
(I,  109,  3).  In  a  Ya^us  Mantra  referring  to  the  sacrificial 
preparation  of  Soma  (Va^asaneyi  SawhitH  VI,  26)  the 
dhisha;/£,  or  more  exactly  the  Dhishd#&s,  as  goddesses 
(dhishdwaj  £a  devJ/i),  are  mentioned  together  with  the 
sacrificial  fire,  the  waters,  and  the  grSvdwaA,  the  stones.  In 
a  similar  connection  we  find  a  Ya^us  formula  pronounced 
when  the  Adhvaryu  began  to  beat  the  Soma  plants  with  the 
Upd^misavana  stone  (see  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  X,  370). 
There  the  Soma  was  addressed  first,  and  then  the  two 
Dhishatf &s  :  '  Do  not  be  afraid,  do  not  be  terrified,  assume 
sap  (O  Soma !).  O  two  Dhisha»&s !  Being  firm  show  firm- 
ness !'  (VS^asaneyi  Sawhitd  VI,  35).  Here  the  Satapatha 
Brfihmawa  (III,  9,  4,  18)  says,  that  some  authorities  refer 
the  last  words  to  the  two  boards  (phalake)  on  which  the 
pressing-stones  rest  (see  Hillebrandt,  Ved.  Mythologie,  I, 
149  seq.).  But  the  author  of  the  Br&hma;/a  himself  declares 
that  Heaven  and  Earth  are  addressed;  for  as  to  the  boards 


122  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


used  for  pressing  the  Soma,  it  would  be  of  no  consequence  if 
they  were  broken. — Other  passages  in  which  the  dhishan£/i 
are  mentioned  in  connection  with  the  preparation  of  the 
Soma,  are  Rig-veda  IX,  59,  2  ;  X,  17,  2.  In  the  last  passage 
*  the  lap  of  the  Dh.'  is  mentioned  as  in  I,  109,  3  (see  above). 
The  dhisha;/d  was  anointed,  1, 102,  i.  The  dhishawd  is  men- 
tioned in  connection  with  the  waters  which  were  fetched 
by  the  Adhvaryus  and  used  at  the  sacrifice,  X,  30,  6,  and 
in  connection  with  the  sacrificial  fire,  III,  2,  i,  and  in  our 
passage.  I  have  therefore  no  doubt  that  according  to 
the  original  meaning  the  Dhisha^d  was,  as  stated  above, 
a  sacrificial  implement  used  chiefly,  though  not  exclusively, 
at  the  pressing  of  the  Soma.  I  do  not  venture  to  determine 
the  exact  nature  of  this  implement,  but  I  think  that  from 
the  passages  collected  above  it  will  be  evident  that  it  was 
a  sort  of  support  on  which  the  pressing-stones  rested. 
A  similar  support  may  have  been  used  for  the  vessel 
containing  the  sacrificial  water,  and  for  the  sacrificial  fire. 
This  support  was  considered  as  yielding  the  Soma  to  Indra, 
as  strengthening  Indra,  as  inciting  Indra  and  the  gods  to 
liberality  towards  men.  Thus  we  have  a  goddess  Dhishawi 
who  wears  t6e  aspect  of  a  goddess  of  wealth.  She  is  invoked 
as  one  of  the  Gn£s  in  I,  22, 10  with  Hotra  Bharatf.  Finally 
the  Earth,  the  support  of  everything,  was  likened  to  this 
support  of  the  pressing-stones  and  of  the  Soma;  and 
Heaven  and  Earth  were  then  considered  as  the  two 
Dhisha;/as/ 

Note  3.  Comp.  above,  94,  13,  note  i. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  the  solemn  formulas  of  invocation,  called 
Nivids,  see  Haug's  Aitareya  Brihmawa,  p.  32  seq. ;  Weber, 
Indische  Studien,  IX,  355 ;  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  387, 
note  2.  Of  course,  the  Nivids  which  SAnkhdyana  (Srauta- 
sutra  VIII,  16-25)  gives,  cannot  be  those  to  which  the 
poets  of  the  Rig-veda  several  times  allude. 

Note  2.  On  Ayu  as  one  of  the  mythical  ancestors  of 


MAJVDALA   I,    HYMN    96.  123 

mankind,  nearly  related  to  Manu,  see  Bergaigne,  Religion 
V£dique,  I,  59  seq. 

Note  3.  Ushas  is  called  vivasvati,  III,  30,  13  (cf. 
Bergaigne,  I,  86)  ;  we  are  justified,  consequently,  in  trans- 
lating vivasvata  £dkshas&,  '  with  the  irradiating  look/  But 
in  giving  this  translation  we  should  not  forget  that  the 
poet  no  doubt  at  the  same  time  intended  to  allude  to  the 
name  of  Vivasvat,  the  father  of  Yama. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  text  has  i/ata.    Com  p.  above,  I,  i,  i,  note  £ 

Note  2.  Agni  seems  to  be  called  Bharata  as  belonging 

to  the  people  of  Bharatas.     Comp.  H.  O.,  '  Buddha,  sein 

Leben,  seine  Lehre,  seine  Gemeinde '  (first  edition),  p.  414 

seq.     More  usually  Agni  is  designated  as  Bharata. 

Note  3.  Sr/pradanum.  On  deinu,  the  meaning  of  which 
I  consider  to  be  '  rain '  or  the  like,  comp.  the  discussion 
of  Prof.  Max  Miiller,  vol.  xxxii,  113  seq.  The  exact 
meaning  of  s/Vpra,  which  should  not  be  compared 
with  the  Greek  \nrapos,  cannot  be  determined.  The 
etymology  is  a  very  unsafe  guide  in  such  questions,  and 
neither  the  connection  with  the  root  srz'p,  '  to  creep/  '  to 
crawl/  nor  with  the  noun  sarpfs,  '  butter/  seems  to  lead  to 
a  satisfactory  result.  The  passages  in  which  sr/pra  or 
compounds  of  this  adjective  occur,  point  to  a  meaning 
like  '  great/  '  mighty/  l  fine/  Thus  sr/prabhqgas  seems  to 
be  something  like  purubh6^as  or  subhq^as ;  Indra's  arms 
(kardsna)  are  called  both  sr/pra  (VIII,  32,  10)  and  pnfthii 
(VI,  19,  3);  finally  srzpraddnu,  which  is  used  here  as  an 
epithet  of  Agni,  and  VIII,  25,  5  of  Mitra  and  Varuwa,  does 
not  seem  to  differ  very  much  from  sudanu. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  M&tarijvan,  the  messenger  of  Vivasvat,  who  car- 
ried the  fire  from  heaven  to  earth,  was  originally  distinct 
from  Agni,  but  is  identified  with  him  in  several  passages. 
See  M.  M.,  Physical  Religion,  p.  152 ;  Bergaigne,  Religion 
V^dique,  I,  52  seq. ;  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  122. 


124  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Comp.  above,  95,  i,  and  I,  113,  3.  ruradvatsa. 
The  calf,  of  course,  is  Agni. 

Note  2.  Literally,  '  turned  towards  each  other.1 
Note  3.  The  gold  is  again  Agni. 

Verse  6. 

Note.  1.  The  first  Pada  is  identical  with  X,  139,  3. 

Note  2.  I  prefer  with  Ludwig  to  take  v&/i  as  a  nomina- 
tive (comp.  Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  375)  instead  of  a 
genitive. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Compare  the  very  obscure  verse  X,  3 1 ,  5.  iyam 
s£  bhuyd  ushdsam  iva  kshaV/,  '  may  she  be  the  earth,  as  it 
were,  of  the  dawns/  '  She '  may  possibly  be  the  earth, 
which  would  be  designated  here  as  a  dwelling-place  or 
support  of  the  dawns. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1  frof.  Max  Muller  proposes  another  translation 
of  sanara.  He  writes :  '  One  expects  an  opposition 
between  turd  and  sdnara.  Sanara  can  hardly  be  the  same 
as  vlrdvat  in  the  next  line.  I  should  like  to  take  sanara  as 
a  variety  of  sana  and  sandtdna.  Give  us  fleeting,  i.  e.  daily 
wealth,  and  give  us  old,  i.  e.  lasting  wealth  I ' 


MAAWALA    I,    HYMN    97.  125 


I,  HYMN  97. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  7,  VARGA  5. 

1.  Driving  away*  evil1  with  thy  light,  Agni,  shine 
upon  us  with  wealth  —  driving  away  evil  with  thy 
light. 

2.  Longing  for  rich  fields,  for  a  free  path,  and 
for    wealth,    we   sacrifice—  driving   away   evil   with 
thy   light. 

3  J.  When  he  stands  forth  as  the  riiost  glorious 
one  among  them  2,  and  when  our  liberal  lords  excel 
—  driving  away  evil  with  thy  light  — 

4.  When    through   thde,  Agni,  the  liberal  lords, 
and  when   through    thee   we   may    multiply    with 
offspring  —  driving  away  evil  with    thy  light  — 

5.  When  the  rays  of  the  mighty  Agni  go  forth 
on  all  sides  —  driving  away  evil  with  thy  light  — 

6.  For  thou  indeed,  (O  god)  whose  face  is  turned 
everywhere,  encompassest  (the  world)  everywhere  — 
driving  away  evil  with  thy  light. 

7.  Do  thou  carry  us,  as  with  a  boat,  across  hostile 
powers,  (O  god)  whose  face  is  turned  everywhere  — 
driving  away  evil  with  thy  light. 

8.  Do  thou  carry  us  across  (evil)  to  welfare,  as 
across  a  stream  with  a  boat1  —  driving  away  evil 
with  thy  light, 


126  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Xtshi.  Metre,  Gdyatri.  The  hymn  is 
addressed  to  Agni  Suti. — Verses  1-8  =  AV.  IV,  33,  1-8  ; 
TA.  VI,  u,  1-2.  Verse  i  =  TA.  VI,  10,  i. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Lanman  (Sanskrit  Reader,  p.  363)  translates : 
'  Driving  away  with  flames  our  sin.'  But  agha  is  not 
exactly  sin. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  In  this  verse  as  well  as  in  the  verses  4  and  5 — 
all  commencing  with  the  words  pra  ydt — the  principal 
clauses  are  wanting.  As  to  the  meaning,  however,  these 
clauses  are  supplied  by  the  refrain  ;  '  driving  away  evil '  of 
course  means  *  may  he  drive  away  evil/ 

Note  2.  'Among  them'  seems  to  mean  'among  the 
liberal  lords.' 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Cf.  Lanman,  p.  434. 


MAMDALA    I,    HYMN    98.  127 


MAA^ALA  I,  HYMN  98. 
ASHTAKA  I,  ADHYAYA  7,  VARGA  6. 

1.  May  we  dwell  in  the  favour  of  (Agni)  Vais- 
vdnara.     He  indeed  is  a  king,  leading  all  beings 
to  gloriousness  l.     As  soon  as  born  from  here  he 
looks  over  this  whole  world.     VaLrv&nara   unites 
with  the  Sun2. 

2.  Agni  who  has  been  looked  and  longed  for  l  in 
Heaven,  who  has  been  looked  for  on  Earth  —  he 
who  hafc  been  looked  for,  has   entered   all   herbs. 
May  Agni  VaLrv&nara,  who  has  strongly  been  looked 
for,  protect  us  from  harm  by  day  and  by  night. 

3.  Valrvanara  !    May  this  be  true  of  thee  :   may 
wealth  and  liberal   givers  attend  us!     May  Mitra 
and  Varu#a  grant  us  this,  may  Aditi,  the  Sindhu, 
the  Earth,  and  the  Sky  ! 

NOTES. 

The  same  Rtshi.  Metre,  TrishAibh.—  Verse  i  =  VS. 
XXVI,  7  ;  TS.  I,  5,  n,  3  ;  MS.  IV,  11,  i.  Verse  2  =VS. 
XVIII,  73  ;  TS.  1,  5,  n,  i  ;  IV,  4,  ia,  5  ;  7,  i5>  6  5  TB.  Ill, 
n,  6,4;  MS.  11,13,  u. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VI,  70,  i.  bhiivan4n&m  abhijriy4. 
Abhi^rf  seems  to  mean,  going  or  leading  towards  (abhf) 
gloriousness  (stf).  Prof.  Pischel's  opinion  on  the  word  is 
different  ;  see  Vedische  Studien,  I,  53  seq. 

Note  2.  As  to  yatate,  comp.  V,  4,  4.  yatamdna^ 
rajmfbhiA  sfiryasya;  IX,  mf  3.  sdm  ra^mfbhiA  yatate 


Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  the  disappearance  of  Agni  who  is  looked 
for  everywhere,  see  M.  M.,  Physical  Religion,  264  seq.; 
Bergaigne,  Rel.  V&lique,  II,  75. 


128  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAA^ALA  I,  HYMN  99. 
ASH7AKA  I,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  7. 

i.  Let  us  press  Soma  for  G&tavedas  *.  May  he 
burn  down  the  property  of  the  niggard 2.  May  he, 
Agni,  bring  us  across  all  troubles,  across  all  difficul- 
ties, as  across  a  stream  with  a  boat. 


NOTES. 

The  j?ishi  is  Ka^yapa  M£ri£a.  Metre,  Trish/ubh. — 
Verse  i  =  TA.  X,  i. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Tfiis  is  one  of  the  very  rare  passages  in  which 
Agni  standing  alone  and  not  accompanied  by  Indra  or  the 
Maruts  &c.  is  mentioned  as  drinking  Soma.  It  seems  as 
if  this  verse  were  not  composed  for  the  regular  Soma 
sacrifice,  but  for  a  special  occasion. 

Note  2.  Cf.  Delbruck,  Syntakt  Forschungen,  I,  112. 


MAA7)ALA    I,    HYMN    127.  129 


MAATZ?ALA  I,  HYMN  127. 
ASHFAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  12-13. 

1.  I  deem  Agni  to  be  the  munificent  Hotrt,  the 
Vasu,  the  Son  of  strength1,  6&tavedas,  like  a  priest, 
G&tavedas2 :  the  best  performer  of  the  sacrifice,  the 
god  who  with  his  upright  body  that  is  turned  towards 
the  gods,  and  with  his  flame  longs  for  the  shine  of 
the  (boiling)  ghee3,  of  the  butter  that  is  offered  in 
(the  fire). 

2.  May  we,  the  sacrificers,  call  thee  hither,  the 
best  of  sacrificers1,  the  first  of  the  Ahgiras,  O  priest, 
with  our  prayers,  with  priestly  prayers,  O  bright 
one2:  thee  who  like  the  heaven  ejicompassest  the 
earth3,  the  Hotri  of  human  tribes,  the  manly  flame- 
haired,  whom  these  folks — whom  all  folks  should 
favour  in  order  to  speed  him  (to  our  sacrifice). 

3.  He  indeed,  shining  mightily  with  his  shining 
strength1,  becomes  the  conqueror  of  deceitful  foes* 
— like   an   axe,  the    conqueror  of  deceitful   foes*. 
He  at  whose  onslaught3  even  what  is  strong  melts 
away4,  steady  things  (waste  away)  like  forests  (which 
are  burnt  or  bend  down  in  the  storm)5.    Conquering 
he  holds  himself  back ;  he  does  not  proceed6.     As 
with  a  conquering  bow-man  he  proceeds6, 

4.  Even  what  is  firm  gives  way  before  him  :  thus 
it  is  known.     With  hottest  kindling-sticks1  one  wor- 
ships him2  for  winning  his  favour,  one  worships  Agni 
for  winning  his  favour.     He  who  dives  into  many 
forests  as  if  carving  the  wood  with  his  flame,  destroy* 
even    firm    food3  with    his   strength — he    destroy 
even  what  is  firm  with  his  strength. 

-  K 


130  VEDIC    HYMNS- 


5.  Let  us  place  that  power1  of  his  in  our  neigh- 
bourhood2— (that  power)  which  is  more  visible  by 
night  than  by  day3 — (more  visible)  than  by  day  to 
the  unremitting4  (worshipper).     Therefore  his  life  is 
a  firm  hold5,  like  (a  fathers)  safe  refuge  to  a  son  : 
(the  fires)  that  never  grow  old,  tending  to  blessings 
enjoyed   or   not   enjoyed   (before)6 — the   fires   that 
never  grow  old,  tending  (to  such  blessings). 

6.  He  indeed  makes  a  mighty  noise  like  the  host 
of  the  Maruts,  .  .  .'  on  the  rich  fields,  .  .  .*  on  the 
.  .  .l.     He,  the  seizer,  ate  the  offerings2,  he    who 
has  deservedly  become  the  banner  of  the  sacrifice. 
And  when  he  joyously  and  joyfully  (proceeds),  all 
followed  gladly  on  his  path ;   men  (have  followed) 
his  path  as  for  a  triumphal  procession. 

7.  When  forsooth  the  Kfstas1  striving  for  heaven, 
when   the   Blm'gus    have    addressed    him    paying 
reverence — the  Blmgus  producing  him  by  attrition, 
with  worship :  Agni  is  the  lord  of  goods,  the  bright 
one,  who  is  their2  supporter.     May  the  wise  one 
accept  the  wonted   coverings3;    may  the  wise  one 
accept  them. 

8.  We  invoke  thee,  the  lord  of  all  people,  the 
common  master  of  the  house  of  all,  to  enjoy  (the 
sacrifice):  (we  call)  thee. -who  truly  art  carried  by 
prayers  as  by  a  vehicle1  to  enjoy  (the  sacrifice):  the 
guest  of  men  in  whose  presence  (they  live)  as  before 
a  fathers  (face),  and  all  those  immortals  (attain)  to 
strength,  and  the  offerings  among  the  gods  (attain) 
to  strength. 

9.  Thou,  O  Agni,   art  born,   the   mightiest  by 
might l,  for  the  divine  world,  the  strongest  one,  like 
Wealth  for   the  divine  world.     For  .thy  delight  is 
most  strong,  and  thy  power  is  most  brilliant.     And 


MAJVDALA   I,    HYMN    I  2  7. 


they  walk  around  thee2,  O  (god)  who  never  growest 
old,  like  obedient  (servants),  O  (god)  who  never 
growest  old. 

10.  Let  your  praise  go  forth  to  the  great  Agni, 
who  is  mighty  in  his  might,  who  awakens  at  dawn, 
like  a  winner  of  cattle1  —  let  it  go  forth  to  Agni. 
When  (the  worshipper)  rich  in  offerings  has  loudly 
praised  him2  in  all  lands  3,  he  wakes4  like  a  singer  in 
front  of  the  dawns5,  the  flaming  one  (?),  the  Hotrt 
(in  front)  of  the  dawns5. 

11.  Thus  being   seen   by  us,  bring  near  to  us, 
O  Agni,  graciously  united  with   the   gods,  benig- 
nantly,  great  wealth  benignantly.     Make  us  behold 
great  (bliss  of  valiant  offspring1),  O  mightiest  one, 
that  we  may  obtain  such  enjoyment.     Produce  great 
bliss  of  valiant  offspring,  O  bountiful  Lord,  (as  fire 
is  produced)  by  attrition,  for  those  who  praise  thee, 
like  a  strong  hero  in  thy  might. 

NOTES. 

The  JRishi  is  Paru££/*epa  Daivoddsi,  the  metre  Atyashri 
(verse  6  Atidhr/ti).  —  Verses  1-3  =  SV.  II,  1163-1165. 
Verse  i  =  SV.  I,  465  ;  VS.  XV,  4?  5  TS.  IV,  *,  4,  8  ; 
MS.  II,  13,  8  ;  AV.  XX,  67,  3. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  reading  of  the 
Rig-veda  text  vasum  is  correct  ;  the  Sdma-veda  has  vdso//. 
Comp.  H.  O.,  Prolegomena,  p.  280. 

Note  2.  *  Is  it  a  play  on  the  word  ?  Like  a  priest 
knowing  all  things  ?  '  M.  M. 

Note  3.  There  is  a  metrical  irregularity  in  this  Pada  ;  it 
has  six  syllables  instead  of  five  before  the  caesura.  The 
text,  however,  seems  to  be  correct. 

K  2 


132  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  first  Pdda  is  Trisli/ubh  instead  of  Gagatl. 
It  would  be  easy  to  correct  huvemahi,  but  that  form  is 
never  found  in  the  Rig-veda,  though  both  huvema  and 
havAmahe  are  frequent.  Thus  it  is  very  probable  that  we 
have  here  a  metrical  irregularity  of  the  type  described  by 
H.  O.,  Prolegomena,  p.  117. 

Note  2.  Comp.  VIII,  60,  3.  vfprebhiA  ^ukra  mdnmabhiA. 

Note  3.  If  the  explanation^  of  pdrj^man  which  we  have 
adopted  (see  above,  I,  79,  3,  note  2)  is  correct,  it  will  be 
impossible,  of  course,  to  accept  Bergaigne's  opinion  (Rel. 
V&l.,  II,  505,  note  i)  that  the  accusative  dy£m  is  governed 
by  pdrj^m&nam. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  In  the  second  P4da  one  syllable  is  wanting. 
The  text  seems  to  be  correct,  and  the  irregularity  apparently 
is  the  typical  one  described  by  H.  O.,  Prolegomena, 
p.  68  seq. :  the  Pdda  has  the  tetrasyllable  beginning  (before 
the  caesura),  and  it  goes  on  as  if  the  beginning  had  been 
pentasyllable.  Several  P&das  of  the  same  irregular 
structure  occur  in  our  hymn,  thus  in  verse  9 :  tvdm  (read 
tudm)  agne  II  sdhasA  sahantama/4 ;  verse  10 :  pra  vaA  mah£ 
II  sahasa  sahasvate  ;  usha^-budhe  11  paru-s6  na  agndye. 
,  Note  2.  The  comparison  para^ii^  na, ' like  an  axe/  raises 
doubts  as  to  the  correctness  of  druham-tardA.  ParaJiiA 
seems  to  point  to  a  compound  containing  the  element  drii, 
;wood;'  comp.  below,  130,  4;  VII,  104,  21.  The  second 
member  of  the  compound  would  be  han,  which  is  frequently 
used  with  the  meaning  of  cutting  wood  (II,  14,  a  ;  X,  89,  7). 
Thus  the  reading  would  be  dru-hantaraA  (comp.  vr/tra- 
hdntama^),  '  a  mighty  wood-cutter.'  As  to  this  use  pf  the 
comparative,  see  Delbriick,  Altindische  Syntax,  p.  196. 

Note  3.  Comp.  V,  7,  2.  ydsya  sam^'tau. 

Note  4.  Prof.  Max  Muller  (Science  of  Thought,  p.  325) 
believes  that  the  root  ^ru  occurs  here  in  the  sense  of 
shaking.  To  me  it  seems  that  this  sruvat  is  a  misspelling 


MAADALA   I,    HYMN    1 2  7.  133 

for  sriivat.  The  opinion  of  Pischel  and  Geldner  (Vedische 
Studien,  I,  p.  vi)  is  different. 

Note  5.  The  meaning  of  the  comparison  which  I  have 
indicated  by  the  words  in  parentheses,  becomes  clear  from 
VIII,  40,  i.  vdn&-iva  v£te  ft. 

Note  6.  The  two  last  Pddas  are  very  obscure.  In  the 
last  Pada  but  one  nd  would  seem  to  be  comparative,  not 
negative,  because  it  has  the  same  meaning  in  the  last  P£da, 
and  because  its  vowel  does  not  coalesce  with  the  following 
initial  vowel  (comp.  Benfey's  dissertation, '  Behandlung  des 
auslautenden  a  in  na  "  wie  "  und  nd  "  nicht."  '  But  then 
instead  of  yamate  a  substantive  meaning  something  like 
'hero'  would  be  required.  And  ako  instead  of  the  in- 
strumental dhanva-sahA  one  should  expect  to  find  a  nomi- 
native; comp.  Benfey,  Vedica  und  Linguistica,  p.  180, 
note  i. — Prof.  Max  Miiller  translates:  'Holding  out  (or 
resisting)  he  stands  firm,  he  does  not  budge ;  holding  his 
bow  he  does  not  budge.' 

Verse  4, 

Note  1.  The  words  t4f ish/MbhiA  ardmbhi^  are  repeated, 
probably  by  the  same  poet,  below,  129,  5. 

Note  2.  It  may  be  observed  that  several  times  in  the 
Paru&Wepa  hymns  the  parallelism  between  two  subsequent 
Pctdas  has  corrupted  the  text,  the  reading  of  the  one  P&da 
being  wrongly  introduced  into  the  other.  For  instances 
I  refer  to  I,  129,  u,  where  the  last  vaso  has  been  added 
from  the  preceding  P£da,  and  to  the  last  P&da  but  one  of 
I>  *35>  4-  Possibly  our  P&da,  which  in  its  traditional  form 
is  metrically  abnormal  (comp.,  however,  M.  M.'s  Hymns  to 
the  Maruts,  ist  ed.,  p.  cxii),  has  suffered  damage  in  the 
same  way.  The  comparison  of  I,  129,  5  would  lead  us  to 
conjecture :  t4fish/MbhiA  ardmbhi/i  na  dvase.  '  One  wor- 
ships him  in  order  that  he  may  grant  his  favour  as  if  (he 
were  to  help  us)  with  hottest  kindling-sticks.  One  worships 
Agni  in  order  that  he  may  grant  his  favour.' 

Note  3.  Comp.  IV,  7,  10.  sthirit  £it  ann4  dayate  vf 
The  food  is  the  wood  which  Agni  consumes. 


134  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


Verse  5. 

Note  1.  See  Prof,  von  Roth's  translation  of  this  verse, 
Zcitschrift  der  D.  Morg.  Gesellschaft,  XLVIII,  117.  On 
prikshdm,  comp.  M.  M.,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  302  ;  Pischel,  Vedische 
Studien,  I,  p.  96  seq.  The  translation  of  such  a  word  can 
only  be  tentative. 

Note  2.  To  iipar£su  something  like  vikshii  JV,  37,  3) 
seems  to  be  supplied. 

Note  3.  Comp.  the  Latin  expression,  'argutius  qtiam 
verius.'  Pischel,  Gottinger  Gelehrte  Anzeigen,  1884,  p.  516 
seq.;  Delbriick.  Altindische  Syntax,  p.  196.  . 

Note  4.  Apr&yus  seems  to  be  an  anomalous  formation, 
instead  of  dpr&yu,  unless  we  have  to  read  dpr^yuve.  Ac- 
cording to  Pischel  (Gottinger  Gel.  Anzeigen,  1890,  p.  542), 
Apr&yushe  would  mean  'dem  der  da  lebt.'  But  I  do  not 
think  that  this  apr&yus  should  be  separated  from  dprdyu, 
which,  as  may  be  seen  from  I,  89,  i  compared  with  III, 
5,  6  and  X,  4,  7,  is  identical  in  meaning  with,  and  evidently 
etymologically  related  to,  aprayu^^ant. 

Note  5.  Grabhawavat  is  the  contrary  of  agrabhawd,  I, 
116,5. 

Note  6.  Comp.  Ill,  30,  7.  dbhaktam  kit  bha^ate. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Ludwig :  '  in  den  bebauten  fluren  zu  verehren, 
auf  den  wiisten  flachen  zu  v^Tehren.1  Prof.  Max  Muller 
observes  with  regard  to  ish/dni/* :  *  it  stani//,  or  ish  +  stani/i 
(ish-karta),  much  thundering.'  For  £rtan&  he  proposes  the 
translation,  'ploughed  field/  I  have  left  both  words  un- 
translated. 

Note  2.  Adat  is  imperfect  of  ad ;  there  is  a  play  upon 
words  (£dat  and  a-dad/A). 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Who  the  Kistas  (cf.  La n  man,  p.  346)  are  is  not 
known.  They  seem,  however,  either  to  be  identical  with 
the  Bhrs'gus  or  to  be  another  ancient  and  probably  mythical 
family  of  priests  like  them.  They  are  mentioned  also  in 
VI,  67,  10. 


MAMDALA   I,    HYMN    I2/.  135 

Note  2.  'Their'  refers  to  *  goods.' 

Note  3.  The  fuel  and  libations  with  which  Agni  is 
covered  ? 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Vct'has  and  its  compounds,  such  as  st6mav£has, 
ukthavahas,  gfrvahas,  have  been  treated  of  by  Dr.  Neisser 
in  his  ingenious  article  on  vahni,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage, 
XVIII,  301  seq.  (comp.  on  vahni,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  37  seq.). 
Dr.  Neisser  tries  to  show  that  by  the  side  of  vdhni,  derived 
from  vah  =  Latin  vehere,  and  meaning  'draught-horse'  (and 
besides — though  Dr.  Neisser  does  not  admit  this,  see  p.  316 
— '  a  person  that  drives  in  a  chariot '),  there  existed  a  second 
substantive  vahni  connected  with  the  Greek  evx*<r0ai,  and 
meaning  both  'erhaben'  and  'erhebend,'  i.e.  praising  the 
gods  (loc.  cit.,  p.  314).  With  this  second  vdhni  he  connects 
vShas  and' its  compounds.  One  of  the  principal  arguments 
of  Dr.  Neisser  is  the  fact  quite  correctly  stated  by  him 
(p.  301),  that  'the  word  vahni  very  frequently  associates 
itself  to  the  term  hotr/,  while  it  does  not  with  the  com- 
pounds havyavah  and  havyavahana.'  This  fact,  indeed, 
points  to  the  conclusion  that  'those  compounds  belong 
to  another  sphere  of  ideas  than  vahni'  (p.  302).  But 
Dr.  Neisser  seems  to  me  to  go  too  far  in  concluding  that 
vahni,  standing  as  an  epithet  of  Agni,  is  not  derived  from 
vah  =  vehere.  Agni's  action  consists  npt  only  in  carrying 
the  sacrificial  food  to  the  gods,  but  also  in  carrying  the 
gods  to  the  sacrifice  of  men,  and  in  coming  to  that  sacrifice 
himself  with  his  chariot  and  his  horses.  Nor  do  the  words 
stomavihas  or  ukthdv&has,  if  derived  from  vah= vehere, 
necessarily  presuppose  the  admissibility  of  expressions  such 
as  '  uktham  (stomam)  vahati  vipra/z  devan  a££/ia '  (p.  303), 
but  those  compounds  may  also  rest  on  an  idea  conveyed 
by  expressions  such  as  '  uktham  (stoma/t)  vahati  devan  upa 
ya^am,'  which  idea  is  quite  Vedic.  Thus  st6mav&has  in 
my  opinion  means,  as  an  epithet  of  the  god,  *  carried  by 
the  stoma  as  by  a  vehicle'  (comp.  VII,  24,  5.  eshd  st6nuufc 
mah£  ugr£ya  vShe  dhurf-iva  Atya^  nd  vA^iyan  adhdyi),  or, 
as  an  epithet  of  the  human  worshippers,  c  fitting  out  the 


136"  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


stoma  as  a  vehicle.1  I  believe  that  the  words  in  question 
can  thus  be  explained  in  conformity  with  the  whole  range 
or  Vedic  thought,  and  the  artificial  distinction  of  two  differ- 
ent substantives  vihni,  &c.,  will  be  avoided.  For  special 
indications  pointing  in  the  same  direction,  which  are 
furnished  by  the  passages  which  contain  the  words  here 
treated  of,  I  refer  to  Bergaigne,  Religion  Ve'dique,  II, 
286  seq,  and  to  the  article  of  Dr.  Neisser  himself,  p.  321 

seq. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  On  the  metrical  irregularity,  see  above,  verse  3, 
note  i. 

Note  2.  Te  seems  to  stand  for  the  accusative,  comp. 
Pischel,  Zeitschrift  4er  D.  Morgenl.  Gesellschaft,  XXXV, 
714  seq.;  Delbriick,  Altindische  Syntax,  205.  Or  may 
the  meaning  be:  'and  thy  (worshippers)  walk  around 
thee  .  .  .  like  obedient  (servants)?' 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  On  the  metre,  see  above,  verse  3,  note  i.  Prof. 
Max  Miiller  translates, '  like  a  hunter  for  cattle-' 

Note  2.  The  phrase  vfjvlsu  ksh£sli  ^tiguve  occurs  also, 
V,  64,  2.  The  same  hymn  contains  the  word  su-£etund, 
which  is  found  in  the  eleventh  verse  of  our  hymn. 

Note  3.  Literally, '  on  all  earths.1  Comp.  X,  2, 6.  nrivitiA 
inu  kshiA. 

Note  4.  Garate\  '  he  wakes/  at  the  same  time  can  mean 
he  sings/  and  he  is  praised.1  Comp.  Neisser,  Bezzen- 
berger's  Beitrage,  3JIII,  298. 

Note  5.  The  translation '  dawn '  is  conjectural  only.  But 
il  gives  a  good  meaning  in  all  the  passages  which  contain 
the  word  r*shO*£m  (besides  our  passage,  V,  25,  i ;  VIII, 
71,  15 ;  X,  6,  i).  Prof.  Max  Miiller  translates  the  last  two 
Pftdas :  '  he  sings  like  Rebha  at  the  head  of  all  singers, 
like  a  clever  Hotrl'  among  the  singers/ — Comp.  Lanman, 

p.  4*4- 

Vena  11. 

Note  1.  I  supply  suvlryam ;  see  the  last  PAda  but  one. 


MAM) ALA    I,    HYMN    128.  137 

MANJDALA  I,  HYMN  128. 
ASHJ'AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  14-15. 

1.  He  was  born  in  Manu's  firm  law1,  the  Hotrz, 
the  best  sacrificer,  according  to  the  will  of  the  U-ri^s2, 
Agni,  according  to  his  own  will.     Always  listening 
to  him  who  wishes  to  be  his  friend,  like  a  treasure 
to  him  who  aspires  to  renown,  the  unbeguiled  Hotrz 
sat  down  in  the  abode  of  food  (on  the  altar) ;  en- 
veloped 8  (he  sat  down)  in  the  abode  of  food. 

2.  We  render   him   attentive1,  the   promoter   of 
.  sacrifice,  on  the   path  of  7?z'ta,  by  adoration  with 

offerings,  in  the  divine  'world,  by  (adoration)  with 
offerings2.  In  bringing  us  vigour  he  never  becomes 
worn  out  with  this  body  of  his:  he  whom  M&ta- 
rwvan  (has  brought)  to  Manu  from  afar,  the  god 
whom  he  has  brought  from  afar. 

3.  In  his  (own)  way  he  moves  in  one  moment 
round  the  terrestrial  (space),  the  sudden  devourer 
(emitting)  his  sperm,  the  bellowing  bull  emitting  his 
sperm,  the  bellower1,  looking  round  with  a  hundred 
eyes,  the  god  who  quickly  courses  in  the  forests2, 
taking  his  seat  on  the  lower  ridges,  Agni,  and  on 
the  highest  ridges. 

4.  This  highly  wise  Purohita,  Agni  watches  sac- 
rifice and  service1  house  by  house ;  by  (the  power 
of)  his  mind  he  is  intent  upon  sacrifice.     By  (the 
power  of)  his  mind  helpful  to  him  who  desires  food2, 
he  looks  on  all  creatures,  since  he  has  beeij  born,  the 
guest  adorned  with  ghee,  (since)  the  helpful  carrier 
(of  the  gods)3  has  been  born. 


138  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


5.  When  through  his  (Agni's)  power  the  bounties 
grow  in  strength,  with  the  roar  of  Agni l  as  with 
that   of  the    Maruts2 — like   bounties   offered    to  a 
vigorous  man :    then  he  by  his  greatness  stirs  up 
the  gift  of  goods.     May  he  protect  us  from  misfor- 
tune and  injury,  from  evil  spell  and  injury. 

6.  The  far-reaching1  steward2  has  taken  all  goods3 
in  his  right  hand,  and  strongly  advancing  does  not 
let  them  loose;  desirous  of  glory  he  does  not  let 
them  loose.     For  every  supplicant4  thou  hast  carried 
the  oblations  to  the  gods6.     For  every  righteous 
one  he  procures  a  treasure ;  Agni  opens  both  folds 
of  the  door  (for  him). 

7.  He  has  been  established  as  the  most  blissful 
one  in  the  enclosures  of  men,  Agni,  at  the  saorifices, 
like  a  noble  lord  of  the  clans,  a  beloved  lord  of  the 
clans  at  the  sacrifices :  he  rules  over  the  oblations  of 
men  to  which  nourishing  power  has  been  imparted  *. 
May   he   protect   us   from   harm  that  comes  from 
Vanwa,  from  harm 2  that  comes  from  the  great  god. 

8.  They  magnify  Agni  the  Hotri,  the  dispenser 
of  goods.     They  have  roused  the  beloved,  the  most 
shining  steward1  (of  sacrifice) ;  they  have  roused  the 
carrier  of  oblations.     The  gods  desirous  of  goods 
(have  roused)  him  in  whom  all  life  dwells,  who  pos- 
sesses all  wealth,  the  Hot^',  the  worshipful  sage,  the 
lovely  one  for  the  sake  of  bliss ;  with  praises  (they 
have  roused),  desirous  of  goods,  the  lovely  one. 


NOTES. 
The  same  ^/shi  and  metre.— Verse  6  =5  TB.  II,  5, 4,  4. 


MAtfDALA   I,    HYMN    128.  139 


Verse  1. 

Note  1.  As  to  dhdrlmatfi,  comp.  IX,  86,  4,  where  it  is 
said  that  the  streams  of  Soma  flow  forward, '  dhdrtmam ; ' 
Bergaigne,  III,  219.  '  Domain,  precinct,  sanctuary? '  M.  M. 

Note  2.  The  U^i^as  (comp.  above,  I,  60,  2,  note  i)  kre 
closely  related  to  the  Bhri'gus ;  they  are  considered  as  the 
first  sacrificers,  the  first  worshippers  of  Agni.  See  Ber- 
gaigne, I,  57  seq. 

Note  3.  Enveloped  in  fuel  and  libations. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  M.  M.'s  note,  vol  xxxii,  p.  437. 
Note  £.  Comp.  Lanman,  pp.  516,  518. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Prof.  Max  Muller  translates  the  second  and  third 
Pddas  :  '  again  and  again  shouting,  bellowing  forth  his  sperm, 
yea,  placing  his  sperm  with  bellowing.' 

Note  2.  Of  course  the  fuel  is  alluded  to. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Ya^;7asya  adhvarasya,  *  sacrifice  and  service;' 
comp.  above,  I,  1,4,  note  i. 

Note  2.  The  translation  is  doubtful.  If  the  denominative 
ishtiy  is  derived  from  ishu,  the  meaning  must  be  *  to  fly  like 
an  arrow,'  or  possibly  'to  shoot  arrows.'  But  I  do  not 
think  that  the  poet  can  have  meant  to  say  that  Agni  acts 
as  a  vedh£6  and  looks  on  all  creatures  '  for  him  who  flies 
like  an  arrow,'  or  *  for  hitn  who  shoots  arrows.'  We  should 
rather  have  to  write  ishuyate  without  accent,  so  that  the 
translation  would  be :  '  By  (the  power  of)  his  mind  helpful 
(Agni)  flies  like  an  arrow  ;  he  looks  on  all  creatures  *  (comp. 
VI,  3,  5,  where  it  is  said  that  Agni  shoots  arrows).  But 
possibly  ishOy,  which  is  found  only  here,  may  be  a  synonym 
of  ishudhy,  see  verse  6.  It  may  be  a  denominative  from 
ish,  influenced  by  the  type  of  verbs  like  rigtoy*  kratfly, 


I4O  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


vasfly,  &c.    Then  the  accent  can  be  retained,  and  the 
translation  would  be  as  given  in  the  text  ('to  him  who 
desires  food'). 
Note  3.  On  vdhni,  comp.  above,  I,  127,  8,  note  I, 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  The  cerebral  n  in  ave«a  clearly  points  to  the  "cor- 
rection of  the  text  agn^A  rdve#a. 

Note  2.  The  Maruts  are  called  bhqgi/*,  V,  53,  16  (stuhf 
bho^n,  'praise  the  liberal  ones').  Here  we  have  the 
corresponding  abstract  noun. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  VMyas  (comp.  Bergaigne,  Religion  Wdique,  III, 
287)  seems  to  be  formed  like  vfmahas,  vf^etas,  vfmanas. 
The  meaning  then  will  be  'of  extended  Myas.'  The 
substantive  hdyas,  which  is  not  found  in  the  texts  separ- 
ately, may  be  derived  from  g fhite  or  from  hin6ti,  and  mean 
something  like  '  energy.5  At  all  events  it  seems  impossible 
to  connect  thfe  adjective  vfh&yas  with  the  substantive 
vih&yas, '  the  aerial  space,'  belonging  to  the  classical  lan- 
guage. 

Note  2.  Comp.  the  remark  above,  I,  58,  7,  note  2. 

Note  3.  I  propose  to  read  vkvH  vf-hAySA  aratfA  vdsfl 
dadhe  hdste  dakshi«e.    Comp.  IX,  18,  4.  &  y&A 
v&rySi  vasfini  KdstayoA  dadh£. 

Note  4.  Comp.  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  1, 191. 

Note  6.  Comp.  VIII,  19,  i.  devatrft  havydm  6hire. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  ll&  kn'td  seems  to  be  identical  with  fshkr/ta, 
Note  2.  Regarding  the  metre,  comp.  Lanman,  p.  383. 

Verse  8. 
Note  1.  Comp.  I,  58,  7,  note  i. 


MAtfflAIA  I,   HYMN    140.  14! 

MAA/X>ALA  I,  HYMN  140. 
ASHTAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  5-7. 

1.  For  him   who  sits  on  the  Vedi  (i.e.  on  the 
sacrificial  bed),  whose  foundations  are  pleasant,  for 
the  brilliant  Agni  bring  forward1  a  receptacle 2,  which 
is  to  him  like  a  drink.     Clothe1  the  bright  one  in 
prayer  as  in  a  garment,  him  whose  chariot  is  light, 
whose  colour  is  bright,  the  destroyer  of  darkness. 

2.  He  who   has  a  twofold    birth1,  presses   on 
towards  the  threefold  food2;    what  he  has   eaten 
grows  again  after  a  year 3.    With  the  mduth  and  the 
tongue  of  the  one  he  (shows  himself  as)  the  noble, 
manly  one ;   with  the  other  (mouth)  the  stubborn 
(Agni)  wipes  off  the  trees 4. 

3.  Both  his  mothers1,  dwelling  together,  immersed 
in   darkness,   and   affrighted,   proceed   towards   the 
young  child  who  stretches  forward  his  tongue,  who 
sparkling  moves  about  thirstily,  whom  men  should 
attach  to  themselves,  who  agitates  (the  world),  the 
increaser  of  his  father 2. 

4.  Thy  speedy  (teams)1  that  strive  to  break  loose 
for  the  benefit  of  the  man  who  acts  as  men  do,  the 
swift  ones,  drawing  black  furrows — thy  quick  (horses), 
striving  apart,  the  agile,  swift  runners,  incited  by  the 
wind,  are  yoked. 

5.  When  he  stroking  his  wide  course  proceeds 
panting,  thundering,  roaring,  then  those  sparkling 
(rays)  of  his  fly  about  wildly,  displaying  wondrous 
darkness,  a  large  sight1. 

6.  When  he  bends  down  over  the  brown  (plants)1 
like  a  busy  (servant),  he  roars  afid  approaches  his 


142  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


wives  like  a  bull.  Displaying  his  power  he  adorns 
his  bodies  with  beauty ;  like  a  terrible  beast,  difficult 
to  seize,  he  shakes  his  horns. 

7.  He  clasps  (the  plants,  &c.)  that  have  been  laid 
together  and  have  been  laid  out1.     Knowing  them, 
while  they  know  him,  and  being  their  own  (friend  or 
lover)   he   lies   on   them.     They  grow    again    and 
attain   godhead.     They  produce   together  another 
shape  of  the  parents2. 

8.  The  long-haired  virgins1  have  embraced  him. 
Having  died  they  stand  upright  again  for  him  (Agni) 
the  living  one  (or,  for  him  the  Ayu).     Delivering 
them  of  old  age  he  proceeds  roaring,  procreating 
another  vital  spirit,  an  indestructible  life. 

9.  Licking  everywhere  the  upper  garment  of  the 
mother1,  he  spreads  himself  over  the  space  with  his 
mightily  devouring    warriors,   giving    strength    to 
everything  that  has  feet,  licking  and  licking.     The 
reddish  white  one2  follows  her  ways3. 

10.  Shine,  O  Agni,  among  our  liberal  lords,  for 
thou  ~  art  a  mightily  breathing  bull,  a  friend  of  the 
house.     Throwing  down  the  (mothers)  of  the  young 
child1  thou  hast  shone,  (a  protector  of  thy  friends) 
like  a  coat  of  mail  in  battles,  hurrying  around. 

11.  May  this  well-composed  (prayer),  O  Agni,  be 
more  welcome  to  thee  than  a  badly-composed  one — 
more  welcome  than  even  a  welcome  prayer.     With 
the   bright  light  of  thy  body  win  thou  treasures 
for  us. 

12.  Grant  us,  Agni,  for  our  chariot  and  for  our 
house  a  ship  which  has  its  own  rudders  and  which 
has  feet1,  which  may  save  our  strong  men  and  our 
liberal v  lords   and   our   people,  and  which  may  be 
a  shelter  for  us. 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN    140.  143 

13.  Approve,  O  Agni,  our  hymn  alone.  May 
Heaven  and  Earth  and  the  Rivers,  delightful  by 
their  own  nature1,  going  their  way2,  (choose  for  us) 
bliss  in  cows  and  crops,  long  days ;  may  the  red 
(Dawns)  choose  food  for  us  as  a  choice  boon. 


NOTES. 

The  J?i'shi  is  Dirghatamas  Au^athya,  the  metre  Gagati ; 
the  two  last  verses  are  Trish/ubh  (comp.  above  the  note  on 
the  metre  of  I,  94) ;  the  tenth  verse,  which  ,is  considered  as 
either  Gagatl  or  Trish/ubh,  begins  with  one  £agatl  P4da 
which  is  followed  by  three  Padas  in  Trish/ubh. — No  verse 
occurs  in  the  other  Sa;#hitds. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Pra  bhari  (Padap.  pra  bhara)  and  v4say&  (Padap. 
vdsaya)  may  be  1st  person. 

Note  2.  Possibly  the  '  womb '  or  '  receptacle '  (y6ni)  here 
means  ghr/ta  or  the  like,  for  it  is  said  of  Agni  that  '  his 
womb  is  ghr*'ta'  (II,  3,  n),  and  he  is  called  ghr/tayoniA, 
This  receptacle  'is  to  him  like  a  drink/  because  he  con- 
sumes the  glm'ta  by  which  he  is  surrounded. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  terrestrial  and  the  celestial  birth.  Comp. 
Bergaigne,  I,  28  seq. 

Note  2.  Bergaigne  (I,  29)  translates :  ' .  .  .  s'&ance  trois 
fois  sur  la  nourriture/  which  he  explains  as  referring  to 
4  the  three  sacrifices  of  the  morning,  the  midday,  and  the 
evening/  But  tri-vr/t  clearly  is  an  epithet  of  dnnam,  not 
an  adverb.  The  explanation  of  S4ya//a,  who  understands 
the  threefold  food  as  sacrificial  butter,  sacrificial  cakes 
(puroddra),  and  Soma,  may  be  correct. 

Note  3.  On  the  locative  sawvatsar^,  comp.  Delbriick, 
Altindische  Syntax,  p.  117. 


144  VEDIC  HYMNS. 


Note  4.  The  last  words  evidently  refer  to  Agni's  tongue, 
i.e.  his  flames,  wiping  off  as  it  were  the  firewood.  But  it 
is  not  clear  what  the  tongue  of  the  other  one  is.  S&ya//a 
thinks  of  the  sacrificial  spoon  conceived  as  the  tongue  of 
the  officiating  priest :  which  is  very  artificial,  but  perhaps 
not  too  artificial  for  a  verse  like  this. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  'two  mothers'  of  Agni  may  be  the  two 
worlds  (comp.  Bergaigne,  I,  238)  or  the  two  kindling-sticks. 
— Ubh£  (masc.)  instead  of  ubhd  is  to  be  remarked. 

Note  2.  Agni  increases  the  wealth  of  the  worshipper 
who  has  lighted  the  fire  and  may  thus  be  considered  as 
Agni's  father.  Comp.  Satapatha  Brahmawa  XII,  5,  a,  15. 
Or  the  father  may  be  Heaven ;  on  Agni  as  imparting 
strength  to  Heaven,  see  I,  164,  51. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  verse  begins  with  feminines ;  the  ^tivaA 
(comp.  I,  134,  i),  literally  the  quick  ones,  seem  to  be 
something  like  the  niyiita//  of  Agni.  Then  follow  mascu- 
lines ;  the  horses  of  Agni  are  male  (comp.  Bergaigne,  I, 

143)- 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Comp.  bhCfri  varpa^  karikrat,  III,  58,  9. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  brown  ones,  according  to  S£ya;/a,  are  the 
plants.  They  are  called  brown  (babhru)  also  in  X,  97,  i. 
'  Are  they  the  dry  leaves  in  which  the  spark  is  caught  ? ' 
M.  M. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  translates  sawstfraA  vishrfra/*, 
'  (the  flames)  that  are  together  and  apart.' 

Note  2.  The  parents  seem  to  be  Heaven  and  Earth,  as 
S&yana.  explains. — Possibly  pitrdA  depends  on  s££d  (comp. 


MAA7>ALA   I,    HYMN    140.  145 

pitr6A  s«LW,  II,  17,  7;  IV,  5,  10),  'being  with  their 
parents  they  produce  a  new  shape.'  Prof.  Max  Muller 
translates:  'They  produce  together  a  different  shape  of 

their  parents.' 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Should  not  the  plants  again  be  referred  to? 
'  I  think  it  refers  to  the  gv£\£s,  the  flames  that  are  hidden 
under  the  ashes  and  are  lighted  again.'  M.  M. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  The  mother  is  the  Earth  whose  surface  Agni 
licks. 

Note  2.  I  believe  the  Dawn  is  alluded  to  whom  the 
Vedic  poets  represent  now  as  preceding  Agni,  now  as 
following  him.  See  Bergaigne,  II,  pp.  14,  15. 

Note  3.  For  vartanir  aha  of  the  SawhitdpA/Aa  the  Pada- 
pd///a  has  vartanf//  dha ;  comp.  Rig-veda  Pr4tij^khya, 
Sutra  259.  Vartani'/a  of  course  is  correct.  Comp.  X, 
172,  i.  g^va//  sa^anta  vartanfm. 

Verse  10. 

Noto  1.  The  mothers  of  the  young  child  are  very 
probably  the  mothers  of  Agni  represented  as  a  young  child. 
They  may  be  the  Waters  which  Agni  leaves  resting  on 
the  surface  of  the  earth  while  he  himself  rises  to  heaven. 
Or  the  mothers  may  be  the  woods  or  plants  which  he 
burns  and  thus  throws  them  clown  as  it  were. 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  'Which  has  feet  in  its  own  rudders/  M.  M. 
That  the  ship  has  feet  seems  to  mean  only  that  it  has  the 
faculty  of  moving  forward  freely  and  quickly,  and  not  that 
any  real  beings  having  feet  are  designated  by  this  com- 
parison. The  ship  that  carries  the  worshippers  across  all 
dangers,  is  the  protection  and  help  which  Agni  grants,  or 
the  sacrifice  which  he  helps  to  perform. 
[46]  L 


146  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  13. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  275. 

Note  2.  YantaA  seems  to  be  corrupt;  one  or  two 
syllables  are  wanting.  Something  like  yatayantaA  (IX, 
39,  2)  or  vardhayantaA,  or,  as  Prof.  Max  Muller  proposes, 
vydnta/fc  would  do.  He  translates:  'May  Heaven  and 
Earth  and  the  Rivers  .  .  .  accepting  (vyinta^)  sacrifices  of 
milk  and  corn  choose  for  us,  and  may  the  Dawns  choose 
for  us  food  as  a  boon  for  many  days.' — Cf.  Lanman, 
PP-  5i°»  539- 


MAMDALA   I,    HYMN    141.  147 

MAJV77ALA  I,  HYMN  141. 
ASHTAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  8-9. 

1.  Lo,  that  beautiful  splendour  of  the  god,  when 
he   was   born   of  strength,  has   truly  come   to  be 
a  wondrous  sight.      Though  he  slinks  away1,  the 
prayer    goes    straight    to    him2.      They   have   led 
forward  the  flowing  streams  of  /fc'ta. 

2.  The  powerful  one1,  rich  in  food,  the  true  (friend 
of  men)  has  entered  the  wondrous  (body)2.     His 
second   (form   of  existence)  is  in    the   seven   kind 
mothers3.     The  ten  young  females4  have  brought 
the  third  (form)  of  this  bull  forth,  him   the  guar- 
dian, in  order  to  milk  him. 

3.  When  the  rulers,  the  liberal  lords  brought  him 
forth  by  their  power  out  of  the  depth,  out  of  the 
buffalo's  shape1,  when  from  of  old2  at  the  purifica- 
tion of  the  sweet  drink3  MStarLrvan  produces  the 
hidden  one  (i.e.  Agni)  by  attrition — 

4.  When   he   is   led   forward   from    the   highest 
father1,  he  climbs  up  the  .  .  .2,  the  plants  in  his  (or, 
in  their  ?)  houses.     When3 both  (Heaven  and  Earth 
or  the  two  Arawis?)  promote  his  birth,  then  the 
youngest  one  became  bright  by  his  heat4. 

5.  Then  he  entered  upon  the  mothers1  in  whom 
he  the  bright  one  grew  up  far  and  wide  unimpaired*. 
When  he  has  climbed  up  to  the  former  (mothers) 
who  from  of  old  incite  (him)3,  he  runs  down  in  the 
younger,  later  (or,  nearer)  ones. 

61.  Then  lin  the  strivings  for  the  day 2  they  ^  hoose 
him  Hotri.    As  if  to  swell  their  good  fortune  they 

L  2 


148  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


strive  towards  him-3,  when  praised  by  many  he  moves 
everywhere  with  wisdom  and  power  to  the  gods  and 
to  the  praise  of  mortals 4  for  (bringing  them)  refresh- 
ing drink. 

7.  When  he  has  scattered  himself,  the  worshipful 
one,  driven  by  the  wind,  like  .  .  .l,  with  the  sound 
(which  he  produces)  (?),  he  whom  it  is  not  possible 
to  drive  to  a  place  (like  cattle) :  on  the  flight  of  the 
burning  one  who  speeds  on  his  black  way,  whose 
birth    is    bright,   who   strays    everywhere    to    the 
atmosphere  .  .  .2 

8.  Like  a  chariot  that  goes  forward,  he  goes  to 
Heaven  with   his   ruddy   limbs,  adorned   with   his 
locks  of  flames1.    Then  his  black  (clouds  of  smoke), 
O   burning   one(?),   the   liberal   ones  (?)    (appear)2. 
The  birds  flee  as  before  the  fierceness  of  a  hero3. 

9.  Through  thee  indeed,  O  Agni,  Varuwa  whose 
laws  are  firm,  Mitra  and  Aryaman,  the  givers  of 
good  rain,  are  glorious,  when  thou  the  mighty  one 
hast    been    born,   everywhere    encompassing    with 
wisdom  (all  beings),  as  the  felly  encompasses  the 
spokes  of  a  wheel. 

10.  Thou,    O    Agni,   youngest   (god),   furtherest 
treasures  and  (the  friendship  of)  the  gods  for  him 
who  performs  worship,  who  presses  Soma.     May  we 
thus  establish  thee  the  young  one,  O  young  (son)  of 
strength,  possessor  of  great  treasures,  like  the  winner 
in  a  race 1. 

n.  Make  good  fortune >  swell  for  us  like  well- 
employed  wealth  belonging  to  the  house,  and  like 
firm  ability2 — (fortune)  which  can  hold  both  races  3 
like  reins :  and  being  full  of  good-will  in  (the  sphere 
of)  /?z'ta,  (fill  our)  praise  of  the  gods  (with  rich 
reward). 


MAtfDALA    I,    HYMN    141.  149 

12.  And  may  the  brilliant,  joyful  Hotrz  with  quick 
horses,  with  a  shining  chariot  hear  us.     May  he,  the 
wise  Agni,  lead  us  on  the  best  leading  (paths)  to 
happy  welfare  and  to  bliss 

13,  Agni  has  been  praised  with  powerful'1  songs. 
he  who  has  been  brought  forward  furthermore  for 
sovereignty.    May  both  those  our  liberal  lords  and 
we  ourselves  spread  out 2  (our  power  over  all  foes) 
as  the  sun  (spreads  out  its  Jight  and  by  it  destroys) 
the  mist 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rzshl  The  metre  is  (Jagati ;  the  two  last 
verses  again  are  TrishAibh. — None  of  its  veises  occurs  in 
the  other  Sawrfiita.s 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  seems  to  be  that  if  Agni  be  un- 
willing to  officiate  at  the  sacrifice,  the  prayer  nevertheless 
reaches  its  aim  and  induces  him  to  do  his  duty  as  the 
divine  Hot*-*" 

Note  2.  The  verb  sddh  is  very  frequently  connected  with 
substantives  such  as  dhfyaA  or  the  like.  Com  p.  also  ma- 
tin£m  £a  s&lhanam,  X,  26,  4. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1  It  seems  probable  that  przksha//  is  the  nomina- 
tive of  pr*ksha\  and  not  the  genitive  of  priksh.  Comp. 
VI,  8,  i,  where  it  is  said  of  Agni  'prs'kshdsya  vr/sh#aA 
arushasva.  On  the  meaning  of  prikshd,  see  above,  I,  12J, 
5,  noU.  i 

Note  a.  Th<  poet  seems  clearly  to  describe  the  second 
and  third  forn.  of  Apni's  existence,  his  dwelling  in  the 
waters  and  his  birth  from  the  fire-sticks.  But  he  is  less 
explicit  with  regard  lo  the  first  form.  The  epithet  pitu- 


I5O  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


rn£n  would  seem  to  point  to  Agni  as  the  sacrificial  fire 
and  the  receiver  of  offerings.  But  it  is  rather  strange  that 
•this  form  of  the  god  should  be  distinguished  from  the 
Agni  procreated  by  the  ten  females,  i.e.  produced  by  the 
ten  fingers,  by  the  attrition  of  the  kindling-sticks. — Prof. 
Max  Miiller  differs  from  me  in  referring  the  words  dira- 
pramatim  ^anayanta  yoshawaA,  not  to  the  third  form  of 
Agni,  but  to  Agni  in  general.  He  translates :  'The  powerful 
one,  rich  in  food,  rests  always  on  that  wondrous  sight 
(Agni  on  the  altar,  garhapatya  Agni).  The  second  rests 
in  the  seven  kind  mothers  (vidyudrtipa ;  Agni  in  the 
clouds) ;  the  third  is  for  milking  the  powerful  one  (Agni 
as  the  sun,  adityarftpa) — the  ten  maidens  (the  fingers)  have 
brought  forth  the  guardian.' 

Note  3.  Grassmann  no  doubt  is  right  in  proposing  to 
read  sapta  jiv£su.  Of  course  the  waters  are  alluded  to. 

Note  4.  Read  dasa  prdmatim  (Boehtlingk-Roth).  On 
Agni  as  the  son  of  the  ten  fingers,  comp.  Bergaigne,  II,  7. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  buffalo  Agni  was  hidden  in  the  depth. 
Comp.  X,  8,  i.  ap£m  upd-sthe  mahishd/z  vavardha ;  I,  95,  9. 
budhndm  vi-r6£amanam  mahishdsya  dh£ma. 

Note  2.  The  preposition  anu  seems  to  stand  here  with 
an  ablative  (pra-dfvaA). 

Note  3.  The  literal  meaning  of  mddhvaA  4-dhav6  is 
indicated  by  passages  such  as  I,  109,  4.  £  dh&vatam  md- 
dhun£;  IX,  n,  5.  madh&v  &  dh£vata  mddhu.  Comp.  also 
Adhavaniya.  On  the  washing  of  the  Soma  which  is  techni- 
cally designated  by  the  verb  4-dh&v,  see  H.  O.,  Gottinger 
Gelehrte  Anzeigen,  1890,  p.  426  seq. ;  Hillebrandt,  Vedische 
Mythologie,  I,  316. — The  purification  of  the  sweet  drink, 
at  which  Agni  is  produced,  was  probably  achieved  by  the 
tempest. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  highest  father  is  Heaven. 

Note  2.  The  meaning  of  pr/kshiidhaA  is  unknown. 


MAtfDALA   I,    HYMN    141.  151 

Note  3.  Ydt  is  repeated  twice,  as  yasya  in  X,  121,  2. 
yasya  vkve  upa-£sate  pra-jisham  yasya  dev£A. 

Note  4.  On  ghr/«£,  comp.  Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  335. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  The  mothers  are  the  Waters. 

Note  2.  The  reading,  very  probably,  ought  to  be  vi- 
vdvralhe. 

Note  3.  Boehtltngk-Roth  believe  that  the  reading  ought 
to  be  sandyiiva/4  or  san£-gur&A.  Sand-giiraA  (cf.  sanSi-g&riL 
pitdra,  IV,  36,  3)  seems  to  me  quite  possible,  although 
there  is  no  positive  necessity  for  abandoning  the  traditional 
reading. — The  'former*  mothers  may  be  the  heavenly 
Waters;  the  mothers  in  whom  Agni  runs  down  are  the 
rivers.  Prof.  Max  Muller  adds  that  the  former  mothers 
may  possibly  be  '  the  burnt  pieces  of  wood.  Agni  runs  up 
in  them,  then  leaves  them  to  burn  new  pieces.1 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  On  the  whole  verse,  compare  Pischel,  Vedische 
Studien,  I,  217. 

Note  2.  Comp.  above,  I,  45,  7,  note  i. 

Note  3.  The  second  Paida  is  translated  by  Pischel :  '  Wie 
in  einen  Konig  drangen  sie  in  ihn,  wenn  sie  (Trank)opfer 
darbringen.'  But  verse  1 1  shows  that  bhagam  depends  on 
papr/'&lnasaA. 

Note  4.  Comp.  Ill,  16,  4.  3.  deveshu  ...  5  .rdwse  uta 
nrwam. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.   The  translation  of  hvAra^  is  quite  uncertain. 
The  same  must  be  said  of  the  rest  of  this  Pada. 
Note  2.  The  sentence  is  incomplete. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  On  j/kvan  (or  j/kvas),  comp.  M.  M/s  note,  vol. 
xxxii,  p.  318;  Hiibschmnnn,  Vocalsystem,  p.  186.  The 
translation  is  only  tentative. — Two  syllables  are  wanting ; 


152  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


we  may  propose  a  reading  like  jfkvabhiA  p4«ishkn'ta4 
(corap.  H.  O.,  Prolegomena!  76,  note  3). 

Vote  9  This  passage  ia  most  obscure.  The  first  words 
of  the  Pftda  fci?  the  same  as  above,  140,  5.  The  'black 
ones'  probably  are  ther^irk  clouds  of  smoke  that  surround 
Agni.  But  it  is  very  strange  fhat  these  clouds  should  be 
designated  as  stiriyaA, f  liberal  ones.'  And  the  vocative  (?) 
dakshi  (PadapA/Aa  dhakshi),  instead  of  which  we  should  at 
least  expect  daksho  or  dakshin,  is  no  less  strange.  The 
text  seems  thoroughly  corrupt. 

Note  a.  See  Lanman,  p.  557: 

Vena  10. 
Vote  1.  Comp.  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  ill. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  Comp.  above,  verse  6,  Pida  2. 

Note  2.  Comp.  VIII,  24,  14.  ddksham  p/Y/2idiitam. 

ITote  a.  The  human  and  the  divine  race.  I  do  not 
believe  that  Dr.  Neisser  (Zur  Vedischen  Vcrballehre,  17)  is 
right  in  interpreting  ylmati  as  an  indicative. 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  The  translation  of  jimivadbhi£  is  only  tentative. 
Slml  (I,  151,  i)  cannot  be  identical  with  jimi. 

Vote  2.  N/A  tatanyuA  (nish  /atariyuA,  Sawhit&p&///a)  of 
course  is  derived  from  tan,  not  from  stan.  Comp.  I,  105, 
12.  satylm  t&tlna  sflryaA ;  IV,  5, 13.  sflraA  vaiv/ena  tatanan 
&c. 


MAJVDAIA   I,    HYMN    142.  153 

MAWDALA  I,  HYMN  142. 
ASHT^AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  10-11. 

APR!   HYMN. 

1.  Being  inflamed,  Agni,  bring  hither  to-day  the 
gods  to  the  man  who  holds  forth  the  (sacrificial) 
ladle.     Spin  out  the  ancient  thread  (of  sacrifice) l 
for  the  sacrificer  who  has  prepared  Soma. 

2.  Measure  out,  O  Tantinapfit1,  the  sacrifice  rich  in 
ghee,  rich  in  honey,  of  a  priest  like  me,  of  a  sacrificer 
who  has  toiled  hard. 

3.  The  brilliant,  purifying,  wonderful  Nar^awsa l 
mixes  the  sacrifice  with  honey  three  times  a  clay, 
the  god  worthy  of  worship  among  the  gods. 

4.  Agni,    magnified1    by    us,   bring    hither    the 
bright,-  beloved    Indra.      For    this   my   prayer    is 
addressed 2  to  thee  whose  tongue  is  good. 

5.  (Priests)    hold    forth    the    (sacrificial)    ladle, 
strewing  the  sacrificial  grass  at  the  decorous  service 
of  the  sacrifice; — I l  trim2  (the  sacrificial  grass)  which 
best  receives  the  gods  with  its  wide  extent,  a  big 
shelter  for  Indra. 

61.  May  the  divine  doors  open  themselves,  the 
increasers  of  jRita,,  the  never  sticking,  large  ones, 
the  purifying,  much-desired  (doors),  that  the  gods 
may  come  forth. 

7.  May  Night  and  Dawn,  of  glorious  appearance, 
the  two  neighbouring  (goddesses),  wearing  beautiful 
ornaments1,  the  young2  mothers  of  J?*"tay  sit  down 
together  on  the  sacrificial  grass  \ 

8.  May  the  two  divine  Hotrz's,  eager  in  praising 
(the  gods),  the  sages  with  lovely  tongues,  perform 


154  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


for  us  to-day  this  successful  sacrifice  which  attains 
to  Heaven. 

9.  The  brilliant  (goddess)  placed  among  the  gods, 
among  the  Maruts1,  Hotrd  Bharatl2,  I/fi,  Sarasvatt, 
and  Maht 3 :  may  these  worshipful   (goddesses)  sit 
down  on  the  sacrificial  grass. 

10.  May  Tvash/rz,  inclined  towards  us,  pour  forth 
for  us,  in  our  navel l,  that  wonderful  seed  with  many 
treasures 2,  plentiful  by  itself,  for  the  sake  of  pros- 
perity and  wealth  3. 

n.  Letting  go  (the  sacrificial  food  to  the  gods) 
sacrifice  by  thyself  to  the  gods,  O  tree1.  May2 
Agni  make  the  offerings  ready 3,  the  god  among  the 
gods,  the  wise  one. 

12.  For  Him  who  is  accompanied  by  Pftshan  and 
by  the  Maruts,  by  the  Viwe  deva^,  (by)  Viyu1, 
who  is  njoved  by  the  Gayatra  song,  for  Indra  pro- 
nounce the  Svahi  over  the  offering. 

13.  Come  hither  to  the  offerings  over  which  the 
Sv&hi   has   been   pronounced,   in    order    to   feast. 
Indra!   Come  hither!    Hear  our  call!   Thee  they 
call  at  the  worship. 


NOTES. 

The  hymn  is  an  Apristikta.  The  same  Xishi.  Metre, 
Anush/ubh.  The  whole  hymn  is  closely  related  to  I,  13. — 
Verse  10:  cf.  VS.  XXVII,  20;  TS.  IV,  i,  8,  3;  MS.  II, 

13,  6. 

Verse  1. 

Wote  1.  The  third  Pada  of  this  verse  is  identical  with 
VIII,  13,  14. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  I,  13,  2,  note  i. 


MAJTDALA   I,    HYMN    142.  155 

Verse  3. 
Note  1.  Comp.  I,  13,  2,  note  i. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  *  Magnified1  is  i/ita//;  comp.  the  note  on  I,  i,  i. 
The  verse  is  addressed  to  the  IdaJi. 

Note  2.  The  text  has  zkkha.  .  .  .  va^yate.  To  me  there 
seems  to  be  no  doubt  that  this  is  the  passive  of  va£,  not  of 
va#£.  Comp.  the  name  of  the  priest  a££//dv&ka,  and  the 
phrase  a££//oktibhi//  matinaim,  I,  61,  3  ;  184,  2.  The  same 
passive  of  va£  is  found  IJI,  39,  i.  matiV/  hrala/*  &  va£yd- 
mdna  (then  follows  a££/*a  .  .  .  ^igati) ;  X,  47,  7  (st6m£A) 
.  .  .  manasa  va£yaman&A. — It  may  be  observed  that  in 
our  passage  as  well  as  in  III,  39,  i  and  X,  47,  7,  the  forms 
va^yate,  va^yam^ni,  va£ydm£n£//  are  preceded  by  a  vowel ; 
and  we  may  infer  that  the  poet  did  not  say  u£y4te,  &c,  in 
order  to  avoid  the  hiatus. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  The  poet  begins  as  if  he  intended  to  say, '  Priests 
.  .  .  lay  down  the  sacrificial  grass.'  But  he  continues, 
'  I  lay  down/  Dr.  Neisser  (Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XX, 
60)  tries  to  explain  the  difficulty  in  a  way  in  which 
I  cannot  follow  him. 

Note  2.  On  the  verb  vrig  technically  connected  with 
barhiA,  see  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  152  seq.,  and 
compare  vol.  xxxii,  I,  38,  i,  note  2  ;  I,  64,  i,  note  2. 

Verse  6. 
Note  1.  With  the  whole  verse  compare  I,  13,  6. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Fischers  opinion  (Vedische  Studien,  II,  113  seq.) 
that  pdraA  means  '  Gestalt,'  '  Form/  '  Farbe/  '  rupa,'  does 
not  convince  me. 

Note  2.  See  Geldner,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVIII,  195. 


156  VEDTC    HYMNS. 


Note  3.  Comp.  VIII,  87,  4.  £  barhfA  sidatam  sumdt 
Geldner  (Vedische  Studien,  II,  190)  translates:  'das  scheme 
Opfergras.' 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  '  Should  we  read  mdrteshu  for  mariitsu  ? '  M.  M. 
This  conjecture  seems  perhaps  rather  bold. 

Note  2.  HotrA  Bhdrati,  i.e.  the  personified  Offering  of 
the  Bharatas,  seems  to  be  one  goddess,  more  usually  called 
simply  Bharati.  Comp.  I,  23,  10  ;  II,  i,  n  ;  III,  62,  3; 
Bergaigne,  Religion  Vedique,  I,  322 ;  H.  O.,  Religion  des 
Vedk,  243,  note  2.  Pischel's  opinion  (Vedische  Studien, 
II,  85)  is  different. 

Note  3.  See  above,  I,  13,  9,  note  I. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  On  the  navel  as  the  symbol  of  the  connection 
between  father  and  son,  see  Bergaigne,  L  35,  36,  and 
comp.  the  well-known  name  Nabhanedish/7/a. 

Note  2.  For  purii  vfiram  very  probably  puruv&'tam 
should  be  read  (Grassmann).  See  II,  40,  4.  puruvaram  .  .  . 
rdyds  p6sham  vf  syatatn  n£bhim  asme*. 

Note  3.  With  the  last  Pada  compare  II,  40,  4,  quoted  in 
note  2,  and  II,  3,  9.  pra^m  Tvash/a  v/  syatu  n£bhim  asm/* ; 
see  also  Taittiriya  Sawhitd  IV,  I,  8,  3.  Tvash/r/  i.s  gene- 
rally considered  as  giving  sons;  see  H.  O.,  Religion  des 
Veda,  234. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  Comp.  I,  13,  n,  note  i. 

Note  2.  The  second  hemistich  recurs  I,  105,  14. 

Note  3.  See  Neisser,  Zur  Vedischen  Verballehre,  22. 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  The  text  has  c  for  VAyu,1  not  '  for  (the  god) 
accompanied  by  V£yu/  But  there  is  no  doubt  that  pfi- 
shawvdte,  &c.,  refers  to  Indra,  and  that  Vayu  is  named 
merely  as  a  companion  of  Indra. 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN     143.  157 

MAA^ZJALA  I,  HYMN  143. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  12. 

1.  I    bring  forward  my  most  powerful,   entirely 
new  (pious)  thought  (i.e.  hymn),  the  prayer  of  my 
words '  to  Agni,  the  son  of  strength  ;  he  is  the  child 
of  the  Waters 2,  the  beloved  one,  who  together  with 
the  Vasus  has  sat  down  on  the  Earth  as  a  Hotr* 
observing  the  appointed  time  (for  sacrificing). 

2.  Being  born  in  the  highest  heaven  Agni  became 
visible  to  Matarijvan.     By  the  power  of  his  mind, 
by   his   greatness   when    kindled,   his    flame    filled 
Heaven  and  Earth  with  light. 

31.  His  flames  are  fierce;  never  ageing  are  the 
flames  of  him  who  is  beautiful  to  behold,  whose  face 
is  beautiful,  whose  splendour  is  beautiful.  The 
never  sleeping,  never  ageing  (rays)  of  Agni  whose 
power  is  light,  roll  forward  like  streams  across  the 
nights  (?)  \ 

4.  Him  the  all-wealthy,  whom  the  Bhngus  have 
set  to  work  on  the  navel  of  the  earth,  with  the 
whole  power  of  the  world1 — stir  up  that  "Agni  by 
thy  prayers   in   his  own   house — (him)  who  alone 
rules  over  goods  like  Varuwa. 

5.  He  who  is  not  to  be  kept  back  like  the  roar  of 
the  Maruts,  like  an  army1  that  is  sent  forward,  like 
the  thunderbolt  of  heaven — Agni  eats  with  his  sharp 
jaws,    he   chews,   he   throws   down   the  forests   as 
a  warrior  throws  down  his  foes. 

6.  Would   Agni    eagerly   come   to   our    hymn? 
Would  He  the  Vasu  together  with  the  Vasus  fulfl 
our  desire  ?     Will  He,  the  driver,  stir  our  prayers 


158  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


that  they  may  be  successful  ?  (Thus  thinking) 
I  praise  Him  whose  face  is  bright,  with  this  my 
prayer. 

7.  He  who  has  kindled  him  strives l  towards 
Agni  as  towards  Mitra  (or,  towards  a  friend) — 
(to  Agni)  whose  face  shines  with  ghee,  the  charioteer 
of  -AYta.  May  he  who  when  kindled  becomes  a 
racer 2,  shining  at  the  sacrifices 3,  lift  up  our  bright- 
coloured  prayer. 

8  l.  Preserve  us,  O  Agni,  never  failing  with  thy 
never-failing,  kind  and  mighty  guardians ;  protect 
our  people  all  around  with  those  undeceived,  undis- 
mayed, never  slumbering  (guardians),  O  thou  our 
wish  2 ! 


NOTES. 

The  same  ^ishi.  Metre,  Gagati  ;  the  last  verse  TrishAibh. 
The  hymn  has  been  translated  by  Kaegi,  Siebenzig  Lieder 
des  Rigveda,  p.  100.  —  Verse  7  =  TB.  I,  2,  i,  12. 

Verse  1. 


Note  1.  Comp.  VIII,  59,  6.  vSikaA  mdtim. 

Note  2.  Agni  who  is  considered  as  born  from  the  Waters, 
is  identified  several  times  with  a  god  who,  like  Matamvan, 
in  my  opinion  had  an  independent  origin,  with  Apfim  napfit 
('  Child  of  the  Waters  ').  Comp.  Bergaigne,  Rel.  Vldique, 
II,  17  seq.  ;  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  118  seq. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  There  is  no  sufficient  reason  for  transposing 
verses  3  and  4  (Kaegi). 

Note  2.  Probably  we  should  read  ati  aktfln  ;  comp.  VI, 
4;  5.  4ti  eti  aktfln.  —  See  Bergaigne,  Melanges  Renier,  p.  96. 


MAJVDALA  I,    HYMN    143.  159 


Verse  4. 

Note  1.    Bhiivanasya   seems  to  depend  on 
comp.  VII,  82,  5.  bhiivanasya  ma^minA. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Pischel  (Vedische  Studien,  I,  231)  seems  to  me 
to  be  right  in  denying  that  sena  ever  means  '  Geschoss,' 
and  in  translating  se*n£  sr*sh/£  'exercitus  effusus.'  The 
opinion  of  Prof,  von  Bradke  and  Prof.  Bloomfield  is  dif- 
ferent; see  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenl.  Gesellschaft, 
XLVI,456;  XLVIII,549. 

Verse  7. 

Note  lp  The  text  adds  the  dativus  ethicus  vaA,  *  for  you  ' 
(comp.  Delbruck,  Altindische  Syntax,  206),  which  can 
scarcely  be  translated. 

Note  2.  Geldncr  (Vedische  Studien,  I,  168)  has  shown 
that  akra  very  probably  means  'horse.'  Agni  is  very 
frequently  compared  to  a  horse.  —  Comp.  Ludwig,  Ueber 
die  neuesten  Arbeiten  auf  dein  Gebicte  der  J?*gveda- 
Forschung,  p.  54  ;  Roth,  Zeitschrift  der  D.  Morg.  Ges.t 
XLVIII,  118. 

Note  3.  See  above,  I,  31,  6,  note  2. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  With  Padas  C  D  compare  the  verse  VI,  8,  7. 
adabdhebhi//  tdva  gopabhi//  ish/e  asmSkam  p&hi  trisha- 
dhastha  suri'n. 

Note  2.  *  What  is  ish/e?  Is  it  thou  our  wish,  or  thou 
our  sacrifice  ?  '  M.  M. 


160  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MA7V£>ALA  I,  HYMN  144. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  13. 

1 .  The  Hotri T  goes  forward 2  (in  order  to  fulfil)  his 
duty  by  his  wonderful  power,  directing  upwards  the 
brightly   adorned   prayer.     He   steps   towards  the 
(sacrificial)  ladles  which   are  turned  to  the  right  ^ 
and  which  first  kiss  his  foundation4. 

2.  They  have  greeted  with  shouts  the  streams  of 
7?/tal  which  were  hidden  at  the  birthplace  of  the 
god,  at  his  seat.     When  He  dwelt  dispersed  in  the 
lap  of  the  waters,  he  drank  the  draughts  by  (the 
power  of)  which  he  moves 2. 

3.  Two  (beings)  of  the  same  age1  try  to  draw 
that  wonderful   shape  (Agni)  towards  themselves, 
progressing    in    turns   towards    a   common    aim 2. 
Then  he  is  to  be  proclaimed  by  us  like  a  winner8 
(in  a  contest).     The  charioteer 4  (governs  all  things) 
as  if  pulling  in  the  reins  of  a  draught-horse. 

4*  He  whom  two  (beings)  of  the  same  age1 
Serve;  two  twins  dwelling  together  in  one  common 
abode,  the  gray  one  has  been  born  as  a  youth  by 
night  as  by  day2,  the  ageless  one  who  wanders 
through  many  generations  of  men. 

5.  The   prayers,  the   ten   fingers1  stir  him   up. 
We,  the  mortals,  call   him,  the  god,  for  his  pro- 
tection.    From   the   dry   land   he    hastens   to    the 
declivities2.     With  those  who  approached  him  he 
has  established  new  rules 3. 

6.  Thou  indeed,  O  Agni,  reignest  by  thy  own 
nature  over  the  heavenly  and  over  the  terrestrial 


MAtfDALA    I,    HYMN    144.  l6l 

world  as  a  shepherd  (takes  care  of  his  cattle). 
-These  two  variegated,  great  (goddesses)  striving  for 
gloriousness,  the  golden  ones  who  move  crookedly  *, 
have  approached  thy  sacrificial  grass. 

7.  Agni !  Be  gratified  and  accept  graciously  this 
prayer,  O  joy-giver,  independent  one,  who  art  born 
in  the  -to'ta,  good-willed  one,  whose  face  is  turned 
towards  us  ftom  all  sides,  conspicuous  one,  gay  in 
thy  aspect,  like  a  dwelling-place  rich  in  food1. 


NOTES. 

The  same  /r/shi.  Metre,  Gagatl — No  verse  occurs  in 
the  other  Sawhitas. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  Hot™  is  Agni. 

Note  2.  Comp.  Ill,  27,  7,  where  it  is  said  of  Agni: 
purdstcit  eti  mdyaya. — The  poet  says  eti  pra,  and  not  pri 
eti,  in  order  to  avoid  the  hiatus. 

Note  3.  Comp.  below,  III,  6,  i.  dakshi;/£-Vei/. 

Note  4.  c  Which  first,  i.  e.  at  the  time  when  the  sacrificial 
vessels  are  put  down,  kiss  his  dhaman  (foundation),  i.e.  the 
place  of  Agni/  Saya;/a. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  IX,  75,  3.  abhi  im  r/tasya  dohanS// 
anushata,  and  VIII,  12,  32.  n£bh&  ya^wasya  dohdnd  prd 
adhvar^.  I  take  dohandA  as  ace.  plur.  of  an  abstract  noun 
dohdna  formed  like^arawd,  bhandana,  &c.  But  possibly  it 
might  be  the  nom.  plur.  either  of  the  same  noun  or  of 
a  nomen  agentis  dohana :  *  the  streams  of  JWta  (the  liba- 
tions?) or  the  milkers  of  y?ita,  hidden  at  the  birthplace 
of  the  god,  have  greeted  him  with  ^houts.'  It  would 
[46]  M 


1 62  VEDIC    HYMNS. 

be  difficult,  however,  to  say  why  the  milkers  of  Rita. 
(i.e.  the  priests?)  are  called  'hidden  at  the  birthplace  of 
the  god/  Prof.  Max  Miiller  thinks  of  a  reading  pari- 
,  'surrounding  Agni.'  He  refers  the  'streams  of 
'  (nom.)  to  the  water,  cf.  I,  105,  12.  rttbm  arshanti 
sfndhavaA. 

Note  2.  Svadh^A  adhayat  y£bhi/z  fyate.  In  my  opinion 
svadh£  means  '  the  inherent  power,'  *  the  power  of  moving 
according  to  one's  own  will/  and  then  the  drink  which 
confers  this  power  on  a  being,  especially  on  the  dead 
ancestors. — Comp.  M.M.,  vol.  xxxii,  p,  32  seq. ;  H.  O., 
Religion  des  Veda,  531,  note  2. 

Verso  3. 

Note  1.  According  to  Saya//a  the  two  livings  spoken  of 
here  and  in  the  next  verse  are  the  llotri  ami  </ae  Adhvaryu. 

Note  2.  See  I,  130,  5.  ayuȣ?ita  sam;\n/mi  Jutham  dkshi- 
tam  ;  III,  61,  3.  sam£ndm  drtham  £ara«iyd:.dnA. 

Note  3.  On  bhdgaA  nd  hdvyaA,  see  Col  Incr,  Vedische 
Studien,  I,  121. 

Note  4.  The  charioteer  is  Agni. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  See  verse  3,  note  i. 

Note  2.  Comp.  Gaedicke,  Der  Accujaitv,  p.  175.  He 
translates :  *  bei  Tage  noch  bei  Nacht  er^rauend/ 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Vris  (faa£  \€yo^€vov)  is  ranged  in  the  Nigha«/us 
among  the  angulin£m£ni  and  explained  by  S4ya«a  accord- 
ingly. The  word  seems  indeed  to  mean  '  finger/  Compare 
with  our  passage  IX,  8,  4 ;  15,  8  ;  93,  *  ;  97,  57- 

Note  2.  Comp.  1, 33, 4.  dhdnoA  ddhi  vishu^dk  t£  vf  Ayan, 
and  especially  X,  4,  3.  dhdno^  ddhi  pravdtd  y&si  hdryan. 
I  cannot  follow  Pischel  (Vedische  Studien,  II,  69  seq.)  in 
explaining  these  passages.  '  Over  the  heavenly  expanse  he 
hastens  down  towards  us/  M.  M. 


MAMDALA    I,    HYMN    144.  163 

Note  3.  See  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  300.  Like 
Pischel  I  do  not  know  who  *  they  who  approached  Agni ' 
are.  Possibly  the  worshippers  or  priests  are  alluded  to. 
'He  received  new  praises  with  (or  from)  those  who 
approached  him/  M.  M. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  S£ya#a  explains  the  two  female  beings  here  in 
question  as  Heaven  and  Earth.  Does  the  '  crooked  move- 
ment '  refer  to  the  daily  revolution  of  the  sky  ? 

Verse  7. 
Note  1.  The  la«t  PAda  recurs  X,  64,  n. 


M  2 


1 64  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANDALA  I,  HYMN  145. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  14. 

1.  Ask  ye  him.     He  has  come.     He  knows.    He 
the  intelligent  one  moves  forward ;  He  moves  along 
(his  way)   (P)1.     In  him  all  commands,  all  wishes 
dwell.     He  is  the  lord  of  strength,  of  mighty  power. 

2.  They  ask  him.     He  himself1  does  not  ask  in 
turn  what  he,  the  wise  one,  has  grasped  by  his  own 
mind  alone2.     He  does  not  forget  the  first  word 
nor  another  word.     Unconfused  he  adheres  to  his 
own  power  of  mind. 

3.  To  him  go  the  sacrificial   ladles,  to  him  go 
the   racers1.     He  alone  may   hear   all   my  words. 
He  who  pronounces  many  praishas 2,  the  conqueror, 
the  accomplisher  of  sacrifices  whose  blessings  are 
flawless,  the  young  child  has  assumed  vigour. 

4.  When  he  has  come  together1  (with  his  com- 
panions2), he  goes  to  greet  them3.     As  soon   as 
born  he  steals  upon  (his  prey)  together  with  his 
companions.     He   strokes   the  ... 4  to  give   him 
delight  and  joy,  when  the  loving  ones5  approach 
him  who  stands  on  them 6. 

5.  He,  the  animal  living  in  the  water  and  walking 
in  the  forest1,  has  been  placed  on  the  highest  skin2 
(sky  ?).    He  has  proclaimed  his  rules  to  the  mortals : 
for  Agni,  the  knowing  one,   is   intent  upon  7?/ta 
(Right)  and  is  true. 

NOTES. 

The  same  Risfai.     Metre,   Gagatl;    the  last  verse   is 
TrishAibh. — No.  verse  occurs  in  the  other  Sa*ahit£s. 


MAtfDALA   I,    HYMN     £45.  165 


Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  Sa white  text  has  s£  nv  iyate,  the  Pada  text, 
nfi  iyate.     Comp.  PrAtwAkhya  314.     I  propose  to  read 
s£nu  (=  sa  Anu)  fyate. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  See  Geldner,  Ved.  Studien,  II;  p.  188. 
Note  2.  Possibly  we  should  read  sv£na  evd. 

Verse  3. 

Note  L  The  text  (irvatiA)  implies  that  these  race-horses 
are  mares.  Probably,  as  Sdya^a  explains,  the  prayers 
(stutayaA)  are  alluded  to.  See  on  the  prayers  compared 
with  horses,  Bergaigne,  II,  284  seq. 

Note  2.  Praishd  is  the  technical  designation  of  the 
sacrificial  commands  of  one  priest  (or  more  especially,  of 
the  Maitr&varu#a)  to  another  priest ;  comp.  Schwab,  Das 
Altindische  Thieropfer,  p.  90 ;  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda, 
390- 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Sam£rata  may  be  the  third  person  of  singular  or 
of  plural. 

Note  2.  I  supply  '  with  his  companions '  in  consideration 
of  the  second  P4da  .(yu^yebhiA).  It  is  difficult  to  say 
who  Agni's  companions  are  (the  flames  ?  .the  officiating 
priests  ?). 

Note  3.  Ludwig's  conjecture,  \ipa  st£yam  £arati,  is  very 
ingenious*  '  He  stealthily  approaches  them.' — On  upa- 
sth£yam,  comp.  also  Bollensen,  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen 
Morgenl.  Gesellschaft,  XLVII,  586. 

Note  4.  The  meaning  of  ^vSntdm,  which  occurs  here  and 
in  the  obscure  passage  X,  61,  21  (ddha  g£va&  upam^tim 
kan£y&7*  £nu  jvfintdsya  kdsya  ^it  pdrft  iyuA),  is  unknown. 
Pbssibly  it  is  related  to  jv^trd,  which  means  something  like 
€  powerful '  or  *  prosperous/ 


1 66  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Note  5.  The  prayers  ?    The  oblations  ? 

Note  6.  Api-sthitdm  may  have  active  or  passive  meaning, 
'he  who  stands  on  somebody  or  something,'  and  'he  on 
whom  somebody  or  something  stands/ 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  The  first  Pada  (and  probably  also  the  fourth) 
belong  to  the  metrical  type  described  by  H.  O.,  Prole- 
gomena, p.  68  seq. :  the  first  part,  before  the  caesura, 
consists  of  four  syllables  ;  and  then  the  P£da  goes  on  as  if 
it  had  the  pentasyllable  opening. 

Note  2.  After  Agni's  abode  in  the  Waters  and  in  the 
wood  has  been  mentioned  in  the  first  PAda,  the  second 
PAda  possibly  refers  to  his  heavenly  abode  to  which  the 
adjective  upamd  ('highest')  seems  to  point.  Thus  the 
'  highest  skin '  would  be  the  sky.  But  S&ya#a,  who  refers 
it  to  the  Vedi,  may  possibly  be  right.  His  explanation 
would  very  well  agree  with  the  second  hemistich. 


MAJVDALA   1,   HYMN    146.  167 


MAA7>ALA  I,  HYMN  146. 
ASHTAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  15. 

1.  I  praise  Agni  who  has  three  heads  and  seven 
rays  (or  reins)1,  who  is  without  flaw,  sitting  in  the 
lap  of  his  parents  *  and  of  whatever  moves  or  is  firm, 
who  has   filled   (with   his  light)   all  the   lights   of 
Heaven. 

2.  The  big  bull  has  grown  up  to  them1;    the 
ageless  one  who  from  here  (from  this  world)  dis- 
tributes his  blessings,  the  tall  has  stood  up  erect 
He  puts  down  his  feet  on  the  surface  of  the  wide 
(Earth) ;  his  red  ones2  lick  the  udder  (the  cloud?). 

3.  Walking  towards  their  common  calf  the  two 
well-established1  milch-cows2  walk  about  in  different 
directions.     They  measure  interminable  paths ;  they 
have  invested  themselves  with  all  great  desires. 

4.  Wise  poets1  follow  his  track2  who  in  manifold 
ways   protect  the   ageless   one   with   their  hearts. 
Wishing  to  acquire  him   they  have   searched  the 
river3.     He  the  Sun4  became  visible  to  them,  to 
the  men5. 

5.  He  is  worthy  to  be  looked  for,  round  about 
in  his  race-courses,  the  noble  who  is  to  be  magnified1, 
the  great  one2,  in  order  that  the  small  may  live,  as 
he,  the  all-visible  liberal  lord,  has  become  a  pro- 
genitor for  those  germs  in  many  places. 

NOTES. 

The  same  jRishl     The  metre  is  TrishAibh. — No  verse 
occurs  in  the  other  Sa#zhit£s. 


1 68  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  1. 

Note  1.  S£ya#a  refers  the  three  heads  of  Agni  to  the 
three  Savanas,  or  the  three  worlds,  or  the  three  sacrificial 
fires.  The  last  explanation  seems  to  be  most  probable. 
The  seven  reins  (rays)  are,  according  to  Saya//a,  the  seven 
metres  or  the  seven  flames  of  Agni.  The  last  explanation 
is  recommended  by  III,  6,  a  (see  below).  But  it  is  possible 
also  to  think  of  the  seven  priests  (sapta  hot&ra/*). — Comp. 
II,  5,  2  (see  below),  and  Taitt.Sa^hita  I,  5,  3,  2  (to  which 
passage  Ludwig  refers):  sapta  te  agne  samidha/j  sapta 
g\\wik  sapta  r/shayaA  saptd  dha'ma  priy£;;i,  &c. 

Note  2.  The  parents  are  Heaven  and  Earth. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.    The  text   has  the  dual  feminine;    no  doubt 
Heaven  and  Earth  are  meant. 
Note  2.  The  horses  or  flames  of  Agni. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  On  su-mdka,  comp.  the  article  of  Prof.  Windisch 
in  Festgruss  an  Bohtlingk,  p.  114. 

Note  2.  -The  cows  seem  to  be  Night  and  Dawn ;  comp. 
above,  I,  95,  i ;.  96,  5.  Night  and  Dawn  are  called  su- 
m<&e,  1, 113,  3. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  priests. 

Note  2.  I  have  translated  paddm  nayanti  in  the  way 
indicated  by  Atharva-veda  XI,  2,  13.  viddhasya  padanta- 
iva;  comp.  also  Manu  VIII,  44.  Prof.  Max  Muller 
.  translates,  « Wise  poets  lead  (Agni)  to  the  ageless  place, 
keeping  many  things  in  their  heart — or,  lead  the  ageless 
Agni  to  his  place  (the  sacrifice).' 

Note  3.  They  have  tried  to  find  Agni  in  his  proper 
dwelling^  in  the  water. 

Note  4.  The  Sun  is  here  identified  with  Agni. 

Note  5.  On  the  form  nrtn  standing  for  different  cases, 


MAATDALA   I,    HYMN    146.  169 

compare  Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  430 ;  Bergaigne, 
Religion  Vidique,  I,  136,  note  i ;  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien, 
I,  4»,  and  Gottinger  Gel.  Anzeigen,  1890,  p.  541  seq. ; 
Hillebrandt,  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenl.  Gcsellschaft, 
XLVIII,  420.  Here  it  seems  most  natural  to  take  nrf'n, 
as  Pischel  has  proposed,  as  standing  for  the  dative  plural, 
Bartholomae  (Studien  zur  indogermanischen  Sprachge- 
schichte,  I,-i  18,  comp.  p.  48),  referring  to  III,  14, 4,  believes 
that  nrfti  (or,  more  correctly,  *nr/m),  both  here  and  there 
is  genitive  plural,  and  that  Agni  is  called  *  the  sun  of  men ' 
because  men  are  able  to  light  this  sun  themselves.  To  me 
it  seems  very  doubtful  that  this  is  a  Vedic  idea,  and  as  to 
the  verse  IH,  14,  4,  I  believe  that  nr/n  there  is  a  regular 
accusative  plural :  Agni  is  called  there, '  a  sun  that  spreads 
out  men  over  their  dwellings.' 

Verse  5. 

Hot*  1.  1/enyaA.     Comp.  I,  i,  i,  note  2. 

Note  3.  Agni  may  be  called  mahd^,  'the  great  one/ 
But  it  seems  more  natural  to  read  mah£,  the  ancient 
pronunciation  of  which  word  before  a  word  commencing 
with  a  vowel  (mahi*)  coincided,  or  nearly  coincided,  with 
that  of  mah££.  The  translation  then  would  be  :  'he  who 
is  to  be  magnified  in  order  that  the  great  and  the  small 
may  live.' 


1  7O  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAA/£>ALA  I,  HYMN  147. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  16. 

1.  How,  O  Agni,  have  the  resplendent  ones  wor- 
shipped thee,  aspiring  through  the   powers  of  the 
Ayu1,  when2  the  gods,  obtaining  kith  and  kin  of  both 
races3  (human  and  divine  ?),  rejoiced  in  the  song  of 
HitSL  (or  Right)4? 

2.  Give   heed   to    this   my   proffered    hymn,    O 
youngest  one,  which  is  most  rich  in  liberal  gifts1, 
O  self-dependent  one !     The  one  abuses  thee,  the 
other  praises  thee :  I  thy  reverer  revere  thy  body, 
O  Agni 2 ! 

3.  Thy  guardians,  O  Agni,  who  saw  and  saved 
thfe  blind  son  of  Mamati  from  distress1 — he   the 
possessor  of  all  wealth  has  saved  them  who  have 
done  good  deeds2.    The  impostors,  trying  to  deceive, 
have  not  deceived. 

4.  The  niggard,  O  Agni,  the  harmful  and  malicious 
who  injures  us  by  falsehood :  may  the  heavy  spell 
recoil  on  him ;  may  he  injure  his  own  body  by  his 
evil  words1. 

5.  And,  O  strong  one,  whatever  mortal  knowingly 
injures  another  mortal  by  falsehood :   from  such  a 
one,  O  praised  Agni,  protect  him  who  praises  thee. 
Agni !     Do  not  deliver  us  to  distress. 

NOTES. 

The  same  JRtshi  and  metre. —Verse  2  =  VS.  XII,  42 ; 
TS.  IV,  2,  3,  4 ;  MS.  II,  7,  10.  Vers*  3  =  RV.  IV,  4,  13  5 
TS.I,2,i4,5;  MS.  IV,  ii,  5. 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN    147.  17! 


Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  Ayu  seems  to  be  Agni  himself.  Or  is  it 
admissible  to  interpret  &y6/t  as  standing  metri  cans  A  for 
&ydva>fc  ?  Then  the  hemistich  would  refer  to  the  mythical 
sacerdotal  tribe  of  the  Ayus,  the  ancient  worshippers  of 
Agni.  Comp.3  for  instance,  X,  7, 5 ;  46,  8.  The  translation 
would  be,  *  How,  O  Agni,  have  the  resplendent  Ayus  wor- 
shipped thee,  aspiring  with  their  powers?1 

Note  2.  '  Because/    M.  M. 

Note  3.  Comp.  VIII,  103,  7.  ubh£  tok£  tdnaye  dasma 
vlrpate  pdrshi  r£dha//  magh6nam. 

Note  4.  As  to  rztasya  sSman,  comp.  V&g.  Sawh.  XXII, 
2,  and  n'tcisya  sl6ka/i,  Rig-veda  IV,  23,  8.  Our  Pada  recurs 
IV,  7,  7  with  the  reading  rztdsya  dh£man. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  With  va£asa h  ma;#hish/7/asya  compare  mawhish- 
tfabhi/t  matfbhi/i,  VIII,  23,  23. 

Note  2.'  Cf.  Aufrecht,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  III,  200. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Dirghatamas  the  son  of  Mamatd.  is  the  reputed 
author  of  this  section  of  the  first  Ma/ft/ala  which  belongs 
indeed  tp  a  family  of  priests  claiming  descent  from  him. 
The  story  of  the  blindness  of  Dirghatamas  and  of  the 
distress  into  which  he  fell  is  told  in  the  Mahabharata 

I,  4179  seq.,  ed.  Calc.;  comp.  also  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien, 

II,  145- 

Note  2.  Considering  the  construction  of  the  whole  verse 
from  the  grammatical  point  of  view  only,  one  will  scarcely 
be  tempted  to  translate  otherwise  than  we  have  done.  But 
it  is  rather  strange  that  Agni  is  represented  here  as  saving 
those  very  guardians  by  the  aid  of  whom  he  has  saved 
MAmateya.  The  meaning  which  one  should  expect  to 
find  expressed,  is  rather  that  Agni,  as  he  has  saved 
M&mateya  by  his  guardians,  has  saved  also,  and  will  save, 
all  pious  worshippers.  This  meaning  may  be  established 


172  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


if  we  consider  the  construction  of  the  verse  as  similar,  for 
instance!  to  that  of  I,  37,  12  (vol.  xxxii,  p.  64):  maruta// 
yit  ha  vaA  bdlam  ginbn  a£u£yavitana, '  O  Maruts,  with 
such  strength  as  yours,  you  have  caused  men  to  tremble.1 
Thus  we  may,  I  believe,  translate  here, '  Agni !  With  such 
guardians  as  thine  who  have  seen  and  saved  the  blind  son 
of  Mamatft  from  distress,  he,  the  possessor  of  all  wealth 
(i.e.  Agni),  has  saved  all  those  who  have  done  good  deeds.' 
Bergaigne  (III,  191)  understands  the  verse  in  the  same 
way. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  Vedic  idea  of  the  evil  deeds  recoiling  on 
the  evil-doer  himself  has  been  treated  of  by  Bergaigne,  III, 
190  seq. 


MAJVDALA    I,    HYMN     148.  173 

MAA/7?ALA  I,  HYMN  148. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  17. 

1.  When  MatarLrvan  .  .  .*  had  produced  by  attri- 
tion the  Hotrz,  the  .  .  .2  who  belongs  to  all  gods, 
whom   they   have    established   among   the    human 
clans,   shining   like  the    sun,   resplendent    that    (he 
might  show  his  beautiful)  shape — 

2.  They  did  not  deceive  him1  who  had  granted 
a  hymn  (to  the  worshipper).     Agni  is  my  protection  ; 
therewith  he  is  satisfied.     They  took  pleasure  in  all 
his2  works — (in  the  works)  of  the  singer  who  brought 
praise. 

3.  Whom  the  worshipful  (gods)1  took  and  placed 
in  his  own  seat  (as  priest)  with  their  praises :  him 
they2  have  carried  forward,  taking  hold  of  him  in 
their   search,   hastening    like   horses    that    draw    a 
chariot. 

4.  The  marvellous  one  destroys  many  things  with 
his  jaws.     Then1  the  resplendent  one  shines  in  the 
forest.     Then  the  wind  blows  after  his  flame  day  by 
day  as  after  the  arrow  of  an  archer,  after  a  weapon 
that  has  been  shot. 

5.  Him  whom   no  impostors,  no  harmful  foes1, 
no  harm-doers  may  harm  when  he  dwells   in   (his 
mother's)  womb,  him  the  blind  ones  bereft  of  sight 
did    not   damage   by   looking   at   him2.     His   own 
friends  have  protected  him. 


174  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 
The  same  JRishi  and  metre. — Verse  i  =  MS.  IV,  14,  15. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  first  Pada  is  identical  with  the  first  P3da  of 
I,  71,  4  (see  our  note  there)  with  the  exception  of  the  word 
vish/a//,  instead  of  which  that  parallel  passage  has  the 
reading  vf-bhr/ta//.  It  seems  impossible  to  explain  vish/a//, 
and  the  concurrence  of  the  metrical  irregularity  in  the  same 
part  of  the  Pdda — though  metrical  irregularities ,  are  not 
infrequent  in  this  hymn — invites  to  a  correction  of  the 
text.  If  vi-bhr/taA  in  I,  71,  4  (see  note  there)  refers 
to  Mataruvan,  which  I  consider  as  doubtful,  it  would  be 
easy  to  find  for  our  passage  an  equivalent  of  that  word 
little  differing  from  the  traditional  vish/dA,  namely,  v{- 
sthitaA:  'when  M^tarijvan,  standing  in  different  places, 
had  produced  him  by  attrition.'  Of  course  whoever 
adopts  a  conjecture  like  this,  can  scarcely  avoid  under- 
standing vf-bhr/ta/z  in  I,  71,  4  as  an  epithet  of  Matamvan, 
not  of  Agni.  Another  way  to  correct  our  passage  would 
be  to  put  into  the  text  a  form  derived  from  the  root  vish, 
'  to  accomplish  a  work,'  for  instance,  vish/ya  (to  be  read  as 
trisyllabic) :  *  when  Matarijvan  by  his  effort/  &c.  Grass- 
mann's  vf-sitaA  is  quite  improbable. 

Note  2.  VLrvci-apsum  (Saw/hita  text,  vi.rvcipsum),  evidently 
an  epithet  of  Agni  the  HoW,  seems  corrupt.  Shall  we 
read  vLrva-psum  (* endowed  with  all  food') — comp.  VIII, 
$2,  12.  havam  vlrvdpsum  vuvdvdryam — or  vuva-piisham 
(Samh.,  virv&piisham,  'all-nourishing')  or  vuvd-apasam 
('  doing  all  works ')  ?  Also  vLrvd-psnyam  may  be  thought 
of.  It  is  impossible,  of  course,  to  arrive  at  any  .certain 
conclusion. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  'He1  seems  to  be  Agni.  S£ya«a,  however, 
explains :  dad&nam  id  agnaye  kurv£;/am  eva  m&m.  This 
would  lead  to  a  translation  like  this :  '  (The  enemies)  did 


MAJV0ALA    I,    HYMN     148.  175 

not  deceive  (me,  the  worshipper)  who  had  addressed  a  hymn 
(to  Agni).' 

Note  2.  On  'his'  Sayawa  remarks,  'ya^umajiasya  mama,' 
But  the  word  may  refer  to  Agni. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  There  is  no  reason  for  abandoning  here  the  usual 
meaning  of  ya^wfya.  On  the  gods  seeking  after  Agni,  comp. 
Bergaigne,  I,  no. 

•  Note  2.  It  is  very  probable,  to  say  the  least,  that '  they ' 
are  again  the  gods. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Is  the  first  £t  dissyllabic  ?  More  probably  the 
Pada  is  deficient  by  one  syllable. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Two  syllables  are  wanting  before  the  caesura  of 
the  first  Pdda. 

Note  2.  Was  there  a  belief  that  a  blind  man  by  turning 
his  blind  eyes  on  somebody  could  do  him  harm  ?  Possibly 
we  might  have  to  translate:  '  Him  (his  foes)  blind  and  bereft 
of  sight  did  not  damage  though  looking  at  him  (i.e.  though 
turning  their  blind  eyes  on  hi  in).'-- -Prof.  Max  Muller  writes: 

*  Could  it  be  :    Even  the  blind  saw,  but  did  not  injure  him 
(andhaV*  apajyan  na  dabhau) ;  abhikhya,  when  he  was  seen, 
no  longer  in  the  womb?' 


176  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANDALA  I,  HYMN  149. 
ASHTAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  la 

i  \  Towards  great  wealth  this  lord  of  the  house2 
advances3,  the  strong  one  in  the  abode  of  strong 
wealth.  Let  the  stones  honour  him  as  he  speeds 
forward. 

2.  He  the  manly  (bull)  as  of  men  so  of  the  two 
worlds,  whose  stream  is  drunk   by  living  beings1 
in   consequence   of  his   renown — he   who  running 
forward  has  ripened  in  (his  mother's)  womb— 

3.  He  who  lighted  up  the  .  .  .*  stronghold,  the 
racer,  the  sage,  like  a  .  .  . 2  horse,  shining  like  the 
sun,  endowed  with  hundredfold  life. 

4.  He  who  has  a  twofold  birth  (celestial  and  ter- 
restrial), the  flaming  one  has  approached  the  three- 
fold light,  all  spaces  of  the  atmosphere,  the  Hot/% 
the  best  sacrificer,  in  the  abode  of  the  Waters. 

5.  This  is  the  Hotrz  having  a  twofold  birth1  who 
,has,  bestowed  all  the  best  gifts,  out  of  desire  of  glory,, 
on  the  quick  mortal  who  worships  him. 

NOTES. 

The  same  /?/shi.  Metre,  VirA^.— Verses  3-5  =  SV.  II, 
1124-1126. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  My  translation  of  this  verse  differs  from  that  of 
Pischel,  Ved.  Studien,  II,  100. 

Note  2.  On  pati/*  dan,  comp.  Hiibschmann,  Vocalsystem, 
142;  Bartholomae,ArischeForschungen,I,70;  Joh.Schmidt, 
Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVII,  309 ;  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien, 


M AND ALA    I,    HYMN     149.  177 

II,  93  seq. ;    Bartholomae,  Indogermanische  Forschungen, 

III,  100  seq. 

Note  3.  Comp.  X,  93,  6.  mahdA  sd  rdya/*  £  ishate. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  I,  80,  4,  and  similar  passages,  in  which 
the  waters  are  called  ^ivd-dhanya/*,  '  the  prize  (of  contests) 
which  living  beings  have  gained.' 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  We  do  not  know  what  n&rmini  is.  Possibly  in 
this  word  two  words,  nd  drmiwi,  are  contained,  so  that  the 
particle  nd  would  be  repeated  in  each  of  the  three  P&das. 
The  translation  would  then  be :  'he  who  lighted  up  the 
drmitfi  (?)  like  a  stronghold/ 

Note  2.  I  place  no  confidence  in  the  attempts  to  find  the 
meaning  of  a  word  like  nabhanya/*  with  the  aid  of  etymo- 
logy only.  The  same  word  occurs  in  I,  173,  i  as  an 
epithet  of  the  Sdman  which  the  priest,  who  is  compared 
to  a  bird,  sings  (gSyat  s£ma  nabhanyam  yatha  vih).  It 
occurs  also  in  VII,  42,  i.  prd  krandanuA  nabhanyasya 
vetu.  The  connection  in  which  these  words  stand,  seems 
to  show  that  the  meaning  is:  'the  noise  of  the  sacrificial 
fire  shall  arise;'  very  probably  the  fire  is  compared  to 
a  horse,  and  its  noise  to  the  neighing  of  that  horse. 
Thus  nabhanya  would  be  in  VII,  42,  T,  quite  as  in  our  pas- 
sage, an  epithet  of  a  horse.  This  epithet  may  refer  either 
to  the  swift  motion  of  the  horse  and  of  the  Saman  ascend- 
ing to  the  gods,  or  more  probably  to  the  gay  voice  of  the 
horse,  the  loud  noise  of  the  S£man. 

Verse  5. 
Note  1.  Two  syllables  are  wanting  in  the  first  P£da. 


[46]  N 


178  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANDALA  I,  HYMN  150. 
ASHTAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  2,  VARGA  19. 

1.  I  thy  indigent1  worshipper  say  much  to  thee, 
O  Agni,  dwelling  in  thy  protection  as  (in  the  pro- 
tection) of  a  great  impeller2. 

2.  Away  even  from  the  libation  of  a  rich  man  who 
is  feeble,  who  is  a  niggard,  who  never  comes  forward 
and  does  not  care  for  the  gods. 

3.  The  mortal  (who  worships  thee  ?),  O  priest,  is 
brilliant,   great,    most    powerful    in    heaven.      May 
we,  O  Agni,  addicted  to  thee,  be  always  foremost. 


NOTES. 

The  same  72/shi.     Metre,  Ush«ih.— Verse  i=SY.  I,  97. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  On  arf,  see  Bergaigne,  Religion  Vedique,  II,  218. 
Note  2.  Or,  'of  the  great  impeller* — the  Sun-god  who 
impels  or  stimulates  his  horses  ?     Comp.  VI,  6,  6  ? 


MAMDALA    I,    HYMN    l88.  179 


MAAfZ?ALA  I,  HYMN  188. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  8-9. 

APR!  HYMN. 

1.  Being  kindled  thou  reignest  to-day,  a  god  with 
the  gods,  O  conqueror  of  thousandfold  (wealth)  !    As 
messenger,  as  a  sage,  carry  the  oblations  (to  the 
gods). 

2.  O  Tanftnap&t!     For  him  who  walks  in  right- 
eousness the  sacrifice  is  anointed  with  honey.     May 
he1  grant  thousandfold  food. 

3.  Receiving  libations,  worthy  of  being  magnified l 
bring   hither   to   us  the   worshipful   gods.      Agni ! 
Thou  art  a  winner  of  thousandfold  (bliss), 

4.  They  have  spread  with   might  the  eastward- 
turned   sacrificial   grass,    blessing  (our   tribe)   with 
a  thousand  men l,   (at  the  place)  where  you  reign, 
O  Adityas ! 

5.  The  Prince,  the  Sovereign,  the  mighty  ones, 
the  eminent  ones1,  the  (Divine)  Doors,  which  are 
many  and  more  than  many,  have  sent  forth  streams 
of  ghee. 

6.  Adorned  with  gold,  wearing  beautiful  ornaments 
you  verily  reign  high1  in  your  splendour.     Sit  down 
here,  ye  two  Dawns2. 

7.  May  the   two  fine-voiced  divine   Hotr/s,  the 
sages,  perform  as  the  first  this  sacrifice  for  us. 

8.  Bh&rati!    1/4!    Sarasvati!    All  ye  (goddesses) 
whom  I  invoke,  promote  us  to  splendour. 

9.  Tvasty/rz  indeed,  the  eminent  (god)  has  shaped 
all  forms,  all  cattle.     Do  thou  by  sacrifice  produce 
their  increase. 

N  2 


l8o  VEDIC    HYMNS. 

io.  Yield  up  by  thyself,  O  tree,  (the  sacrificial  food) 
to  the  abode  of  the  gods1.  May  Agni  make  the 
offerings  relishable. 

1  1.  Agni  going  in  front  of  the  gods  is  anointed 
with  this  GSyatra  song;  he  shines  when  Svdha  is 
pronounced  (over  the  oblations). 

NOTES. 

The  7?/shi  is  Agastya,  the  metre  Gayatri.  This  Apri 
hymn  is  closely  related  to  hymn  X,  no,  the  author  of 
which  no  doubt  knew  and  imitated  our  hymn.  —  No  verses 
occur  in  the  other  Sawhitds. 

Verse  2. 

,  Note  1.  I  have  taken  dadhat  as  a  third  person,  the  sub- 
ject being  TanOnapat.  But  it  may  be  a  participle  referring 
to  yag-naA  :  '  the  sacrifice  which  procures  thousandfold  food 
is  anointed  with  honey.1 

Verse  3. 
Note  1.  The  text  has 


Verse  4. 

Note  1.  '  This  is  the  Da^avira  sacrifice  of  the  SAktyas. 
Ten  valiant  sons  are  born  to  those  who  perform  it.'  Pa#£a- 
vimsa  Br&hma#a  XXV,  7,  4. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  These  are  evidently  names  of  the  divine  doors.  — 
As  to  the  nominative  dura//,  see  Lanman,  p.  486. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  On  adhi-vi-ra^-,  comp.  IX,  75,  3.  adhi  tripr/sh/M/fc 
ushdsa^  vf  rd^ati. 

Note  2.  I.e.  Dawn  and  Evening. 

Verse  IO. 

Note  1.  Literally:  '  to  the  abode,  for  the  gods.*  Comp. 
the  corresponding  verse  (io)  of  the  Apri  hymn  X,  no. 
dev£n£m 


MAtfZ)ALA    I,    HYMN    189.  l8l 


MA/W7ALA  I,  HYMN  189. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  10-11. 

1.  Agni !     Lead    us  to  wealth  on  a  good   path, 
O  god  who  knowest  all  rules.     Drive  away  from  us 
sin  which   leads  us  astray.     We  will  offer  to  thee 
the  fullest  praise. 

2.  Agni !    '1  liou  who  art   young,  help  us  safely 
across   all   difficulties.     Be   for  us  a  broad,  large, 
wide  stronghold,   for  our  kith  and  kin,  with  luck 
and  weal1. 

3.  Agni!  Drive  away  from  us  all  plagues.   (Then) 
they  shall  plague1  peoples  who  do  not  stand  under 
Agni's  protection      (Give)  us  back  again  the  earth, 
O  god,  together  with  all  the  immortals,  O  worshipful 
one,  that  it  may  p'<>  well  with  us. 

4.  Proteu  us  Agni.  with  thy  unwearied  guardians, 
thou  who   Maine&t  in  thy    beloved   seat.     May   no 
clanger,  O  joimgost  of  the  gods,  attain  thy  praiser, 
not  now  nor    u  future,  O  mighty  one! 

5.  Do  not  •!<  liver  us,  O  Agni,  to  the  harmful  foe, 
to  the  }>reed\  one,  to  the  impostor,  to  misfortune. 
Do  not  surrender  us,  O  mighty  one,  to  one  who  has 
teeth,  who  bites  nor  to  one  who  has  no  teeth,  nor 
to  one  who  will  hart  us. 

6.  May  a  (jj;od)  like  thec,  O  Agni,  who  art  born 
according  to  AVta,  being  praised  spread  out  a  shelter 
for  the  body  (of  the  worshipper  that  protects)  from 
every  one  who  tries  to  harm  or  to  revile  him.     For 
thou,  O  god,  art  a  descrier1  of  everything  that  leads 
us  astray. 


1 82  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


71.  Thou,  O  Agni,  distinguishing  both  (kinds  of 
men,  the  pious  and  the  impious,  or  the  Aryans  and 
the  Dasyus2),  eagerly  approachest  (Aryan)  men  at 
(the  time  of)  the  advancing  (day) 3,  O  worshipful  one. 
At  (the  time  of)  rest  thou  hast  become  governable 
to  the  man  (or,  to  Manu ;  or,  thou  art  to  be  praised 
by  men4);  thou  art  to  be  smoothed  down  like 
a  horse6  by  the  U^s. 

8.  We  have  pronounced  our  invocations,  I  the 
son  of  Mina  \  before  this  mighty  Agni.  May  we 
obtain  (our  wishes)  through  a  thousand  jfrshis. 
May  we  find  a  food-giving  .  .  .  rich  in  quickening 
rain 2. 


NOTES. 

The  same  fttshi.  Metre,  Trish/ubh.  —  Verse  i=VS.  V, 
36  ;  VII,  43  J  XL,  16  ;  TS.  I,  i,  14,  3  ;  4,  43>  *  5  TB.  II,  8, 
a,  3  ;  TA.  I,  8,  8  ;  MS.  1,  2,  13  ;  IV,  10,  2  ;  14,  3.  Verse  2  = 
TS.  I,  i,  14,  4  ;  TB.  II,  8,  2,  5  ;  TA.  X,  2,  i  ;  MS.  IV,  10,  i  ; 
14,3.  Verse  3  =TB.  II,  8,  2,  4;  MS.  IV,  14,  3- 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  c  For  health  and  wealth,1  M.  M.  ;  see  vol.  xxxii, 


P- 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  If  the  accent  is  correct  (Sa;;zh.  abhydmanta,  Pad. 
abhf  dmanta),  the  clause,  though  containing  no  subordi- 
nating word,  must  be  understood  as  standing  in  logical 
dependende  on  the  following,  or  —  which  in  our  case  seems 
more  probable  —  on  the  preceding  clause.  Examples  of 
this  kind  have  been  collected  by  Delbriick,  Altindische 


MAJVDALA   I,    HYMN    189.  183 

Syntax,  p.  43. — That  kr/sh/f//  should  be  nominative  is  very 
improbable ;  comp.  Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  393.  See 
also  Leo  Meyer,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XVI,  9. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  (vol.  xxxii,  p.  229)  translates, 
'  For  thou,  god,  art  the  deliverer  from  all  assaults  ; '  he 
derives  vishpd/ '  from  vi  and  spaj-,  to  bind.' 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  This  verse  has  been  treated  of  by  Geldner, 
Vedische  Studien,  il,  156,  158. 

Note  2.  Geldner  (loc.  cit.,  156)  proposes  two  explanations 
for  ubhay&n.  It  may  refer  either  to  the  pious  and  the 
impious  spoken  of  in  the  preceding  verses,  or  to  prapitvam 
and  abhipitvam,  which  words  Geldner  believes  to  be  mas- 
culine. I  do  not  attach  such  weight  to  the  Avestic  frapi- 
thw6  (Vend.  Ill,  3)  as  to  draw,  with  Geldner,  a  conclusion 
from  this  word  on  the  gender  of  the  Vedic  prapitva,  and  in 
every  case  I  think  that  this  explanation  of  ubhaydn  is  very 
forced,  while  it  is  natural  to  refer  ubhayan  to  the  pious  and 
impious,  or  as  we  may  express  it  in  conformity  with  Vedic 
ideas,  to  'men'  (comp.  manusha//  P&da  2,  manave  Pada  3), 
i.  e.  Aryans,  and  Dasyus  (see  VIII,  50,  8  ;  98,  6  ;  IX,  92, 5). 
Then  ubhayan  vi  vidvan  would  have  exactly  the  same 
meaning  as  the  words  in  I,  51,  8.  vi  ^anihi  ary&n  ye  £a 
dasyava/i. 

Note  3.  On  prapitva  we  have  the  two  ingenious  discus- 
sions of  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  II,  155  seq.,  and  of 
Bloomfield  in  the  fifth  series  of  his  Contributions  to  the 
interpretation  of  the  Veda,  p.  24  seq.  In  my  opinion 
Bloomfield  has  not  succeeded  in  proving  that  the  words 
ending  in  -pitva  (prapitva,  abhipitva,  sapitva,  &c.)  contain 
the  stem  pitu,  'sap,  drink,  nourishment/  and  that  prapitva 
means  the  morning-pressure  of  Soma,  which  is  'sually 
designated  as  prata/isavana,  abhipitva,  the  evening-pressure 
or  the  t/'/'tiya-savana.  I  do  not  think  it  necessary,  how- 


184  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


ever,  to  examine  here  the  single  points  of  his  interesting 
and  elaborate  discussion,  for  it  seems  to  me  that  Geldner 
has  conclusively  shown  that  the  meaning  of  these  words  is 
different  from  what  Bloomfield  believes  it  to  be :  abhipitva, 
as  Geldner  (p.  155)  states,  is  'Erholiing,'  '  Rast,'  and  'die 
Zeit  des  Rastens/  *  Feierabend/  'Abend  ;'  prapitva  (p.  178), 
on  the  other  hand,  means  '  Vorlauf/  'das  aufs  Ziel  Zugehen,5 
'  die  vorgeriickte  Tageszeit.' 

Note  4.  S5syaA, '  governable/  does  not  give  an  impos- 
sible meaning.  But  should  we  not  have  to  correct  samsyaA 
'  thou  art  to  be  praised  by  men  ? ' 

Note  6.  On  akra//f  comp.  Vedische  Studien,  I,  168,  and 
above,  I,  143,  7. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Mdna  is  another  name  of  Agastya.  See  Zeit- 
schrift  der  Deutschen  Morg.  Gesellschaft,  XLII,  221. 

Note  2.  On  the  last  words  of  the  hymn— the  regularly 
repeated  conclusion  of  the  Agastya  hymns — see  M.  M., 
vol.  xxxii,  p.  xx,  and  also  Bartholomae,  Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage,  XV,  212,  I  do  not  think  it  very  probable  that 
ishd  is  here  the  name  of  an  autumn  month,  as  found  in  the 
•Satapatha  Brahma«a  and  others  of  the  more  modern  Vedic 
texts ;  to  me  it  would  seem  rather  strange  that  such 
a  prayer  for  the  fertility  of  that  month  should  have  formed, 
among  the  Agastyas,  the  standing  conclusion  of  their  sacri- 
ficial hymns.  But  the  names  of  the  two  months  isha  and 
hrg&  seem  to  point  to  the  existence  of  two  adjectives  mean- 
ing 'giving  food'  and  'giving  sap.' — Then  follows  vnr^ana, 
used  as  a  masculine.  Geldner  (Vedische  Studien,  I,  151) 
indicates  the  following  passages,  in  which  he  believes  that 
this  masculine  vnj^dna  occurs  :  V,  44,  i  ;  VI,  35, 5  ;  VII,  32, 
27  ;  X,  27,  4 ;  and  the  concluding  Pada  of  the  Agastya 
hymns.  Of  these  passages  the  two  first  seem  to  be  open 
to  doubt  as  to  the  correctness  of  the  text.  In  V,  44,  i 
the  true  reading  may  be  prati^inam  w/sha«am  dohase ; 
comp.  verse  3,  vrishb  sisuA,  and  I,  173,  6,  where  possibly 
should  be  read  instead  of  vr^-dnam  (Gottinger 


MAM9ALA    I,     HYMN     189.  185 

Gelehrte  Anzeigen,  1890,  417).  In  VI,  35,  5  I  propose  to 
read  vrmag-am  (Gott.  Gel.  Anzeigen,  loc.  cit.,  416).  In  VII, 
32,  27  and  X,  27,  4  vn^ana  (Padap.  vng-ana// ;  .the  letter  d 
follows)  and  vr/^aneshu  seem  to  be  masculine,  though  it  is 
not  absolutely  impossible  'to  see  in  these  forms  the  nom. 
pkir.  and  loc.  plur.  of  the  neuter  vr^dna.  But  I  believe 
that  any  attempts  to  derive  conclusions  from  these  three 
passages  on  the  meaning  of  the  masculine  w/^ana  are 
hopeless. 


1 86  VEDIC     HYMNS. 


MANDALA  II,  HYMN  1. 
ASHTAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  17-19. 

1  \  Thou,  O  Agni,  the  flaming  one,  (art  born) 
from  out   the  Heavens2,  thou  (art  born)  from  out 
the  Waters  and  the  stone  (the  flint) ;  thou  (art  born) 
from  out  the  forests  and  the  herbs ;  thou  art  born 
bright,  O  Lord  of  men,  (as  belonging)  to  men  3. 

2  '.  To  thee,  O  Agni,  belongs  the  Hotrz's  and  the 
Pot^/'s  office  exercised  at  the  appointed  season  ;  to 
thee  belongs  the  office  of  the  Nesh/rz ;  thou  art  the 
Agnidh  2  for  the  righteous.     To  thee  belongs   the 
office  of  the  Prasastfz;  thou  actest  as  an  Aclhvaryu, 
and  thou  art  the  Brahman  and  the  master  of  the 
house  in  our  house :J. 

3  l.  Thou,  O  Agni,  art  Inclra,  a  bull  among  (all) 
beings.    Thou  art  the  wide-ruling  Vish/m,  worthy  of 
adoration.      Thou    art   the    Brahman,  a   gainer   of 
wealth,    O,  Brahma;/aspati 2.       Thou,    O   Vidhartr/ 
(i.e.  who  keepest  asunder  all  things),  art  united  with 
Purawclhi  (or  the  Liberality  of  the  gods) 3. 

4.  Thou,  O  Agni,  art  the  king  Varuwa  whose  lawrs 
are  firm  ;  thou  becomest  Mitra,  the  wondrous  one, 
worthy  of  being  magnified.      Thou   art   Aryaman, 
the  lord  of  beings,  whom   I   may  enjoy l.      Thou, 
O  god,  art  Amsa. 2,  desirous  of  distributing  (goods) 
in  the  assembly 3. 

5.  Thou,  O  Agni,  being  Tvash/r/,  (grantest)  to 
thy   worshipper   abundance   in   heroes.      To   thee, 
who   art  accompanied  by  the  (divine)  wives l,  who 
art  great  like  Mitra,  belongs  relationship 2.     Thou, 


MAJVDALA    II,     HYMN     I.  187 


the    quick    inciter3,   givest    abundance    in    horses. 
Thou,  rich  in  wealth,  art  the  host  of  men 4. 

6.  Thou,  O  Agni,  art  Rudra,  the  Asura   of  the 
high  Heaven1 ;  thou,  being  the  host  of  the  Maruts, 
rulest  over  nourishment.     Thou  goest  along  with 
the  flame-coloured  Winds,  bringing  happiness  to  our 
home.     Thou,    being   Pushan,  protectest   thy  wor- 
shippers by  thy  own  might. 

7.  Thou,  O  Agni,  art  a  giver  of  wealth  to  him 
who  does  service  to  thee  l ;  thou  art  the  god  Savit/V, 
a  bestower  of  treasures.     Thou,  being  Bhaga,  O  lord 
of  men,  rulest  over  wealth.     Thou  art  a  protector 
in  his  house  to  him  who  has  worshipped  thee  2. 

8.  Towards  thee,  in  the  house,  the  lord  of  the 
clan,  O  Agni,  the  clans  strive,  towards  tliee,   the 
bounteous    king.      Thou   with    the    beautiful    face 
possessest  all  things.     Thou  art  equal  to  thousands, 
to  hundreds,  to  ten  (of  others). 

9.  Thee,   O  Agni,   men   (make)   their   father  by 
their  sacrifices l ;    thee  who  shinest  with   thy  body 
they  (invite)   to    brotherhood    by  their   (sacrificial) 
work.       Thou   becomest   a    son   to   him    who   has 
worshipped  thee.     As  a  kind  friend  thou  protectest 
against  attack. 

10.  Thou,  O  Agni,  art  /?/bhu,  to  be  adored  when 
near.     Thou  rulest  over  strength  19  over  wearlth  rich 
in  food.     Thou  shinest 2,  thou  burnest  for  the  sake 
of  giving  (wealth).    Thou  art  a  hewer 3,  an  expander 
of  sacrifice. 

1 1.  Thou,  Agni,O  gocl,  art  Aditi  to  the  worshipper. 
Thou,   being    Hotra    Bharati1,  growest   strong  by 
prayer.     Thou  art   Irtfa,   living  a  hundred  winters, 
for  (the  increase  of)  ability.     Thou,  the  killer  of 
VWtra,  O  Lord  of  wealth,  art  Sarasvati 2. 


1 88  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


1 2.  Thou,  O  Agni,  well  kept,  art  the  highest  vital 
power.     In  thy  lovely  colour  and  in  thy  appearance 
(dwell  all)  beauties.     Thou  art  great  strength  that 
carries   us    forward.      Thou   art   abundant    wealth, 
extending  on  all  sides. 

1 3.  The  Adityas  have  made  thee,  O  Agni,  their 
mouth ;    the   bright    ones    have    made    thee    their 
tongue,  O  Sage.     The  Rati-sa/i  gods  (i.e.  the  Boun- 
teous '  gods)  accompany  thee  at  the  sacrifices.     In 
thee  the  gods  eat  the  offering  which  is  offered  to 
them. 

14.  In  thee,  O  Agni,  with  (thy)  mouth1  all  the 
guileless2  immortal  gods  eat  the  offering  vhich  is 
offered  to  them.     Through  thee  the  mortals  taste 
their  drink.     Thou  hast  been  born,  the  bright  one, 
as  the  child  of  the  plants. 

I51.  Thou  art  united  with  them  and  equal  to 
them  in  strength,  O  well-born  Agni,  nay,  thou  sur- 
passest  them,  O  god,  when  thy  power 2  has  expanded 
here  in  its  greatness  over  Heaven  and  Earth,  over 
both  worlds. 

1 6.  The  liberal  lords  who  pour  out,  O  Agni,  over 
thy  praisers  gifts  at  the  head  of  which  there  are 
cows  l,  the  ornament  of  which  are  horses:  lead  both 
ourselves  and  them  to  welfare.  May  we  speak  loud 
in  the  assembly 2,  rich  in  valiant  men. 


NOTES. 

The  Rtshi  is  Gr/tsamada,  the  metre  Gagati. — Verse  i  = 
VS.  XI,  *7  ;  TS.  IV,  i,  2,  5 ;  TA.  X,  76,  i ;  MS.  II,  7>  *• 
Verse  2  =  RV.  X,  91,  10.  Verse  6  =  TS.  I,  3,  i*,  J ;  TB. 
Ill,  n,  2,  i.  Verse  13=TB.  II,  7, 13,  6. 


MAA'DALA    II,    HYMN     I.  1 89 


Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Among  the  numerous  texts  which  treat  of  the 
different  origins  of  Agni  (see  Bergaigne,  I,  20  seq.),  especi- 
ally the  following  two  verses  may  be  compared  wfth  this 
passage :  VI,  48,  5.  yam  apa//  adraya//  vana  garbham  r/tasya 
piprati  sahasA  yd//  mathita//  ^a'yate  n/'/bhi//  pr*thivya'/i 
adhi  sanavi;  X,  45,  i.  diva//  pari  prathamdm  g&giiz  agni// 
asmat  dvitfyam  pdri  ^ataveda//  trztfyam  apsii  nr/mdnd// 
a^-asram  indhdna  enam  ^arate  svadhi/i. 

Note  2.  The  text  (dyubhi//  tvam  a^ujuksham//)  seems  to 
be  corrupt.  I  believe  that  tvam,  which  is  so  frequently 
repeated  through  this  verse  and  through  the  next  verses, 
has  been  put  here  in  the  wrong  place,  and  that  we  should 
read,  dyubhya//  a  susuksh£ui/t. 

Note  3.  With  the  last  words  of  this  verse,  comp.  the  con- 
clusion of  verse  14. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  This  whole  verse  is  repeated,  X,  91,  10. 

Note  2.  In  my  opinion  there  is  no  doubt  that  instead  of 
the  traditional  reading,  agnft,  the  correct  form  is  agmt. 
The  word  is  a  compound  of  agn{  and  idh  and  means  ( the 
inflamer  of  the  fire/  Cf.  M.  M.,  Hist,  of  A.  S.  L.,  1859, 
pp.  450,  469. 

Note  3.  This  is  the  most  ancient  list  of  the  'seven 
priests/  by  the  side  of  whom  the  gr/hd-pati  or  '  master  of 
the  house '  is  mentioned  as  the  eighth.  Comp.  the  formula 
in  which  the  'Adhvaryu  names  the  officiating  priests, 
K£ty£yana  IX,  8,  8  seq.,  and  see  the  remarks  of  Weber, 
Indische  Studien,  X,  141,  376,  and  my  own  exposition, 
Religion  des  Veda,  383  seq.,  396.  The  'Brahman'  men- 
tioned in  our  verse  is  the  Brdhma«d^//awsin  of  the  later 
ritual.  Comp.  K^tydyana  IX,  8,  n  ;  Satapatha  Brdhmawa 
IV,  6,  6,  5. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  On  verses  3-6,  see  von  Bradke,  Dy4us  Asura, 
p.  53  seq. 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Note  2.  Br/haspati  or  Brahma;/aspati  is  the  Brahman 
among  the  gods.  But  it  is  doubtful  whether  the  title  of 
Brahman  in  this  connection  should  be  understood  in  the 
later  technical  sense  of  the  word,  as  the  Ritvig  who  has  to 
superintend  the  whole  sacrifice.  Comp.  H.  O.,  Religion 
des  Veda,  396,  note  i. 

Note  3.  Vidhartr/  seems  to  be  here  another  name  of 
Bhaga  ;  comp.  VII,  41,  2.  bhagam  huvema  .  .  .  ya/i  vi- 
dharta).  It  is  known  that  no  god  is  so  frequently  mentioned 
in  connection  with  Pura;;/dhi  as  Bhaga.  The  passages 
have  been  collected  by  Grassmann  in  his  Dictionary,  s.  v. 
piiraw-dhi. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Prof,  von  Bradke  (Dyaus  Asura,  53)  believes 
that  the  text  is  corrupt  ;  he  thinks  that  the  fourth  Pada 
may  have  occupied  the  place  of  a  lost  continuation  of  the 
relative  clause,  yasya  sam-bhu^am.  I  cannot  but  share 
the  feeling  on  which  Prof,  von  Bradke's  remark  rests, 
though  I  do  not  believe  that  the  solution  of  the  difficulty 
which  he  proposes  is  very  probable.  Could  not  the  correct 
reading  be  y&si  (instead  of  yasya)  sam-bhu^am,  '  thou  goest 
to  the  enjoyment  (of  goods)  ?  '  Comp.  VI,  71,  6,  where  the 
traditional  text  has  vamasya  h(  kshdyasya  deva  bhflre//, 
and  kshdyasya  doubtless  should  be  changed  into  kshayasi. 

Note  2.  On  A;;/^a,  as  one  of  the  Adityas,  comp.  Ber- 
gaigne,  III,  39,  99. 

Note  3.  Vidathe:  comp.  the  note  on  I,  31,  6.  It  is 
tempting  to  conjecture  vidhat^  (comp.  verse  5),  but  there  is 
no  necessity  for  such  a  conjecture.  Comp.,  for  instance, 
VI,  34,  2.  viddthe  d4ti 


Verse  5. 

Npte  1.  Gndva//  should  be  read  without  accent,  as  Grass- 
mann, Prof.  Weber,  and  M.  Henry  (Revue  Critique,  Jan.  13, 
1891,  p.  23)  have  seen.  Cf.  Lanman,  518,  519. 

Note  2.  The  meaning  probably  is,  f  Thou  art  related  to 
the  other  gods  and  to  men,'  or  *  Thou  art  related  to  us.' 
Comp.  VIII,  27,  10;  73,  12. 


MAJVDALA    II,    HYMN   I. 


Note  3.  Agni  seems  to  be  identified  here  with  Apam 
napat,  who  frequently  is  called  am-heman.  Comp.  Win- 
disch,  Festgruss  an  Roth,  143  seq. 

Note  4.  The  men,  of  course,  are  the  Maruts,  as  is  shown 
by  the  well-known  use  of  jardha/i  (cf.  vol.  xxxii,  p.  67  seq.). 

Verse  6. 
Note  1.  Comp.  von  Bradke,  Dydus  Asura,  53  seq. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  As  to  ara;;/kr/te,  cf.  VIII,  67,  3. 

Note  2.  Or,  thou  art  a  protector  to  him  who  has  wor- 
shipped thee  in  his  house.  —  Among  the  various  ways  for 
explaining  or  removing  the  metrical  deficiency  of  the  last 
Pada  the  correction  dame  a  (for  dame)  is  recommended  by 
verse  8. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  Ish/ibhi//,  standing  by  the  side  of  Jamy£,  seems 
to  be  derived  from  the  root  ya^.  Thus  }g&,  i^dna  stand  by 
the  side  of  sasame,  ^a^amana.  —  Cf.  ishrfbhi//  matfbhi/*,  II, 
18,  i. 

Verse  1O. 


Note  1.  The  names  of  the  three  -ffibhus  are  Ribhu, 
Vibhvan.     The  word  v£ga.  used  here  evidently  alludes  to 
the  second  of  these  names. 

Note  2.  Bergaigne  (Religion  Vdd.,  II,  406)  no  doubt  is 
right  in  believing  that  the  verb  v(  bhdsi  ('  thou  shinest  ') 
alludes  to  the  name  Vibhvan.  Comp.  X,  91,  i. 


Note  3.  Vi-jfkshuA  again  seems  to  convey  an  allusion  to 
the  Ribhu  myth.  When  dividing  the  cup  of  Tvash/r*'  into 
four  cups,  the  7?/bhus  say,  sakhe  vf  jiksha  (IV,  35,  3). 
This  v(  jiksha  and  the  corresponding  adjective  vi-jfkshu 
should  be  derived  from  the  root  jas,  *  to  cut  to  pieces.1 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  Here  we  have  the  three  goddesses  of  the  Aprl 
hymns,  Bh&ratt,  I<&,  and  Sarasvati.  Of  the  goddess 


1 92  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Bharati  the  full  name   is  given,   Hotra   Bharati,  i.e.  'the 
Offering  of4,the  Bharatas.'     Comp.  Bergaigne,  I,  322  seq. 

Note  2.  Comp.  VI,  6 1,  7,  where  Sarasvati  is  called  wztra- 
ghm. 

Verse  14. 

Note  1.  Or  *  through  (thee  who  art  their)  mouth.' 

Note  2.  Comp.  1, 19, 3.  visvG  deva'saA  adriiha// ;  vol.  xxxii, 

PP-  53>  55- 

Verse  15. 

Note  1.  On  this  verse,  compare  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien, 

1,97- 

Note  2.  On  pr/ksha//,  see  above,  i,  127,  5,  note  i. 

Verse  16. 
Note  1.  On  go-agra,  compare  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien, 

I,5i. 

Note  2.  Vidathe:  comp.  the  note  on  I,  31,  6. 


MAJVDALA   II,    HYMN    2.  193 


II,  HYMN  2. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  20-21. 

1.  Increase  G&tavedas  by  your  sacrifice1,  worship 
Agni  for  ever  with  your  offering  and  your  prayer  2 
—  him  who  has  been  kindled,  the  receiver  of  good 
offerings,  the  solar  hero,  the  heavenly  Hotrz,  the 
charioteer  3  in  our  settlements  4. 

2.  For  thee  Nights  and  Dawns  have  been  lowing, 
O  Agni,  as  milch-cows  in  the  folds  for  their  calf1. 
A  steward2,  as  it  were,  of  Heaven,  thou  shinest  on 
the  human  tribes,  O  bountiful  one,  on  continuous 
nights  8. 

3.  The  gods  have  set  him  to  work,  as  a  steward  l 
of  Heaven   and    Earth,    endowed   with   wonderful 
power,  at  the  bottom  of  the  air  :  Agni  who  is  well 
known  like  a  chariot2,  brightly  shining,  deserving 
of  praise  like  Mitra  (or,  like  a  friend)  in  (human) 
dwellings. 

4.  They  have  established  him  who  grows  in  the 
air,  in  his  house,  the  serpent  x  with  beautiful  splen- 
dour like  gold  2,  the  winged  (son  ?)  of  Przsnl  3  who 
lights  up  with  his  eyes  both  tribes  (of  gods  and  of 
men),  like  a  guardian  of  the  way  (?)  4. 

5.  May  he,  the  Hot/-/,  encompass  the  whole  sacri- 
fice.    Men  strive  towards  him  with  offerings  and 
prayer.     (Agni)  with  golden  jaws  \  hurrying  around 
in  the  growing  (plants)  2,  lighted  up  the  two  worlds 
like  the  Sky  with  the  stars. 

6.  Thus  mayst  thou,  being  brightly  kindled  for 
our  welfare  or   being   exhausted  (P)1,  shine   upon 
us  with  thy  wealth.     Carry  hither  to  us  the  two 

[46]  O 


194  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


worlds  for  the  sake  of  happiness,  Agni,  O  god, 
that  they  may  eagerly  partake2  of  the  offering  of 
the  man  (or,  of  Manus). 

7.  Give  us,  Agni,  mighty,  give  us  thousandfold 
(gifts).     Open  strength  for  us  like  a  door 1  for  the 
sake  of  glory.     Make  Heaven  and  Earth  inclined 
towards  us  through  (our)  spell.     Make  the  Dawns 
shine  like  the  brilliant  Sun. 

8.  Being  kindled  after  dawns  and  nights  may  he 
shine  with  his  red  light  like  the  sun,  Agni,  being 
a  good  sacrificer  with  the  help  of  the  offerings  of 
man  (or,  of  Manus) 1,  the  king  of  the  clans,  and  the 
welcome  guest  of  Ayu. 

9.  Thus,  O  Agni,  ancient  one,  our  human  prayer 
has  prospered  among  the  immortals  who  dwell  in 
the  great  heaven.    May  the  cow :  when  milked,  yield 2 
freely  to  the  singer  in  our  settlements  hundredfold 
(wealth)  of  all  kinds. 

10.  May  we,  O  Agni,  (attain)  bliss  in  valiant  men 
by  our  racers,  or  may  we  shine  over  (all)  people 
by  our  sacred  spells.    May  our  unconquerable  lustre 
beam  on  high  like  the  sun  over  the  fivefold  dwell- 
ings (of  the  five  peoples). 

11.  Be   thou,  O   mighty   one,  worthy  of  praise 
among  us,  (thou)  from  whom  the  well-born,  liberal 
(lords)  have  sought  nourishment  *,  unto  whom  the 
strong  ones,  O  Agni,  go  for  sacrifice,  who  shinest 
in  thy  abode  among  (the  worshipper's)  own  kith. 

1 2.  May  we  both,  O  G£tavedas,  the  praisers  and 
the  liberal  (lords),  be  in  thy  protection,  O  Agni. 
Help  us  to  good,  resplendent,  abundant  wealth  which 
is  accompanied  by  offspring,  by  good  progeny. 

13  «  II.  i,  16. 


MAtfDALA   II,    HYMN    2.  195 


NOTES. 

The  same  jRishl  and  metre. — Verse  7  =  TS.  II,  2,  T2,  6; 
MS.  IV,  12,  2. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  In  this  P&da  one  syllable  is  wanting.  It  may 
be  thought  that  the  first  word  should  be  pronounced 
ia^ttena.  For  supplying  the  missing  syllable  by  conjecture 
there  would,  however,  be  many  ways.  Comp.  also  H.  O., 
Hymnen  dcs  Ki^-veda,  I5  p.  79. 

Note  2.  TanagirS:  comp.  1.  38,  13  (vol.  xxxii,  p.  82). 

Note  3.  Dhfi^-sadam.  The  exact  meaning  is,  'who 
occupies  a  decipwe  position.' 

Note  4.  Vr^aneshu :  comp.  I,  60,  3,  note  2. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VIII,  88,  i.  abhf  vatsim  na  svdsareshu 
dhenavaA  fndram  girbhiA  navdmahe. 

Note  2.  See  I,  58,  7,  note  i. 

Note  3.  See  Lanman,  p.  482  ;  Gaedicke,  p.  89.  '  During 
continuous  nights.1  M.  M. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  See  I,  58,  7,  note  i. 

Note  2.  Cf.  VIII,  84,  i.  rdtham  na  vedyam. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  I  follow  the  conjecture  of  Bohtlingk-Roth,  who 
propose  to  read  hv&ram.  Comp.  Atharva-veda  IV,  i,  2 
(Ajvateyana  Srautasfttra  IV,  6,  3  ;  Sahkhdyana  Srautasfttra 
V,  9,  7).  suru/?v"i  hvardm.  The  meaning  of  the  word  is 
conjectural ;  ^on.p.  I,  14*,  7,  note  i.  If  we  read  hvSr6,  the 
translation  could  be  l  brilliant  like  gold,  in  a  hidden  place.' 
(M.  M.) 

Note  2.  Comp.  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  52. 

O  2 


196  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Note  3.  Or,  the  winged  (bird)  of  Prism?  No  other 
passages  which  make  Agni  the  son  (or  the  bird)  of  Pwni 
are  known  to  me. 

Note  4.  The  accent  of  pdthds  points  to  a  genitive, 
dependent  on  pdyiim,  of  a  word  which  is,  however,  different 
from  p£thas.  Grassmann  thinks  that  pdthas  is  a  lengthening 
for  pathas,  but  Lanman  (Noun-Inflection,  470)  is  quite  right 
in  observing  that  this  is  hard  to  believe  in  the  first  syllable  of 
a  Pdda.  Should  we  not  correct  the  text  and  read  pathdA 
(gen.  sing,  governed  by  payiim)?  The  reading  patha// 
may  be  due  to  the  influence  of  the  neighbourhood  of 
p&yiim. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  See  vol.  xxxii,  p.  301. 

Note  2.  Comp.  X,  92,  i.  .nishkasu  hariwishu  ^arbhurat. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Ludwig  translates  sam-dadasv£n :  *  zum  heile 
[dich  selber]  aufreibend ; '  Grassmann,  '  oder  seist  erloschen 
du  ; '  Gaedicke  (p.  89), '  und  wenn  du  verloschest ; '  Griffith, 
1  a  liberal  giver ; '  Neisser  (Bezzenberger's  Beitr.  XIX,  286), 
'deine  Kunst  zusammennehmend.'  S4ya«a  says,  'sa#/da- 
dasvSn  samyak  praya£&£an.'  Prof.  Max  M tiller  suggests, 
*  being  a  liberal  benefactor>' 

Note  2.  There  was  no  reason  for  correcting  devi-vitaye 
as  Ludwig  once  proposed.  He  has  himself  abandoned  this 
conjecture. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  As  to  this  metaphor  (c  opening '  strength  or  the 
like),  comp.  VIII,  5,  21.  utd  na/z  divy£A  fsha^  . . .  apa  dv£r&- 
iva  varshathaA,  and  the  passages  collected  by  Dr.  Hirzel, 
Gleichnisse  und  Metaphern  im  7?*g-veda  (Leipzig,  1890), 
103. 

Verse  8. 
Note  1.  The  third  P&da  is  repeated  in  X,  11,  5. 


MAATDALA    II,    HYMN    2.  197 


Verse  9. 

Note  1.  The  milch-cow  of  course  is  the  prayer. 

Note  2.  Isha;/i  seems  to  be  an  infinitive  like  parshdm 
neshd/ii  tarlshdwi  (Delbriick,  Altindisches  Verbum,  327  ; 
Neisser,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XX,  43).  I  believe  it  to 
come  from  the  root  ish,  '  to  incite.1  As  to  the  syntac- 
tical peculiarities  of  these  infinitives,  comp.  Delbriick, 
Altindische  Syntax,  416. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  I  shay  is  a  denominative  from  fsh,  as  ur^ay  is 
derived  from  flr^  (comp.  A^valiyana  Srautasutra  V,  7,  3). 


198  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA  II,  HYMN  3. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  22-23. 

APR!   HYMN. 

1.  Agni  being  kindled,  set  down  on  the  earth,  has 
stood  up  with  his  face  towards  all  worlds.     May  the 
Hotri,  the  purifier,  the  ancient,  wise  one,  may  god 
Agni  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  he  who  is  worthy  (of 
being  the  sacrificer). 

2.  Narasa/wsa,  anointing  the  abodes  (of  the  sacri- 
fice), equal  by  his  greatness  to  the  three  heavens, 
endowed  with  beautiful  light,  moistening  the  offer- 
ing, his  mind  being  intent  on  scattering  ghma — 
may  he  anoint  the  gods  on  the  summit  of  sacrifice. 

3.  Being  magnified1  in  our  mind,  Agni,  sacrifice 
for    us    to-day   to    the    gods    before    die    human 
(sacrificer) 2,    thou  who    art   worthy   (of  being   the 
sacrificer).     Conduct  hither  the  unshakabL  host  of 
the  Maruts.     Sacrifice,  O  men,  to  Indra  who  sits  on 
the  Barhis. 

4.  O  divine  Barhis!     On  this  (Barhis)  which  is 
large,  rich  in  valiant  men,  which  has  been  spread  on 
this  Vedi  (or  sacrificial  altar)  rich  in  gain,  ready  for 
wealth,  which  is   anointed  with  ghma,  sit   down, 
O  Vasus,   O  Vuve  devas,   O   Adityas1  worthy  of 
worship ! 

5.  May  the  divine  doors  which  are  easily  passable, 
open  themselves  wide  when' invoked  with  adoration. 
May  they,  the  far-embracing,  undecaying  ones,  open 
wide,  purifying  our^  glorious  race l  which  is  rich  in 
valiant  m£n. 

6.  May  Dawn  and  Night,  grown  strong  from  of 


MAtfDALA   II,    HYMN    3.  199 

old,  joyful  like  two  birds  (?) l,  (do)  their  work  well 
for  us — they  who  weave,  turned  towards  each  other, 
the  stretched-out  warp,  the  ornamented  form  of  the 
sacrifice  2,  (the  two  goddesses)  flowing  with  plenty, 
rich  in  milk. 

7.  May  the   two  divine    Hotrzs,  the  first   ones, 
very  knowing,  very  marvellous,  perform  the  sacrifice 
rightly  with  their  (sacrificial)  verse.     Sacrificing  to 
the  gods  they  anoint  (them)1,  observing  the  right 
time,  on  the  navel  of  the  Earth,  over  the  three 
ridges  (of  the  three  worlds). 

8.  May  Sarasvati,  the  accomplisher  of  our  prayer, 
may  the  goddess  -I /A,  all- victorious  Bhfiratt — may 
the  three  goddesses,  according   to  their  wont,  sit 
down  on  this  Barhis  and  protect  it,  the  faultless 
shelter. 

9.  Through    (the    god's)    hearing    (our    prayer) 
a  manly  son  is  born  (to  us),  tawny-coloured,  rich  in 
gain,  bringing  vigour,  loving  the  gods.   May  T vash/rz" 
deliver  for  us  a  son,  the  navel  (i.e.  the  tie  that  binds 
generations  together),  and  may  he  then  go  to  the 
abode  of  the  gods. 

to1.  May  the  tree  (i.  e.  the  sacrificial  post)  stand 
by,  letting  loose  (the  offering  which  goes  to  the 
gods).  m  May  Agni  make  the  offering  ready  in 
consequence  of  our  prayers.  May  the  prescient 
divine  butcher  carry  the  thrice-anointed  offering 
to  the  gods. 

u.  He1  is  joined  with  ghma2.  His  womb  (on 
the  altar)  is  ghr/ta.  He  rests  on  ghma.  His 
abode  is  ghma.  Carry  hither  (the  gods)  according 
to  thy  wont !  Rejoice 3 !  Carry,  O  bull,  the  offering, 
over  which  the  Sv&ha  has  been  spoken,  (lo  the 
gods). 


2OO  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rishl  Metre,  Trish/ubh  ;  verse  7  :  Gagatl. — 
Verse  9  =  TS.  Ill,  i,  n,  %  ;  TB.  II,  8,  7,  4  ;  MS.  IV,  14,  8. 
Verse  n=VS.  XVII,  88 ;  TA.  X,  10,  2. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  text  has  i/ita//.  Comp.  above,  I,  i,  i, 
note  a. 

Note  2.  Comp.  X,  53,  i.  nf  h/  sdtsat  (scil.  agn/A)  dntara^ 
pffrva/t  asmdt 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  It  is  very  probable  that  the  poet  intends  to  dis- 
tinguish the  Vasus,  the  Vijve  devis,  and  the  Adityas  as 
three  categories  of  gods.  But  then  we  should  expect  the 
accent  £dity&A.  Comp.  VII,  51,  3.  &dity£A  virve  manitaA 
£a  vkve  dev£6  £a  v/^ve ;  X,  125,  i.  ahdm  rudr^bhi^ 
vdsubhi^  ^ar&mi  ahdm  idityaM  utd  vi^vddevai^. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Comp.  the  Gr/hya  Mantra  addressed  to  the 
Mekhal£,  of  which  it  is  said  '  van/am  pavitram  punatt  na/t 
4g&t/  5ahkh4yana  Grihya  II,  2,  i,  &c. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  of  vayya  (comp.  IX,  68,  8)  is 
uncertain.  Possibly  it  is  derived  from  vf, c  the  bird/  Ac- 
cording to  S&ya*a  it  would  mean  '  weavers '  (v&naku^ale 
iva).  Vayyeva  may  be  vayye  iva  (dual  feminine),  in  spite 
of  the  artificial  theory  of  the  Pragrihya  vowels;  see 
Lanman,  p.  361 ;  H.  O.,  Hymnen  des  Rig-veda,  I,  456. 
Or  it  may  be  vayy4  iva,  dual  masculine  or  singular  femi- 
nine (comp.  VII,  a,  6). 

Note  2.  Comp.  VII,  42,  i.  adhvardsya  p&a£. 


MAtfDALA    II,    HYMN    3.  2OI 

Verse  7. 
Note  1.  Comp.  VIII,  39,  i.  agniA  devSn  anaktu  na//. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  With  the  first  hemistich  compare  especially,  III, 
4,  10  (see  below). 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  '  He '  of  course  is  AgnL 

Note  2.  Differing  from  M.  M.,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  185,  I  take 
ghrztam  as  an  accusative. 

Note  3.  Comp.  Ill,  6,  9  (see  below). 


2O2  VKDIC    HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA  II,  HYMN  4. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  24-25. 

1.  I    call    for   you   Agni,   shining  with   beautiful 
shine,  praised  with  beautiful  praise  19  the  guest  of 
the    clans,    the    receiver   of  fine   offerings,   who   is 
desirable  like  Mitra  (or,  like  an  ally),  G&tavedas 
the  god,  among  godly  people. 

2.  The  Bhrz'gus  worshipping  him  in  the  abode  of 
the  waters l  have  verily 2  established  him  among  the 
clans  of  Ayu.    Let  him  surpass  all  worlds,  Agni,  the 
stewaru.  of  the  gods3,  the  possessor  of  quick  horses. 

3.  The    gods    have    established    beloved    Agni 
among  the  human  clans  as  (people)  going  to  settle 
(establish)  Mitra1.     May  he  illuminate  the  nights 
that  are  longing  (for  him),  he  who  should  be  treated 
kindly  by  the  liberal  (worshipper)  in  his  house. 

4.  His  prosperity  is  delightful  as  good  pasture  (?) '  ; 
delightful  is  his  appearance  when  the  burning  one  is 
driven  forward,  he  who  quickly  shaking  his  tongue 
among  the  plants  waves2  his  tail  mightily  like  a 
chariot-horse. 

5.  When    they  praised1   to   me   the    monstrous 
might  of  the  eater  of  the  forests 2,  he  produced  his 
(shining)  colour  as  (he  has  done)  for  the  U^s8. 
With  shining  splendour  he  has  shone  joyously,  he 
who  having  grown  old  has  suddenly  become  young 
(again). 

6.  He  who  shines  on  the  forests1  as  if  he  were 
thirsty,  who  resounded  like  water  on  its  path,  like 
(the  rattle  of  the  wheels)  of  a  chariot 2 — he  whose 


MAJV0ALA    II,    HYMN    4.  2O3 

path  is  black,  the  hot,  the  joyous  one  has  shone, 
laughing 3  like  the  sky  with  its  clouds. 

7.  He  who  has  spread  himself  burning  over  the 
wide    (earth),    moves   about   like   an   animal,    free, 
without    a   keeper.      The    flaming   Agni,   burning 
down  the  brushwood,  with  a  black  trail 1,  has,  as 
it  were,  tasted  the  earth. 

8.  Now  in  the  remembrance  of  thy  former  bless- 
ings this  prayer  has  been  recited  to  thee  at  the 
third  sacrifice l.     Give  to  us,  Agni,  mighty  strength 
with  a   succession  of  valiant  men,   with   plenty  of 
food  ;  (give  us)  wealth  with  good  progeny  2. 

9.  Give,    O    Agni,    such    vigour   to   thy   praiser 
together  with  his  liberal  (lords),  that  the  Grztsa- 
madas,  rich  in  valiant  men,  victorious  over  hostile 
plots,  attaining  (their  aim)  in  secret,  may  overcome 
through  thee  (their  rivals)  who  get  behind  *. 


NOTES. 

The  JRtshi  is  Som&huti  Bhargava,  the  metre  Trish/ubh. — 
No  verse  occurs  in  the  other  Sawhit&s. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  To  me  there  seems  to  be  no  doubt  that  the 
meaning  of  suvr/ktf  is  something  like  '  beautiful  prayer/ 
c  beautiful  song/  and  then  '  a  god  who  is  invoked  with  beau- 
tiful songs.1  Thus  suvnktaya/j  or  other  cases  of  the  same 
word  stand  by  the  side  of  st6m£&  .  .  .  g/ra^,  VIII,  8,  22  ; 
of  g/ra/*,  I,  64,  i  ;  VIII,  96,  10,  comp.  X,  64,  4;  of  brahma, 
VII,  31,  n  ;  97,  9  ;  of  st6mai^,  VII,  96,  i ;  of  dhitfbhi//,  VI, 
61,  2  ;  of  d££//oktibhiA  matinam,  I,  61, 3,  and  so  on.  Comp. 
also  VII,  83,  9.  hdvamahe  v£m  vr*sha#d  suvr/ktfbhiA ;  X, 
41,  i.  rdtham  .  .  .  suvrtktlbhiA  vaydm  vyush/&  ushasaA 
hav&mahe;  X,  80,  7.  avo&ima 


2O4  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


This  being  the  meaning  of  the  word,  I  cannot  think  it 
probable — and  herein  I  differ  from  the  opinion  pronounced 
by  Prof.  Max  Miiller,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  109 — that  it  stands  in 
connection  with  the  verb  vrig  in  its  well-known  use  referring 
to  the  Barhis.  In  my  opinion  (comp.  also  Geldner,  Vedische 
Studien,  I,  151)  suw/ktf  may  be  connected  with  another 
use  of  vrig,  with  the  meaning  of  this  verb  '  to  draw  a  god 
towards  himself,  averting  him  from  other  sacrificers' 
(materials  regarding  this  use  of  vrig  have  been  collected 
by  Geldner,  loc.  cit.,  144).  Or  possibly  the  word  may  be 
derived,  as  Prof,  von  Roth  believes,  from  rik  (comp.  suvita 
derivqd  from  i).  It  is  true  that  the  substantive  rikti  does 
not  occur  by  itself:  but,  as  Prof.  Max  Miiller  remarks  (loc. 
cit.),  this  would  not  be  fatal  to  Prof,  von  Roth's  etymology, 
because  many  other  words  in  the  Veda  occur  as  uttarapadas 
only.  If  we  accept  this  theory,  we  should  of  course  have 
to  separate  suvriktl  from  ndmowzkti  and  svAvr/kti. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  X,  46,  2.  imdm  vidhantaA  ap£m  sadhdsthe. 

Note  2.  Literally, '  doubly.'  '  In  two  places,  in  the  abode 
of  the  waters  and  among  the  clans  of  man.'  M.  M.  Com- 
pare, however,  X,  46,  2  (see  last  note). 

Note  3.  Dev&iSm  arat/A  ;  comp.  I,  58,  7,  note  I. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  seems  to  be  that  people  going  to 
settle  anywhere,  secure  safety  by  ceremonies  addressed  to 
Mitra,  i.e.  possibly  by  concluding  alliances  which  btand  under 
the  special  protection  of  Mitra.  Comp.  IV,  33,  10;  H.  O., 
Religion  des  Veda,  186,  note  i. — Mitra  is  kshetras£dhas, 
VIII,  31,  14. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Svasya-iva  seems  to  be  corrupt  Po$sibly  we 
might  read  stiydvas&-iva  pushrfA.  In  X,  11,5  we  read, 
sid&  asi  ra«vdA,  yavasd-iva  pushyate.  IV,  16,  15.  <5ka£  nd 
ranvSi  sud/*rt-iva  push/IA — The  translation  of  the  traditional 


MAtfDALA   II,    HYMN    4.  20$ 

reading  would  be,  *  His  prosperity  is  delightful,  like  that  of 
a  person  belonging  to  us.' 

Note  2.  Bharibhrat  seems  to  be  a  participle  :  but  then 
dodhaviti  must  be  accented  (d6dhaviti). 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  On  the  verb  pan,  comp.  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien, 
I,  199  seq. 

Kote  2.  Vandd  seems  to  be,  as  Grassmann  has  seen, 
a  compound  of  vdn,  '  the  forest  '  (comp.  the  genitive  van£m, 
the  locative  viwsu),  and  of  id.  Of  Agni  is  said  several 
times  '  vanAni  atti.' 

Note  3.   On  the  mythical  ancestors  designated  as  the 
s,  see  Bergaigne,  I,  57  seq. 


Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  forests,  of  course,  are  the  fuel. 

Note  2.  To  rathyd-iva  probably  £akr£  (nom.  plur.)  is  to 
be  supplied. 

Note  3.  The  '  laughing  '  of  the  sky  is  the  lightning  (Ben- 
fey,  Vedica  und  Verwandtes,  138).  The  flames  of  Agni 
flash  through  the  smoke  as  the  lightning  shines  in  the 

clouds. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  See  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  II,  29  seq.  ; 
Roth,  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenland.  Gesellschaft, 

XLVIII,  107. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  text  has  tr/tiye  viddthe  (comp.  I,  31,  6, 
note  2).  Does  this  mean  at  the  tr/'tiya-savana  ?  Three 
vidathas  are  spoken  of  also  in  VI,  51,  2  ;  VII,  66,  10. 

Note  2.  On  the  metrical  irregularity,  comp.  H.  O.,  Die 
Hymnen  des  Rig-veda,  I,  67. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  *  May  prevail,  destroying  through  thee  the 
neighbours  lying  in  ambush.'  M.  M.  To  me  gtihi  seems  to 
be  connected  with  vanvdntaA. 


2O6  VEDIC  HYMNS. 


MAAf/?ALA  II,  HYMN  5. 
ASHTAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  26. 

1.  The  brilliant  Hotrt1  has  been  born 2,  the  father 
to  protect  the  fathers s,  aspiring  after  noble  wealth. 
May  we  be  able  to  bridle  the  strong  (horse) 4. 

2.  He  the  leader  of  the  sacrifice  towards  whom 
the  seven  reins  (or  rays)  are  stretched,  the  Potrt 
promotes,  as  (he  has  done)  for  Manu,  the  divine 
eighth  (rein) ;  all  those  (reins  he  promotes) l. 

3.  Or  when  he  has  run  along,  and  has  recited  the 
sacred  words  \  and  has  pursued  that  (duty) 2,  he  has 
encompassed   every  kind   of  wisdom   as   the   felly 
(encircles)  the  wheel. 

4.  For  He  has  been  born  as  the  bright  Przsbstrt, 
with  bright  power  of  mind.     (A  man)  who  knows 
his  firm  laws,  mounts  up  on  them  as  on  the  branches 
(of  a  tree)  *. 

5.  The  lively  milch-cows  were  attached  to  his, 
the  Nesh/rs"s,  (bright)  colour1.     Was  it  according 
to  the  wish  of  the   three  sisters  who  hav§  gone 
there 2  ? 

6.  When  (coming)  from  the  mother  the  sister  has 
approached,  bringing  ghrz'ta  \  the  Adhvaryu  rejoices 
at  their2  coming  as  corn  (rejoices)  at  rain. 

7.  May  He  the  jRitvig  (priest)  himself  make  the 
Ritv\g>  (serve)  for  his  own  refreshment l.     And  may 
we  readily  gain  the  praise  and  the  sacrifice2;  we 
have  offered  it. 

8.  In  order  that  He  the  knowing  one  (Agni)  may 
readily  serve  all  the  worshipful  (gods),  this  sacrifice, 
O  Agni,  which  we  have  performed,  rests  in  thee. 


MAJVDALA    II,    HYMN    5.  2O/ 


NOTES. 

The  same  RtshL  Metre,  AnushAibh. — Verse  3  =  SV.  I, 
94  ;  TS.  Ill,  3,  3,  3  ;  MS.  II,  13,  5. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  As  the  Hotr/  is  mentioned  here,  the  following 
verses  contain  each  the  nafaes  of  the  other  priests  as  given 
in  II,i,2.  Only  the  Agnidh  is  left  out;  possibly  the 
words  sva/i  sv£ya  dh£yase  krinutSim  ritvik  ritvigam 
(verse  7)  contain  an  allusion  to  this  priest,  who  may  well  be 
termed  the  Ri\.v\g  belonging  to  Agni  and  refreshing  him. 

Note  2.  With  the  first  Pada  of  our  verse,  compare  IX, 
64,  10.  indu/j  pavish/a  £dtana/j. 

Note  3.  The  meaning  seems  to  be :  Agni,  who  has  pro- 
tected the  fathers,  has  been  born  again,  and  will  do  the 
same  for  the  present  sacrificer. 

Note  4.  The  strong  horse,  of  course,  is  Agni.  Comp.  Ill, 
27,  3  (see  below).  On  the  construction  (va^-fnaA  ydmam), 
see  Delbruck,.Altindischc  Syntax,  p.  417. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  the  seven  rays  or  reins  of  Agni,  see  I,  146,  r, 
note  i.  Besides  the  seven  priests  a  mysterious  eighth  Ritvig 
priest  is  spoken  of  (X,  114,  9.  kdm  ritvig&m  ash/amdm 
jdram  ahu//j ;  thus  Agni  has  a  mysterious  eighth  rannf 
(ray  or  rein)  besides  the  seven.  Comp.  Bergaigne,  Religion 
Vddique,  II,  144. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  V6£at  brahmSm :  this  seems  to  be  an  allusion  to 
the  Brahman  priest  (see  verse  i,  note  i). 

Note  2.  V6A  is  third  singular.  See  Joh.  Schmidt,  Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift,  XXV,  91. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VIII,  13,  6.  vay£A-iva  inu  rohate.    Prof. 


2O8  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Max  Miiller  (vol.  xxxii,  p.  207)  translates, '  springs  up  like 
young  sprouts.' 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  It  is  the  Nesh/rz's  office  to  lead  the  wife  of  the 
sacrificer  to  the  place  where  the  sacrifice  is  being  performed. 
Thus  Agni,  the  divine  Nesh/rz,  is  represented  as  accom- 
panied by  female  beings,  by  the  *  milch-cows,'  meaning  the 
oblations  of  ghr/ta,  &c.,  or  possibly  the  dawns. 

Note  2.  Are  the  c  three  sisters '  (comp.  Bergaigne,  1, 321 ; 
II,  107)  identical  with  the  milch-cows  spcken  of  in  the  first 
hemistich?  Ludwig  (vol.  iv,  p.  166)  very  appropriately 
calls  attention  to  the  fact  that  three  cows  were  milked  at 
the  sacrifice  of  the  full  and  the  new  moon.  Comp.  Hille- 
brandt,  Altindisches  Neu-  und  Vollmondsopfer,  p.  12  seq. 
Three  dawns  are  mentioned  in  VIII,  41,  3. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  sister  bringing  ghrr ta  seems  to  be  the  sacri- 
ficial spoon.  Is  the  mother  the  milk-vessel  or  possibly  the 
cow? 

Note  2.  Does  *  their '  refer  to  the  mother  and  the  sister 
(cf.  Delbruck,  Altindische  Syntax,  p.  102)?  Or  are  'the 
three  sisters  who  have  gone  there '  referred  to  ? 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  The  one  Ritvig  is  Aghi ;  the  other  possibly  is 
the  Agnidh  who  refreshes  the  Rtivig  Agni.  See  verse  i, 
note  i. 

Note  2.  After  £t  we  should  expect,  instead  of  dram, 
another  accusative,  possibly  rt&am  (see  VII,  66,  n)  :  '  may 
we  master  the  praise,  the  sacrifice,  and  the  verse.'  Aram 
may  have  found  its  way  into  the  text  from  verse  8. 


MAA7)ALA    II,    HYMN    6.  2OQ 

MAA^?ALA  II,  HYMN  6. 
ASHTAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  27. 

1.  Accept,  O  Agni,  this  my  piece  of  wood  and 
this  my  sitting  down  (reverentially) l,  and  hear  these 

words  of  mine. 

\ 

2.  Let  us  worship  thee,  Agni,  child  of  vigour, 
with  this  (piece  of  wood  ?)  \  O  winner  of  horses 2, 
with  this  well-spoken  (hymn),  O  well-born  one. 

3.  May  we   thus   as   thy  devoted   servants   pay 
devotion  by  our  words  to  thee  who  •  acceptest  words 
(of  prayer),  to  thee  who  aspirest  after  wealth,  O 
giver  of  wealth. 

4.t  Thus  be  thou  a  liberal,  bountiful  lord,  O  lord 
of  goods,  O  giver  of  goods.  Drive  hatred  away 
from  us. 

5.  Thus  (give)  us l  rain  from  the  sky ;  thus  (give) 
us  unattainable  strength ;  thus  (give)  us  thousandfold 
food. 

6.  To  him  who  magnifies  thee,  who  desires  thy 
help,  O  youngest  messenger,  (invoked)  by  our  word, 
best  sacrificing  Hotrz,  come  near. 

7.  For  thou,  Agni,  O  sage,  who  knowest  both 
races  (of  gods  and  of  men),  passest  (to  and  fro) 
between  them,  like  a  messenger  belonging  to  thy 
own  people  19  belonging  to  thy  allies. 

8.  Thus  gladden  (the  gods) l  as  the  knowing  one  ; 
sacrifice,  O  intelligent  one,  in  due  order,  and  sit 
down  on  this  Barhis. 


[46] 


210  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  same  /?/shi.  Metre,  Gayatri.— Verse  4= VS.  XII, 
43  ;  TS.  IV,  a,  3,  4 ;  MS.  II,  7,  10. — The  hymn  has  been 
translated  by  M.  M.,  Selected  Essays,  II,  p.  143. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  It  does  not  seem  probable  that  upasad  is  to  be 
translated  here  according  to  its  meaning  in  the  later  ritual, 
as  one  of  the  preparatory  ceremonies  of  the  Soma  sacrifice. 
See  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  X,  363 ;  Hillebrandt,  Vedische 
Mythologie,  I,  300. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Ay£  may  be  used  adverbially :  comp.  Ill,  12,  2  ; 
VI,  17,  15;  IX,  53,  2;  106,  14.  But  it  is  more  probable 
that  samfdha  or  gir£  should  be  supplied  from  verse  T. 
Comp.  II,  24,  i.  ay£  vidhema  gir£;  IV,  4,  15.  ay£  sam/dhd 
vidhema. 

Note  2.  Comp.  VIII,  61,  7.  irvam-ish/aye. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  conjecture  sdna^,  proposed  by  Bdhtlingk- 
Roth  and  Grassmann,  is  not  necessary.  The  verb  is  to  be 
supplied  ;  comp.  the  passages  collected  by  Pischel,  Vedische 
Studien,  I,  19. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  G*anyeva  seems  to  be^dnya^  iva,  comp.  11,39, 1- 
havya  <f£nyd  purutr£  ;  IV,  55,  5.  p£t  j>atL6  ^inyat 
na//. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VII,  17,  4.  yakshat  devcin  amr/tan  pipra- 
yat  Aa. ;  VIII,  39,  9.  yakshat  £a  piprdyat  ^ 


MAJVDALA   II,    HYMN    7.  211 

MAJVZ>ALA  II.  HYMN  7. 
ASHJAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  28. 

1.  Bring  us,  O  youngest  god,  Bhfirata1,  Agni,  the 
best,  resplendent,  much-desired  wealth,  O  Vasu a ! 

2.  May  no  malign  power  of  a  god  or  of  a  mortal 
overcome  us.     Help  us  across  such  hostile  power. 

3.  And  may  we  dive  with  thee  across  all  hostile 
powers  as  across  streams  of  water. 

4.  Bright,  O  purifier,  worthy  of  adoration,  Agni, 
thou  shinest  mightily ;  thou  hast  been  worshipped 
by  offerings  of  ghrsta  \ 

5.  Thou,  O  Bhfirata \  Agni !  hast  been  worshipped 
by  us  with  offerings  of  heifers,  of  bulls,  of  eight- 
footed  (cows) 2. 

6.  The  old  excellent  Hotrt  who  feeds  on  wood 
and   drinks    butter,   he    is    the    wonderful    son    of 
strength. 

NOTES. 

The  same  jRishi  and  metre. — Verse  i=TS.  I,  3,  14,  3  ; 
MS.  IV,  n,  4.  Verse  4  =  TS.  I,  3,  14,  5-  Verse'  6=VS. 
XI,  70;  TS.  IV,  i,  9,  s;  MS.  11,7,7- 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Agni  Bharata  is  Agni  as  the  protector  of  the 
Bharata  tiibe  or  as  invoked  by  that  tribe. 

Note  2.  With  the  beginning  of  this  verse,  I,  44,  4  should 
be  compared. 

P  2 


212  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Yen*  4. 
Note  1.  Comp.  VIII,  19,  22.  agnfA  ghr*t£bhi£  £huta/6. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  See  verse  i,  note  i. 

Note  2.  Roth  (Petersb.  Dictionary)  supplies  vbgbhiA  or 
r/gbhiA ;  comp.  VIII,  76, 12.  v££am  ash/Spadim.  But  there 
is  no  doubt  that  ash/Spadi,  standing  by  the  side  of  vaj4  and 
ukshdn,  has  the  same  meaning  as  in  the  later  ritual,  viz. 
a  cow  with  calf. 


MAJWALA    II,    HYMN    8.  21 3 

M AND ALA.  II,  HYMN  8. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  29. 

1.  As  one  who  .runs  a  race1  (praises)  his  chariots, 
praise  thou  the  yoking  of  Agni  (to  the  chariot  of 
sacrifice),  of  the  most  glorious,  bountiful  (god) — 

2.  Who  is  the  best  leader  for  his  worshipper,  who 
undecaying  makes  the  malign  decay  *,  the  cheerful- 
faced  who  has  been  worshipped  with  offerings — 

3.  He  who  is  praised  in  the  houses  on  account  of 
his  beauty  in  the  evening  and  at  dawn,  whose  law  is 
not  set  at  nought, 

4.  The  bright  one  who  shines  with  his  light  as 
the   Sun  with  his  splendour,  with  his   undecaying 
(flames)1,  he  who  is  anointed  (with  ghma). 

5.  The  hymns  have  strengthened  Agni  the  de- 
vourer1  along  (the  extent  of)  his  own  royalty2.     He 
has  assumed  every  beauty. 

6.  May  we  unharmed  stand  under  the  protection 
of  Agni,  Indra,  Soma,  of  the  gods ;  may  we  over- 
come our  foes. 

NOTES. 

The  JRtshi  is  Gritsamada ;  the  metre  is  GAyatri,  the  last 
verse  being  Anush/ubh,  as  is  frequently  the  case  in  Gdyatri 
hymns  (see  H.  O.,  Hymnen  des  Rig-veda,  I,  146). — No 
verse  occurs  in  the  other  SawhitAs. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  V^ayAti  means  *  he  strives  for  v^fa,'  vd^ayati 
1  he  incites  to  quickness.'  The  accent  is  n»t  always  correct 
in  the  traditional  text. 


214  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


Verse  2. 
Note  I.  Cornp.  II,  1 6,  i.  fndram  j^urydm  ^arayantam. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  As  to  a^iraiA,  '  the  undecaying  (flames)/  comp. 
Ill,  18,  a ;  VI,  5,  4 ;  6,  2 ;  VII,  3,  3 ;  X,  87,  ao. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  That  Agni  should  be  identified  here  with  the 
-tf/shi  Atri  (see  Bergaigne,  II,  468)  is  very  improbable. 
Possibly  dtri  means  simply  'the  eater*  (from  ad),  though 
the  poet  in  calling  him  so  may  fatve  intended  to  allude  to 
the  name  of  the  /?/shi. 

Note  2.  Comp.  I,  80,  i  seq.  dr£an  inu  svar^yam ;  84. 
10  seq.  vdsvi/4  inu  svar^yam. 


MAMDALA    It,    HYMN    Q.  21$ 

MAJVZ>ALA  II,  HYMN  9. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  6,  VARGA  L 

1.  The  Hotr*  who  is  found  on  the  Hotr/'s  seat 
has  sat  down  (there),  the  fierce,  the  resplendent,  the 
dexterous  one,  the  protector  of  (his  own)  infallible 
laws *,  the  highest  Vasu,  he  who  brings  thousandfold 
(gain),  the  pure-tongued  Agni. 

2.  Be  thou  our  messenger,  be  our  protector  far 
and   wide ;    be    thou,   O    bull,    a   leader    towards 
greater  wealth.     O  Agni!  for  the  continuation  of 
our  children  and  of  ourselves  be  thou  an  unremitting, 
brilliant  protector. 

3.  May  we  worship   thee   at   thy  highest   birth 
(-place),  O  Agni ;  may  we  worship  thee  with  praises 
in  thy  lower  abode.    I  honour  the  womb  from  which 
thou  hast  sprung.     When  thou  hast  been  kindled, 
they  have  offered  offerings  in  thee. 

4.  Agni,  being  the  best  sacrificer  perform  thou 
the  ^sacrifice  with  the  oblation.     With  thy  readiness 
to  hear  (us)  hail  our  gift,  the  wealth  (which  we  offer). 
For"  thou  art  the  treasure-lord  of  treasures ;  thou  art 
the  deviser  of  brilliant  speech. 

5.  Thy  wealth  of  both  kinds1  never  fails,  when 
thou  art  born  (kindled)  day  by  day,  O  wonderful  one. 
Make  thy  singer,  O  Agni,  rich  in  food;  make  him* 
the  lord  of  wealth  with  excellent  offspring. 

6.  With  this  face  of  thine,  as  a  bounteous  (lord), 
a  sacrificer  to  the  gods,  the  best  performer  of  sacri- 
fices with  happiness,  as  an  undeceivable  guardian 
and  far-reaching  protector,  shine  among  us,  O  Agni, 
with  light  and  wealth. 


2l6  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  same  JRishi.  Metre,  Trish/ubh. — According  to  an 
observation  of  Bergaigne's,  hymns  of  six  verses  composed 
in  Trish/ubh  should  precede  hymns  of  the  same  extent 
composed  in  G£yatrl.  Though  this  law  is  not  without 
exceptions  (see  H.  O.,  Die  Hymnen  des  Rigveda,  I, 
202  seq.),  the  suspicion  is  raised  that  the  hymns  9  and  10 
should  each  be  divided  into  two  T/V£as. — Verse  i=VS. 
XI,  36;  TS.  Ill,  5, 1 1,  2;  IV,  1,3, 3;  MS.  II,  7,  3.  Verse  2 
=  TS.  Ill,  5,  13,  2  ;  MS.  IV,  10,  4.  Verse  3  =  VS.  XVII, 
75 ;  TS.  IV,  6, 5, 4 ;  MS.  II,  10,  6.  Verse  6  =  TS.  IV,  3, 13, 
2;  MS.  IV,  10,5. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  long  compound  looks  suspicious ;  possibly 
it  should  be  read  adabdhavrata^  pramati/;. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Vasu  and  dhdna  frequently  receive  the  epithet 
ubhaya;  see  VI,  19,  10;  VII,  82,  4;  83,  5;  X,  84,  7.  No 
doubt  celestial  and  terrestrial  goods  are  referred  to,  see  II, 
14,11;  V,  68,3;  VI,  59,9;  VII,  97,  10;  IX,  19,  i ;  100,3. 


MAMDALA    II,    HYMN    IO.  21 7 

MAJV/7ALA  II,  HYMN  10. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  6,  VARGA  2. 

1.  Agni  is  to  be  invoked  as  the  first  like  a  father, 
when  he  has  been  inflamed  by  Manus l  in  the  abode 
of  Id*.     When  he  has  invested  himself  with  beauty, 
the  wise  immortal,  he,  the  glorious  strong  (horse)  is 
to  be  smoothed  (by  the  worshippers  as  by  grooms). 

2.  Agni  with  bright  splendour,  mayest  thou  hear 
my  call  with  all  my  prayers,  thou  a  wise  immortal. 
The  two  tawny  (horses)  draw  thy  chariot  or  the  two 
red  (horses),  or  He  the  wide-ranging  one  has  made 
the  two  ruddy  (horses  draw  his  chariot)1. 

3.  They  have  generated  the  well-born  (Agni)  in 
her  who  lies  on  her  back 1.     Agni  became  a  germ  in 
the  manifoldly-adorned  (wives)2.     Even  in  the  .  .  ,3 
the   wise   one   dwells   by   night    uncovered   in   his 
powers 4. 

4.  I  besprinkle   with    my   offering,  with   Ghrzta, 
Agni  who  abides   turned  towards  all  beings,  who 
widely  extends  throughout,  who   is   mighty  in  his 
vigour,  who  shows  himself  most  capacious  by  the 
food  (which  he  consumes),  and  robust  \ 

5.  I  besprinkle  Him  who  is  turned  towards  (us). 
from  all  sides  ;  may  he  gladly  accept  that  with  his  be- 
nevolent mind.    Agni,  who  is  like  a  beautifyl  youth, 
who  has  the  appearance  of  one  eagerly  striving,  is  not 
to  be  touched,  when  he  hurries  around  with  his  body. 

6.  Mayst  thou   know  the   portion  (belonging  to 
thee),  being  strong  through  thy  desire.     With  thee 
as  our  messenger  may  we  speak  like  Manu.    Gaining 


2l8  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


wealth  l  I  invoke  with  my  (sacrificial)  ladle,  with  my 
eloquence,  the  faultless  Agni  who  mixes  the  honey- 
drink. 

NOTES. 

The  same  fizshi  and  metre.  On  the  position  of  this 
hymn  in  the  collection  and  its  division  into  Tr/£as,  sec  the 
note  on  II,  9.—  Verses  4-5=  VS.  XI,  23-24;  TS.  IV,  l,  a, 
4.  5  5  MS.  II,  7,  2. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VIT,  2,  3.  ManunA  sdmiddham. 
Note  2.  id  is  a  synonym  of  .fcft  ;  i/i/i  pad6  means  the 
same  as  f/dyaA  pad£. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  I  cannot  accept  Prof.  Lanman's  scansion  of  this 
PAda  (Noun-Inflection,  342),  uta  arushaTia  £akre  vlbhritraA. 
In  my  opinion  the  only  reading  in  conformity  with  the  use 
of  Vedic  poets  is  ut£rush£  dha,  &c. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Ill,  29,  3  (see  below).  Of  course  the 
kindling-stick  is  alluded  to. 

Note  2.  The  wives  are  the  plants.  —  Comp.  Lanman, 
P.  548. 

Note  3.  The  meaning  of  slrinSi  (iirag  \cyopcvov)  is  un- 
known. The  Indian  explanation  ('night1)  of  course  is 
a  guess,  but  this  guess  may  be  right. 

Note  4.  'Uncovered  by  the  night,'  M.  M.  On  mdhobhi*, 
cf.  vol.  xxxii,  p.  197. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  See  vol.  xxxii,  p.  212. 


Verse  8. 

Note  1.  There  is  no  reason  for  conjecturing  dhanas£m 
(Ludwig).  Comp.  X,  65,  10.  indriydm  s6mam  dhanasfifc  u 
Imahe. 


MAtfDALA    III,    HYMN    I.  219 

MAAT/?ALA  III,  HYMN  1. 
ASHrAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  13-16. 

i.  Thou  wilt  have  me,  O  Agni,  as  a  strqng 
(master)  of  Soma l :  therefore  thou  hast  made  me 
the  carrier  (of  the  gods  ?)  to  perform  worship  at  the 
sacrifice2.  Sending  my  thoughts  to  the  gods8 1  make 
the  (press-)  stone  ready4 ;  I  toil,  O  Agni :  find  thou 
pleasure  in  thy  own  body6. 

21.  Eastward  we  have  turned  the  sacrifice2;  may 
the  prayer  increase.  They  honoured  Agni  with  fuel 
and  adoration.  They  have  taught  (him)  ttye  sacri- 
ficial ordinances  of  the.sages  of  Heaven  3.  Though 
he  (Agni)  is  clever  and  strong,  they  have  sought 
a  way  for  him. 

3.  He  has  conceived  freshness1,  the  wise  one  of 
pure 2  powers,  he  who  is  by  his  birth  well  allied  with 
Heaven  and  Earth.    The  gods  have  found  Agni  the 
conspicuous  one  in  the  waters,  in  the  work 8  of  the 
sisters. 

4.  The  seven  young  (wives)1  made  the  blessed 
one  grow  who  had  been  born  white,  ruddy  in  his 
growth.     They  ran  up  to  him  like  mares  2  to  a  new- 
born foal.     The  gods  wondered  at  Agni  at  his  birth. 

5.  Spreading  with  his  bright  limbs  to  the  aerial 
space,  purifying  his  power1  by  wise  purifications, 
clothing  himself  in  light,  the  life  of  the  waters2,  he 
creates  mighty,  perfect  beauty. 

6.  He  has  gone  to  (the  waters)  who  do  not  eat, 
the  undeceived   ones,    the    young  (daughters)    of 
Heaven  who  are  not  clothed  and  (yet)  are  not  naked, 


23O  VEDTC    HYMNS. 


Here  the  former  young  (women)  having  the  same 
origin,  the  seven  sounds l  have  conceived  one  germ. 

7.  His  compact  masses  assuming  every  shape  are 
spread  in  the  womb  of  ghee,  in  the  streaming  of 
honey.     There  the  swelling  milch-cows  have   sta- 
tioned themselves.     Great  are  the  parents  of  the 
wonderfully  mighty  (Agni)  who  are  turned  towards 
each  other1. 

8.  Having  been  carried  (in  the  waters)  $hou  hast 
shone  forth,  O  son  of  strength,  assuming  wonderful 
shapes  brilliant  and  fierce.     The  streams  of  honey 
and  ghee  drip,  where  the  male  has  grown  by  wisdom. 

9.  By  (his)  nature  he  has  found  his  father's  udder1 ; 
he  has  sent  forth  his   streams   and   his  showers2. 
Walking3  hidden  to  his  dear   friends   he  has  not 
been  hidden  to  the  young  (daughters)  of  Heaven*. 

10.  He  bore  (in  his  womb)  the  germ  of  the  sire, 
of  the   father   who  begat   him1.     He,   being    one, 
sucked  many  (nurses)  rich  in  milk2.     Observe  for 
this   manly,  bright   one   the   two  wives   bound   ir 
kinship,  belonging  to  men8. 

11.  The   great  one  has  grown  up  in  the  wide 
unbounded  space1.     The  Waters  (have  made)  Agni 
(grow):    for  many  glorious  ones2  (have  come)  to- 
gether 3.     He  lay  in  the  womb  of  ^?/ta,  the  domestic 
(god)  Agni,  in  the  work  *  of  the  uterine  sisters. 

12.  Like  a  horse  that. carries  (the  prize),  in  the 
assembly  of  the  great  (waters)1,  visible  to  his  son2, 
he  whose  ...  is  light3 :  he  who  as  father  begat  the 
ruddy  cows  4,  he  the  son  of  the  waters  is  the  most 
manly,  restless 5  Agni. 

13.  To  him,  the  glorious  son  of  the  waters  and  of 
the  plants,  the  blessed  wood l  has  given  birth,  in  his 
many  shapes.     Even -the  gods,  for.  they  agreed  in 


MAtfDALA    III,    HYMN    I.  221 

their  mind,  honoured  him  who  had  been  born  the 
most  wonderful  and  strong. 

14.  Mighty  rays  of  light  like  brilliant  lightnings, 
milking  (the  sap  of)   immortality  in  the  boundless 
stable,  accompanied  Agni  whose  ...  is  light  *,  who 
had  grown  up  in  his  own  house,  as  it  were  in  secret 

15.  I  magnify  thee,  worshipping  thee  with  offerr 
ings ;  I  magnify  (thee)  desirous  of  thy  friendship,  of 
thy  favour.     Together  with  the  gods  give  help  to 
him   who   praises   thee,   and   protect   us   with   thy 
domestic  faces. 

1 6.  As  thy  followers,  O  Agni,  best  leader,  winning 
all  precious  (treasures),  pressing  onward  with  fertile 
glory,  may  we  overcome  the  godless  who  seek  to 
combat  us. 

17.  Thou  hast  been  here  as  the  banner  of  the 
gods,  Agni,  joy-giving,  knowing  all  wisdom.    As  the 
domestic   (god)  thou  hast   harboured    the  mortals. 
As  the  charioteer  thou  goest  along  straightway  after 
the  gods. 

1 8.  The  immortal,  the  king,  has  sat  down  in  the 
dwelling  of  the  mortals,  performing  the  sacrifices1. 
He  the  ghee-faced  one  has  shone  forth  widely,  Agni 
knowing  all  wisdom. 

I9T.  Come  to  us  with  thy  gracious  friendship, 
speeding,  great,  with  thy  great  blessings.  Bestow 
on  us  plentiful  victorious  wealth ;  make  our  share 
glorious  and  adorned  with  fine  speech. 

20.  These  old  births  of  thine,  O  Agni,  and  the 
recent  ones  I  have  told  forth  to  thee  the  ancient 
one.     These  great  libations  (of  Soma)  have  been 
prepared  for  the  manly  one ;  generation  by  genera- 
tion G£taved£s  has  been  placed  (on  the  altar). 

21.  Gatavedas,  placed  (on  the  altar)  generation 


222  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


after  generation,  is  kindled  by  the  Vwvfimitras,  the 
indefatigable  (or  everlasting).  May  we  dwell  in  the 
grace  of  him  the  worshipful,  yea,  in  his  blissful 
kindness. 

22.  Bring  thou,  O  strong  one,  this  sacrifice  of  ours 
to  the  gods,  O  wise  one,  as  a  liberal  giver.     Bestow 
on  us,  O  Hotri,  abundant  food;   Agni,  obtain  by 
sacrificing  mighty  wealth  for  us. 

23.  Procure,  O  Agni,  for  ever,  to  him  who  im- 
plores thee,  (the  gift  of)  nourishment  \  the  wonderful 
acquiring  of  the  cow.     May  a  son  be  ours,  offspring 
that  continues  our  race.     Agni;  may  this  favour  of 
thine  abide  with  us  ! 


NOTES. 

The  /?/shi  is  VLyvAmitra  GAthina,  the  metre  TrishAibh. — 
Verse  i  =  MS.  IV,  n,  *.  Verse  19  =  MS.  IV,  14,  15. 
Verse  23= SV.  I,  76;  VS.  XII,  51 ;  TS.  IV,  a,  4,  3 ;  MS. 

II,  7,  ii ;  IV,  n,  i ;  12,3. 

Comp.  on  this  hymn  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  157 
seq.,  and  the  article  of  Regnaud,  fitudes  V^diquca,  Thymne 

III,  i  du  Rig- Veda. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Vdkshi,  which  is  very  frequent  as  and  person  of 
vah,  occurs  also  as  belonging  to  vaj-  (see  VII,  98,  2.  plt/m  ft 
asya  vakshi),  and  in  this  sense  no  doubt  it  is  to  be  under- 
stood in  our  passage. — Ludwig  and  Geldner  take  tavdsam 
vdkshi  ague  as  a  parenthesis.  G.  translates :  '  Du  hast 
mich  zu  deinem  Somaschenken — denn  dich  geliistet  nach 
dem  starken,  o  Agni — bestellt,  dass  ich  vor  dea  Wcisen 
opfern  soil.'  To  me  it  seems  more  natural  to  understand 
the  first  P£da  as  one  continual  clause ;  vakshi  is  accented 
on  account  of  the  logical  dependence  in  which  this  clause 


MA^DALA    III,    HYMN    I.  223 

stands,  the  clause  being  considered,  even  without  a  sub* 
ordinating  word,  as  a  dependent  one.  See  Delbriick,  Alt* 
indische  Syntax,  p.  42;  A.  Mayr,  Sitzungsberichte  der 
phil.  hist.  Classe  der  Kais.  Akademie  der  Wissenschaften, 
Vol.  LXVIII  (Vienna,  1871),  248,  259. — If  we  were  to  con- 
sider vakshi  as  a  locative  infinitive  (see  Bartholomae's  theory 
on  such  infinitives,  Indogermanische  Forschungen,  II,  271 
seqq.),  the  translation  would  be:  'Thou  hast  made  me, 
O  Agni,  a  strong  carrier  of  Soma  at  the  carrying  (of  the 
oblations),'  &c.  I  do  not  think,  however,  this  interpretation 
of  vakshi  very  probable,  nor  is  it,  as  far  as  I  can  see, 
favoured  by  any  passage  which  contains  the  word. — For 
s6masya  tavasam,  Prof.  Max  Miiller  suggests  the  translation 
'  strong  of  Soma/  i.  e.  full  of  Soma. 

Note  2.  The  text  has  viddthe. 

Note  3.  The  traditional  text  has  kkkh*.  dfdyat,  which 
means, '  shining  towards  or  as  far  as  the  gods/  The  verb 
di  with  a£/f-/*a  occurs  still  in  two  other  passages  of  this 
Ma/ft/ala,  in  15,  5  and  55,  3.  In  the  first  of  these  passages 
the  text  seems  to  be  correct :  devan  a££//a  dTdy&naA, 
*  shining  as  far  as  the  gods.'  In  the  second  passage  I  believe 
that  we  ought  to  read  ikkha.  didhye  pftrvy£;/i,  '  I  think  of 
the  ancient  things/  or  more  exactly,  *  I  send  my  thoughts  to 
the  ancient  things/  In  the  same  way  it  seems  to  me  very 
probable  that  in  our  verse  diclhyat  would  be  the  correct 
reading,  for  the  participle  refers  to  the  priest  who  says  of 
himself, '  I  make  the  stone  ready;'  and  this  priest  does  not 
send  his  light  (dfdyat)  but  his  thoughts  (dfdhyat)  to  the 
gods.  Com],.  I,  132, 5  =  139,  i.  dev£n  &kkfa  nd  dhitdya/* ; 
III,  4,  3,  and  numerous  passages  which  represent  the  mati, 
the  giraA,  &c.,  as  going  towards  (kkkha.)  the  gods,  such  as 
Ilf,  39,  i ;  42,  3  ;  VII,  10,  3  ;  36,  9;  X,  43,  i  ;  47,  6.— 
Prof,  von  Roth  (Zeitschrift  der  D.  Morg.  Ges.,  XLVIII,  108) 
speaks  of  the  '  haufige  Verwechslungen  von  Formen  der 
beiden  Wurzcln  2  di  scheinen  und  i  dhf  wahrnehmen,  den- 
ken/  The  reading  d?dyat  in  our  verse,  and  didye  III,  55, 
3,  may  rest  on  the  influence  of  III,  15,  5.  devaii  ikkhb, 


224  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Note  4.  On  the  accent  of  yungi  the  same  may  be  said  as 
above  (note  i)  regarding  the  accent  of  vdkshi. 
Note  6.  I.  e.  cause  the  fire  to  flare  up. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  verses  2,  3,  and  4  have  been  translated  by 
Bergaigne,  Religion  V^dique,  I,  109.- 

Note  2.  Many  sacrificial  rites  are  performed  from  west  to 
east ;  comp.  with  regard  to  the  Barhis,  I,  188,  4  ;  X,  no, 
4 ;  with  regard  to  the  sacrificial  ladle,  III,  6,  i  ;  V,  28,  i ; 
to  the  Havirdh^nas,  Va^as.  Sa;;/hita  V,  17.  Thus  the 
whole  sacrifice  is  spoken  of  as  proceeding  in  an  eastward 
direction ;  see  X,  66, 12.  pra';7£am  na/J  ya^«am  pra  nayata ; 
X,  87,  9.  ya^/7am  pra«£am  .  .  .  pra  naya. 

Note  3.  Comp.  Mahabharata  XIV,  280.  tasmat  svaya;;/ 
sadhi  ya£-«e  vidh£nam.  Vidatha  indeed  is  here  an  equivalent 
of  vidhana. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  seems  to  be  that  Agni  won  vigour 
(maya//)  by  dwelling  in  the  waters  (see  P£da  3) ;  comp.  the 
well-known  words  £pa/i  hi  stha-maya//-bhuva//  (X,  9,  i), 
*  for  you,  O  waters,  give  vigour.' 

Note  2.  More  exactly,  of  purified  faculties. 

Note  3.  The  accent  apasi,  instead  of  apasi,  looks  very 
suspicious.  It  is  easy,  but  perhaps  too  easy,  to  correct 
apasi,  as  possibly  in  III,  6,  7.  apa/j  should  be  read  for  apaA. 
(In  I,  31,  8  ;  151,  4  Grassmann  is  wrong  in  assuming 
a  neutral  stem  apis-  'die  Arbeit.1)  To  me  Ludwig's 
conjecture  updsi  (in  the  lap  of  the  sisters,  i.e.  of  the 
waters)  seems  excellent.  Upasi  occurs  in  V,  43,  7  ;  X,  27, 
13  in  the  meaning  of  upasthe.  Thus  upasi  svasr/wam 
would  be  the  same  as  apa'm  upasthe  ;  comp.  I,  144,  2 ; 
VI,  8,  4;' IX,  86,  25;  X,  45,  35  46,  i.  *>  &c.— Comp. 
below,  verse  11,  note  4. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Of  course  the  seven  wives  are  the  rivers  or 
waters. 


MAJSTDALA    III,    HYMN     I.  225 


Note  2.  I  cannot  adopt  Prof.  Weber's  conjecture  asvaA 
(Altiranische  Sternnamen,  10).  His  translation  is :  '  Die 
Gotter  liefen  zu  dem  wundersamen  Agni  bei  seiner  Geburt 
(neugierig)  hinzu,  wie  die  jungen  Madchen  zu  einem  neu- 
gebornen  Kinde.1 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  For  kratum  punanaA,  cf.  Ill,  31,  16 ;  VIIIf  12, 

11 ;  13. * ;  53, 6- 

Note  2.  I  take  pari  as  belonging  to  vdsdnaA  ;  sofciA  and 
&yuk  are  objects.  Corrp.  X,  16,  5.  £yuA  v4s£na^  ;  X,  53,  3. 
sa/z  £yuA  £  agat  surabhf^  vAs&na/z. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  number  of  the  seven  sounds  (comp.  Sten 
Konow,  Das  S4mavu!hana-brahma*/a,  p*  33,  note  3)  seems 
to  be  connected  with  the  seven  J?/shis,  see  IX,  103,  3.  \&n\h 
^/shiwam  sapta  (comp.  IX,  62,  17).  The  seven  sounds 
seem  to  be  identified  with  the  seven  rivers  also  in  III,  7,  I 
(see  below).  Comp.  Bergaigne,  Rcl^ion  Vedique,  II,  132  ; 
H.  OM  Religion  des  Veda,  1 17,  iiotc  i. 

Verse  7 
Note  1.  Heaven  and  Earth. 

Verso  0. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Bergaigrie,  Religion  Vedique,  II,  99. 

Note  2.  See  volume  xxxii,  441  seq.  (I,  2,  3,  note  j). 

Note  3.  Here  I  believe  we  have  an  anacoluthon.  The 
poet  seems  to  have  intended  to  say  k  Him  who  walked  .  .  . 
the  daughters  of  Heaven  saw/ — Prof.  Max  Miiller  translates 
this  hemistich :  '  He  found  him  (the  father)  moving  along 
with  dear  friends,  with  the  young  maidens  of  Heaven — he 
was  not  hidden/ 

Note  4.  AgnJ  was  hidden  to  the  gods  but  not  to  the 

waters. 

Verse  1C. 

Note  1.  The  verse  X,  3,  2,  though  very  obscure,  seems 
to  contain  a  similar  idea.     Should  the  meaning  be  that 
[46]  Q 


226  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Agni   bears   in   his   womb   the   Dawn,   the    daughter   of 
Heaven  ? 

Note  2.  The  waters. 

Note  3.  This  phrase,  which  I  have  translated  as  literally 
as  possible,  is  very  obscure.  The  two  wives  seem  to  be 
wives  of  Agni.  Are  they  Night  and  Daun  (the  two 
sabardughe,  III,  55,  12?),  whose  designation  as  'belonging 
to  men '  seems  not  to  be  impossible?  Or  the  two  kindling- 
sticks  (comp.  V,  47,  5)  ?  Or  the  two  Darvis  (V,  6,  9)  ? 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  Comp.  V,  42,  17.  uraii  devAA  anib^dhe*  sy£ma. 
Note  2.  This  is  feminine. 

Note  3.  The  phrase  ya^asa^  sdm  hf  purvi'A  occurs  also 
X,  46,  10.     It  may  have  been,  as  Gcldner  believes,  a  pro- 
verbial locution.     But  the  verb  which  it  is  most  natural  to 
supply,  seems  to  be  gam  (i,  ya),  so  that  the  meaning  may 
have  been  :  '  Many  superior  (wives)  are  wont  to  assemble,' 
i.  e.  where  one  such  wife  is,  there  will  be  many.     This  is 
applied  here  to  the  waters,  in  X,  46,  10  to  such  beings  as 
ishaA,  fitaya/*  or  the  like.     That  yas£s  may  be  meant  for 
.the  waters   is   shown   by  VII,  36,  6,  where  the  yajasa^ 
v£vaj£n£^,  mentioned  by  the  side  of  Sarasvati,  evidently 
are    the   waters. — It    should    be    observed    that    several 
expressions  of  this  hymn  have  been  made  use  of  by  the 
author  of  X,  46. 

Note  4.  Or  rathejr  '  in  the  lap '  (upasi).  Comp.  above, 
verse  3,  note  3. 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  With  regard  to  akrdA  I  adopt  tK:  tri"slaiMn 
proposed  by  Geldner  (Ved.  Studien,  I,  i68).-~G'i  the 
accent  of  mahlham,  see  Lanman,  p.  398. 

Note  2.  This  seems  to  be  the  human  worshipper.  I  can- 
not follow  Prof,  von  Roth,  Zeitschrift  der  D.  Morg.  Gcscll- 
schaft,  XLVIII,  118,  who  explains  sflndve  as  a  corrupt  third 
person  of  the  verb  su. 

Note  3.  See  above,  I,  44,  3,  note  j. 


MAArDALA     ill,     HYMN     1.  227 


Note  4.  The  dawns. 

Note  5.  Comp.  above,  1,  36,  i,  note  2. 

Verse  13. 
Note  1.  Vana  :  the  wood  considered  as  a  wife. 

Verse  14. 
Note  1.  See  verse  12,  note  3. 

Verse  18. 
Note-1.  The  text  has  vidathani. 

Verse  19. 
Note  1.  Comp.  Kuhn,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  I,  p.  445. 

Verse  23. 

Note  1.  f/am.  which  more  especially  means  the  nourishing 
substance  of  the  cow.  Comp.  H.  O.,  Religion  dcs  Veda, 
72,  326. — Prof.  Max  Muller  translates:  *  Procure  to  him 
who  implores  thee,  O  Agni,  exuberant  land  for  ever,  rich 


228  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


III,    HYMN    2. 
ASHTAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  17-19. 
To  AGNI  VALSVANARA. 

1.  For  Vairvanara,  the  increaser  of  </?/ta,  for  Agni 
we  produce1  a  Dhisha^a2  like  purified  ghee.     And 
verily 3  by  their  prayer  the  invoking  men  (accom- 
plish)  him,  the    Hot/7,   as   the  axe  accomplishes  a 
chariot 

2.  By  his  birth  he  has  given  splendour  to  both 
worlds  (Heaven  and  Earth).     He  became  the  praise- 
worthy  son    of  his    parents,    Agni,    the    carrier   of 
oblations,   never  ageing,  with  satisfied  mind,  unde- 
ceivable,  the  guest  of  men,  rich  in  light. 

3.  Through  the  power  of  their  mind,  within  the 
sphere   of  their   superior   strength    the   gods   have 
procreated   Agni    by   their    thoughts.     Desirous  of 
winning  the  prize1  I  address  Him  who  shines  with 
his  splendour,  who  is  great  in  his  light,  as  (one  who 
desires  to  win  the  prize  addresses  his)  race-horse. 

4.  Desirous  of  winning  the  choice,  glorious,  and 
praiseworthy  prize  (which  is  the  gift)  of  the  joy-giver, 
we  choose  the  boon  of  the  Bhrzgus 1,  the  U-n^ -,  who 
has  the  mind  of  a  sage,  Agni,  who  reigns  with  his 
heavenly  light. 

5.  Men,  having  spread  the  sacrificial  grass,  holding 
the  sacrificial  ladle,  have  placed  here  in  front  (as 
Purohita),  for  the  sake  of  (the  divine)  blessing,  Agni 
renowned  for  strength,  with  great  splefidour,  united 
with   all   the   gods,    the   Rudra  of  sacrifices1,  who 
accomplishes  the  oblations  of  active  (worshippers). 

6.  O  (Agni)  whose  flame  is  purifying,  around  thy 


MAJVDALA    III,    HYMN    2.  229 


dwelling,  O  Hotrz,  the  men  who  at  the  sacrifices 
have  spread  the  sacrificial  grass,  O  Agni,  seeking 
(how  to  do)  honour  (to  thce),  and  (desiring)  thy 
friendship,  surround  thee  (reverentially) ; — bestow 
thou  wealth  on  them ! 

7.  He   has    filled   the  two  worlds   (Heaven  and 
Earth)  and   the  great   Sun,  when  the   active  ones 
(i.e.  the  priests)  held  him  fast  who  had  been  born. 
He  the  sage  is  led  round  for   the  performance  of 
worship,  like  a  racer  for  the  winning  of  the  prize  !f 
with  satisfied  mind. 

8.  Adore  ye  him,  the  giver  of  offerings,  the  best 
performer  of  worship ;  honour  ye  him  the  domestic 
Cratavedas.      Agni,    the   charioteer   of  the   mighty 
AVta,  he   who   dwells   among   manifold   tribes,  has 
become  the  Purohita  of  the  gods. 

9.  The  immortal  Usig**  have  purified  three  logs 
for  the  vigorous l  Agni 2  who  wanders   round  the 
earth  3 :  of  these  they  have  placed  one  among  the 
mortals  for  their  enjoyment ;  two  have  passed  into 
the  sister  world 4. 

10.  The  food  offered  by  men  has  sharpened  him, 
the  sage  of  the   tribes,   the  lord  of  the  tribes,  as 
an  axe.     Busily  he  goes  to  the  heights  and  to  the 
depths.     He  has  held  fast  the  germ  in  these  worlds. 

11.  He  the  generator,  the  strong  one,  stirs  in  the 
resplendent   bellies  like  a  roaring  lion,  Vai^vdnara 
with  his  broad  stream  of  light,  the  immortal,  dis- 
tributing goods  and  treasures  to  his  worshipper. 

12.  Vauvcinara  has  mounted  the  firmament,  the 
back  of  heaven,  as  of  old,  glorified  by  those  who  are 
rich  in  good  thoughts.     He,  creating  wealth  for  the 
creatures  as  of  old,  goes  watchful  round  the  common 
course. 


VKD1C    HYMNS. 


13.  The  righteous,  worshipful  piirsl  deserving"  of 
praise,   the  dweller  in   heaven1    whom   MatarLwan 
has  established  (on  earth)  .  him  \\  c  approach  whose 
way  is  bright  and  hair  golden,  the  resplendent  Agni, 
for  the  sake  of  ever  new  welfare. 

14.  Like  the  flaming  one  (the  sun?)  on  his  way, 
the   quicll   one,   of   sun-like    aspert,    the    banner  of 
heaven,  who  dwells  in  light,  who  wakes  at  dawn — 
Agni  the  head  of  heaven,  the  unrepressed,  him  we 
approach  with  adoration,  the  strong  one  mightily. 

15.  The  joy-giving,  bright  Hotr/,  in  whom  is  no 
falsehood,  the  domestic,  praiseworthy  dweller  among 
all  tribes,  like  a  splendid  chariot,  wonderful  to  be- 
hold,   established   by    Manus :    him    we    constantly 
approach  for  the  sake  of  wealth. 


NOTES. 

The  same  J?/shi.  The  metre  is  ^agati. — Verse  7  =  VS. 
XXXIII,  75.  Verse  9  =  MS.  I,  3,  35. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Literally, '  we  generate.' 

Note  2.  On  the  meaning  of  this  word,  which  I  may  be 
allowed  to  leave  in  its  Sanskrit  form,  I  refer  to  I,  96,  j, 
note  2. 

Note  3.  Literally,  'doubly/  Comp.  below,  III,  17,  5, 
note  i. 

Verse  3. 

Note  I.  V£ga.m  sanishyan  refers  to  the  worshipper  who 
desires  to  obtain  v^a  (quick  strength,  and  the  booty  or 
prize  obtained  by  it),  and  in  the  comparison,  to  the  owner 
of  a  race-horse  who  desires  to  win  the  race. 


MAiVDALA    III,    HYMN    2.  23! 


Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Con<p.  I,  60,  i  (see  above). 

Note  2.  (xxiip.  Bergaigne,  Religion  Vedique,  I,  57  seq. 

Verse  5. 
Note  1.  Comp.  von  Bradke,  Dyaus  Asura,  p.  54. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Again,  as  in  verse  3,  v^iasdtaye  means,  with 
reference  to  the  race,  '  for  the  winning  of  the  prize,1  and 
with  reference  to  sacrifice,  'for  the  obtainment  of  quick 
strength,  of  booty,  &c.' 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  See  above,  I,  36,  i,  note  2. 

Note  2.  Agni  is  stated  here  to  have  one  terrestrial  and 
two  celestial  forms  :  the  fire  belonging  to  men,  and,  it 
seems,  sun  and  lightning.  Comp.  M.  M.,  Physical  Religion, 
229  ;  Bergaigne,  Religion  Vedique,  I,  22.  With  regard  to 
the  three  forms  of  Agni,  compare  also  H.  O.,  Religion  des 
Veda,  106  seq. 

Note  3.  On  pari^man,  comp.  above,  I,  79,  3,  note  2. 

Note  4.  Into  the  celestial  world. 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  I  read  divikshaydm  (Bergaigne,  Rel.  Vedique,  I, 
55,  note).  The  blunder  has  been  caused  by  X,  63,  5. 
dadhire*  divi  kshdyam. 


232  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANDALA.    Ill,   HYMN   3. 

ASHTAKA  II,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  20-21. 

To  AGNI  VALSVANARA. 

1.  They  have  worshipped  Vai^vAnara  with  his 
broad  stream  of  light  with   prayers1  and  treasures 
in  order  that  he  may  walk  on  firm  ground.     For 
immortal  Agni  honours  the  gods,  and  from  of  old 
he  has  not  violated  the  laws. 

2.  The  wonderful  messenger  goes  between  the 
two  worlds  (heaven  and  earth),  the  Hotrt  who  has 
sat  down,  the  Purohita  of  Manus.    He  takes  care  of 
his  wide  dwelling  day  by  day,  Agni  who,  incited  by 
the  gods,  gives  wealth  for  our  prayers. 

3.  The  priests  have  exalted  with  their  thoughts 
Agni,  the  banner  of  sacrifices,  the  achiever  of  sacri- 
fice1.    From  him  in  whom  they  have  put  together 
their  (sacrificial)  works  and  their  prayers,  the  sacrificer 
desires  blessings. 

4.  The  father  of  sacrifices,  the  miraculous  lord  of 
those  who  know  prayers  (P)1,  Agni,  is  the  measure 
and  rule2  of  the  sacrificers ;  he  has  enteVed  the  two 
manifold-shaped  worlds ;  the  sage  beloved  by  many 
people  is  glorified  in  his  foundations. 

5.  The  gods  have  established  here  in  great  beauty 
Agni  the  bright  with  his  bright  chariot,  whose  every 
law  is  golden1,  VaLrvanara  who  dwells  in  the  waters, 
who  finds  the  sun,  the  diver,  the  swift  one  covered 
with  strength,  the  quick  one. 

6.  Agni,  spreading  out  with  his  thought  the  mani- 
fold-adorned sacrifice,  together  with  the  gods  and 


MAtfDALA    III,    HYMN    3.  233 


with  the  people  of  Manus,  goes  as  a  charioteer  to 
and  fro  with  (gods  and  men)  who  accomplish  the 
sacrifice,  the  quick,  domestic  (god),  the  dispeller  of 
curses. 

7.  Agni,   be  wakeful l  in   our  life  which  may  be 
blessed  with  offspring;  swell  with  sap;  shine  upon 
us  (plenty  of)  food.     Stir  up  vigour  and  the  great 
ones,   O   watchful   (god),      Thou  art  the    Usig   (or 
willing  one)  of  the  gods,  <he  good-minded  (lord)  of 
prayers. 

8.  The  lord  of  tie  trihc,  the  vigorous1  guest,  the 
guider  of  prayers,  tin-  !•'  >i;  (or  willing  one)  of  those 
who  invoke  him,  f/arivec-as  the  light  of  worship  — 
him    men    constantly    j'-jiiso    with    adoration,    with 
solicitations  for  their  \\  -Hare. 

9.  The    resplendent,    jo)ous    god,    Agni    on    his 
chariot,  has  with  his  mM;ht  encompassed  the  dwell- 
ings.    May  we  honour   m  our  hom>e  with  beautiful 
prayers1    his    commands    who    is   rich    in   manifold 
prosperity. 

10.  O  VaLrvSnara,   I   love  thy  statutes  by  which 
thou  hast  found  the  sun,  O  f*u -seeing  one.     When 
born  thou  hast  filled  the  worlds,  heaven  and  earth  ; 
Agni,     thou    encompassost    all    these    (beings)    by 
thyself. 

n.  For  VrijvAnara  s  wonderful  deeds  he  the  sage 
alone  has  by  his  great  skill  mightily1  let  loose  (his 
powers  ?).  Agni  has  been  born  exalting  both  his 
parents,  Heaven  and  Earth,  rich  in  seed. 

NOTES. 

The  same  Rishl  and  metre. — Verse  10  =  MS.  IV,  n,  i. 
Verse  n  =  TS.  1,5,  11,  i. 


.V'4  VEDIL    HYMNS. 


Verse  1. 

Note  I.  A  meaning  like  *  prayer  '  scans  to  recommend 
itself  for  most  of  the  passage  in  vvliich  the  substantive  vip 
oc<  urs,  for  instance,  V,  68,  j.  prd  va//  mitraya  gayatavaru;/ay^ 
vipa  gira  ;  IX,  22,  3.  ete  puta/f  vipaj/tita//  sonul.saA  .  .  .  vipa 
vi  ana^u//  dhiya/*  ;  JX,  65,  12.  aya  /fritta//  vipa  a  nay  4  hari// 
pavasva  dharaya  ;  III,  10,  5  (see  below),  &c.  As  the  verb 
vip  means  'to  be  in  trembling  agitation,'  the  same  word  as 
a  substantive  may  designate  enthusiastic  thoughts  or 
prayers.  Comp.  vepate  mati'  IX,  71,  3  ;  X,  it,  6,  and  the 
nouns  vfpra,  vipa^it,  vipodha.  We  need  not  enter  here 
upon  the  question,  whether  some  concrete  trembling  01 
shaking  objects  also  were  designated  as  vipa//,  and  whether 
Bergaigne  (Religion  V^dique,  I,  p.  vii)  is  right  in  raking 
the  vip  dya/4-agdi,  with  which  Trita  killed  th<?  boar 
(X,  99,  6),  as  a  'pri&re  a  pointe  de  fer'  (comp.  Macdonell, 
journ.  R.  Asiatic  Society,  189;^,  p.  431  ;  1895,  p.  185).  —  In 
our  verse  vfpa/j  may  be  either  nominative  or  accusative. 
I  have  translated  it  as  an  accusative  ;  in  the  case  of  the 
nominative  the  translation  would  be  :  '  The  prayers  have 
worshipped  Vai^vanara  with  treasures/ 

Verse  3. 
Note  1.  The  text  has  viddthasya. 

Verse  4. 


Note  1.  suraA^  vipaA-^ft^m.  On  the  meaning  of  asura, 
which  implies  the  possession  of  secret,  supernatural  power, 
see  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  162  seq.  —  Comp.  von  Bradke, 
Dydus  Asura,  pp.  64-65. 

Note  2.  'Richtschnur  und  Weg  der  Opferer/  Pischel, 
Vedische  Studien,  I,  306. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Literally,  '  whose  rules  are  yellow/  The  mean- 
ing is  that  Agni's  whole  sphere  of  activity  bears  the  golden 


MA.VDALA    III,    HYMN    3. 


yellow  colour.  Sayawa  gives  the  interesting  remark 
*  haritva£am  iti  jakhantaram/  but  no  doubt  harivratam  is 
right. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Com  p.  Neisser,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XIII, 
297. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Comp.  I,  36,  j,  note  2. 

Verse  0. 
Note  1.  Comp.  II,  4,  i,  note  i. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  Prof.  Max  Miillcr  proposes  to  translate, '  has  sent 
forth  his  great  song/  and  observes,  '  Might  not  br/hat  be 
like  brihat  sama,  a  name  of  a  hymn  ? ' 


236  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAAYJALA    III,    HYMN    4. 

ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  22-23. 

APR!  HYMN. 

1.  Log   by    log1    be    kind    towards    ,is.       Flash 
by  flash  grant  us  thy,  the  Vasu's,  favour  -.     Bring 
hither,    O    god,    the    gods    that    we    may    sacrifice. 
Sacrifice,  O  Agni,  as  a  kind  friend  to  thy  friends. 

2.  Thou   whom   the  gods,  Varu/^a,  Mitra,   Agni, 
thrice   every  day  bring  hither  by  sacrifice  day  by 
day,  Tanunapat,  make  this  our  sacrifice  honey-sweet, 
having    its    abode   in  ghee ],    (this    sacrifice)    which 
worships  (the  gods). 

3.  (Our  adoring)  thought  rich  in  all  boons  goes 
forward   for  worshipping  as  the  first  the  llotrt  of 
the  sacred  food  (i/),  for  saluting  the  strong  bull  with 
adoration  and  homage.     May  he,  the  best  sacrificer, 
incited  (by  our  prayers)  sacrifice  to  the  gods  *. 

4.  Upwards  your1   course  has   been  directed  at 
the  worship;  upwards  (your)  flames2  are  gone;  ready 
(for  receiving  you)  is  the  air3.     Or  the  Hotrt  has 
sat  down  at  heaven's  navel.     We  spread   out   the 
sacrificial  grass  which  receives  the  gods. 

51.  Choosing  in  their  mind  the  sevenfold  work  of 
the  Mote's2,  enlivening  everything  (the  gods)  came 
hither  in  the  right  way.  (The  divine  doors3)  with 
men  as  their  ornaments4,  born  at  the  sacrifices5, 
have  come  hither  and  thither  to  this  sacrifice,  many 
of  them. 

6.  Hither  (shall  come)  the  two  Dawns1,  the 
neighbourly  (goddesses)  of  glorious  appearance2. 


MA.VDALA    III,    HYMN    4.  237 

Of  different  forms,  they  both  smile.  (They  shall 
come)  that  Mitra  and  Yaru//a  may  be  satisfied  with 
us,  and  Indra  accompanied  by  the  Maruts  with  their 
powers 3. 

7.  I  catch  hold  of  the  two  divine  Hot/v's  first. 
The  seven  strong  ones1  rejoice  according  to  their 
wont.  Teaching  the  right,  they  proclaim  the  right, 
the  guardians  of  law,  contemplating  the  law. 

8l.  May  Bharati,  in  concord  with  the  BharatJs, 
I /a  with  the  gods,  Agni  with  men,  Sarasvati  with 
all  (beings)  belonging  to  Sarasvati  (come)  hither ; 
may  the  three  goddesses  sit  clown  on  this  sacrificial 
grass. 

9.  O  divine  Tvash/r/,  grant  us  and   send  forth 
this  our  seed  which  is  to  thrive:     (the^seed)  from 
which   a  manly   son   is  born  able  and  skilful,  who 
sets  to  work  the  press-stones,  loving  the  gods. 

10.  O  tree1,  send  (the  offering)  forth  to  the  gods. 
May  Agni  the  slaughterer  make  the  offering  ready. 
May  the  same,  the  very  true  Hotrz,  sacrifice  according 
as  he  knows  the  generations  of  the  gods. 

11.  Agni,    being   kindled,  come   hither,    on    one 
chariot  with  Indra,  with  the  quick  gods.     May  Aditi, 
the  mother  of  noble  sons,  sit  down  on  our  sacrificial 
grass.     With  Svaha  may  the  immortal  gods  rejoice. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rishi.  Metre,  Trish/ubh.— Verse  9  =  TS. 
Ill,  i,  11,  i  ;  MS.  IV,  13,  10.  Verse  10  =VS.  XXVII, 
21  ;  TS.  IV,  1,8,3;  MS.  II,  12,6. 


238  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Agni  is  invoked  as  personified  in  each  log  of  fuel 
which  is  put  on  the  sacrificial  fire. 

Note  2.  Comp.  VII,  39,  i.  sumati'm  vasva//. 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  Comp.  II,  3,  1 1.  ghr/tam  asya  y6ni//. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Comp.  X,  no,  3.  sa/t  cnan  yakshi  ishita/i  ya^iyan 
(cf  also  X,  no,  9). 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  text  has  the  dual  vam.  But  who  are  the 
two  beings  addressed?  According  to  Saya;/a,  Agni  and 
the  Barhis,  which  does  not  seem  very  probable.  The 
structure  of  the  phrase  gives  the  impression-— though  this 
impression  is  by  no  means  certain — that  vam,  which  belongs 
to  g&tu,  is  to  be  supplied  to  sofcimshi  also.  If  we  are  right 
in  this  supposition,  are  not  the  two  beings  in  question  the 
two  first  of  the  three  sacred  fires,  the  Ahavaniya  and 
Garhapatya  ?  These  two  fires  are  frequently  spoken  of  in 
the  ritual  texts  as  of  a  dyad,  with  the  omission  of  the  third 
fire. — Prof.  Max  Muller  proposes  to  change  vam  into  Vci. 
According  to  him  the  meaning  may  be :  Either  the  road 
has  been  made  upward,  i.  e.  the  flames  have  gone  upward 
to  the  sky,  or  Agni  has  sat  down  at  heaven's  navel. 

Noto  2.  Comp.  VII,  43,  2.  uidhva  sotwnhl  dcvayflni 
asihu/i. 

Note  3.  Possibly  the  words  urdhv£  joKwshi  prdsthita 
nyf&;//st  may  form  one  clause,  *  upwards  (your)  flames  are 
gone  towards  the  sky.'  M.  M. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  On  this  verse,  comp.  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien, 
II,  iJ5seq. 

Note  2.  On  the  seven  priests  of  the  ancient  Soma 
sacrifice,  comp.  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  383  seq. 


MAATJOALA    III,    HYMN    4.  239 


Note  3,  That  this  subject  is  to  be  supplied,  is  shown  by 
the  regular  composition  of  the  Apri  hymns.  It  is  con- 
firmed by  the  woid  purvi'//,  which  is  evidently  an  epithet  of 
the  divine  doors  ;  comp.  I,  188,  5  ;  VII,  2,  5. 

Note  4.  *  In  human  form/  M.  M. 

Note  6.  The  text  has  vidathcshu. 

Verso  6. 

Note  L  I.  e.  Night  and  Dawn. 

Note  2.  Comp.  above,  I,  142,  7. 

Note  3.  Comp.  M.  M.,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  196  seq. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Comp.  above,  I,  127,  .5,  note  i.  Pischel  (Vedische 
Studien,  I,  96)  may  be  right  in  taking  the  seven  przkshasa/; 
as  the  Ahgiras,  the  sapta  vi 


Verse  8. 
Note  1.  The  verses  8-n  arc  repeated  in  VII,  2,  8-11. 

Verse  1O. 
Note  1.  The  tree  is  the  sacrificial  post  (yupa). 


240  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAAV;ALA  in,  HYMN  5. 

ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  24-25. 

1.  Shining   Agni    has    awoke   over   against   the 
Dawns,  the  priest  who  traces  the  footsteps  of  the 
sages1.     With  his  broad  stream  of  light  kindled  by 
the  pious,  the  carrier  (of  the  gods)  has  opened  the 
two  doors  of  darkness. 

2.  Agni    has   grown    strong  by  praises,    by   the 
speeches  of  the  praisers,  by  hymns,  the  adorable 
one.     Loving  many  aspects  of  7v?/ta  the  messenger 
has  shone  up  at  the  bursting  forth  of  the  Dawn. 

3.  Agni  has  been  established  among  the  tribes 
of  men,  the  son  of  the  waters,  Mitra1,  acting  in  the 
right   way.     The    delightful,    worshipful    one    has 
reached  the  top ;    the  priest  has  become  one  who 
should  be  invoked  by  prayers. 

4.  Agni  becomes  Mitra1,  when  he  has  been  kin- 
dled;   he  the    Ilotrt    (Agni    becomes)    Mitra;    he, 
G^tavedas,    (becomes)   Varu;/a.      The   quick   Adh- 
varyu,  the  domestic  (god,   Agni,   becomes)   Mitra, 
the  Mitra  (i.e.  friend  or  ally)  of  the  rivers  and  of  the 
mountains. 

5.  He  observes  the  deceiver's  dear  summit1,  the 
footstep  of  the  bird1;   the  vigorous  one2  observes 
the  course  of  the  Sun.     Agni  observes  at  his  (?) 
navel  the  seven-headed  (song?)3;    tall  (Agni)  ob- 
serves the  enjoyment  of  the  gods. 

6.  The  T&'bhu1  has  created  for  himself  a  good 
name  worthy  of  being  magnified,  he,  the  god  who 
knows  all  laws.     The  skin  of  the  herbs2,  the  bird's 
footstep3  rich  in  ghee :  Agni  watches  (all)  that,  never 
failing. 


in,    HYMN    5.  241 


7.  Agni  has  approached  the  place1  rich  in  ghee 
(the  altar),  with  broad  passages,  (the  place)  long- 
ing (for  him),  longing  (himself).    He  the  resplendent, 
bright,  tall  purifier  has  made  his  two  parents  8  new 
again  and  again. 

8.  As  soon  as  born  he  has  grown  by  the  grass  xf 
when  the  sprouting  (grass-)blades   strengthen   him 
with  ghee.    Like  waters  beautiful  on  their  precipitous 
path,  Agni,  being   in  the  lap  of  his  parents,  has 
escaped  into  wide  space. 

9.  Receiving  praise  the  vigorous  one  l  has  shone 
forth  with  his   fuel,  on  heaven's   summit,  on  the 
earth's  navel.     May  Agni  worthy  of  being  magnified, 
(being)  Mitra  and  -M&tarLrvan,  the  messenger,  carry 
hither  the  gods  that  they  may  receive  our  sacrifice. 

10.  The  tall  one  has,  by  (receiving)  fuel,  upheld 
the  firmament,  Agni,  becoming  the  highest  of  lights, 
when   MdtarLrvan   for  the   sake   of    the    Bhrzgus1 
kindled  the  carrier  of  oblations,  (Agni)  who  dwelt 
in  'secret. 

iisIII,  i,  23. 

NOTES. 

The  same  Rtshi  and  metre.  —  No  verse  occurs  in  the 
other  Sawhitas. 

Verse  L 

BTote  L  On  pada-v?,  comp.  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien, 


Vorse  3. 

CTote  1.  Mitra  has  here  and  in  verse  4  two  xneanni'/s 
is  the  name  of  the  god  Mitra,  with  whom  Agni  is  .dca^ 
(Bergaigne,  Religion  Wdique,  III,  134  seq.),  and  Ii:  u» 
alfeo  'friend'  or  'ally*  (comp.  H.  O.,  Religion  dir:  V 
.186,  note  i).     See  von  Bradke,  Dy£us  Asm  A,  p.  >\r 
[46]  R 


242  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  4. 
Note  1.  See  verse  3,  note  i. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  All  this  is  very  enigmatical.  In  the  parallel  pas- 
sage, IV,  5,  8,  we  have,  instead  of  rlp&A  dgram,  the  reading 
rup£&  dgram,  which  is  confirmed  by  verse  7  of  the  same 
hymn  (agre  rupd/z)  and  by  X,  13, 3  (pd»£a  pad£ni  rupd/J  dnu 
aroham);  in  support  of  the  reading  ripdA,  on  the  other 
side,  the  verse,  X,  79,  3  (ripaA  upasthe  antdA),  may  be 
quoted.  The  meaning  of  riip  is  unknown ;  rfp  means 
'  deceit '  and  '  deceiver  : '  but  what  is  the  summit  of  the 
deceiver?  Bergaigne  (Religion  Wdique,  II,  77  seq.)  has 
tried  to  solve  the  riddle,  but  it  is  really  hopeless. — The 
meaning  of  the  following  words,  paddw  ve7/,  is  not  quite  so 
obscure ;  there  is  at  least  some  probability  that  the  bird  is 
Agni  himself  (cf.  below,  III,  7,  7),  or  possibly  the  sun.  The 
latter  explanation  is  advocated  by  Prof.  Max  Miillcr,  who 
writes :  '  May  it  not  be  a  description  of  sunrise  ?  priyam 
ripaA  agram  I  do  not  understand ;  but  padam  veA  is  the 
place  of  the  bird,  as  in  I,  130,  3.  veA  na  garbham,  the  nest 
of  the  bird  or  of  the  sun.  This  nest  is  covered  by  a  stone, 
is  in  fact  the  vra^a,  which  has  to  be  opened  to  let  out  the 
light  of  day.  It  is  also  the  yoni  or  the  altar.  RipaA 
agram  may  possibly  be  the  summit  of  the  Pa#i  or  of  Vritra, 

X,  79,  3-' 

Note  2.  See  above,  I,  36,  i ,  note  3. 

Note  3.  Saptd-jlrshan  (*  seven-headed ')  occurs  again  in 
two  other  passages  of  the  Rig-vcda  (VIII,  51, 4,  and  X,  67, 
i) ;  in  both  it  is  an  epithet  of  words  which  signify  *  hymn ' 
or  '  prayer'  (arka,  dhi1).  Possibly  a  similar  word  should  be 
supplied  here.  But  why  are  the  prayers  called  '  seven- 
headed  ?  Does  this  refer  to  unknown  technicalities  of  the 
Vedic  liturgy  ?  Does  it  stand  in  connection  with  the  seven 
tones  of  the  scale,  with  the  expression  saptd  dhitaya^,  with 
the  number  of  the  seven  Hotr/s  ?  '  Celui  qui  a  sept  tetcs 
est  sans  doute  un  personnage  Equivalent  i  lui  seul  au 


MAJVDALA   III,    HYMN    5.  243 

groupe  des  sept  pr6tres,'  says  Bergaigne  (II,  145),  which  is 
very  ingenious,  but  should  not  be  given  as  a  doubtless  fact. 
— Prof.  Max  Miiller  observes  that  saptajirshan  may  be, 
like  sapt£sya,  the  vraga  of  Pa/ii,  opened  by  Agni,  IV,  51,  4, 
and  that  Bnhaapati  is  called  sapt&sya,  IV,  50,  4,  and 
saptagu,  X,  47,  6. 

Verse  6. 

Ifote  1.  Agni  is  here  called  jRibhu  in  his  quality  as 
a  skilful  artisan.  See  Bergaigne,  Religion  V&Hque,  II,  408. 

Note  2.  There  seems  to  be  no  doubt  that  sasA  (comp. 
sasya)  means  *  herb '  or  possibly  '  grain '  in  X,  79,  3 ;  the 
text  there  has  sasdm  na  pakvdm  ;  comp.  I,  66,  2.  ydvaA  n& 
pakvi£.  The  same  meaning  is  quite  admissible  in  I,  51, 3  ; 
V,  2i,  4 ;  VIII,  72, 3  ;  though  these  passages  are  too  uncer- 
tain for  deciding  anything.  I  cannot  find  any  reason  for 
believing  that  we  have  here  and  in  IV,  5, 7  ;  7,  7  (see  below), 
another  word  derived  from  the  root  sas,  and  meaning  '  the 
sleeper.'  At  all  events  I  neither  pretend  to  know  what 
mysteries  are  hidden  under  the  '  skin  of  the  herbs/  nor 
what  stories  may  have  happened  to  t(ie  '  peau  du  dormeur ' 
(Bergaigne,  II,  78  seq.). 

Note  3.  See  verse  5,  note  i. 

Verse  7. 

Note  L  Y6ttim,  literally  'womb.' 
Vote  2.  Probably  Heaven  and  Earth. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  refers  this  to  the  grass  of  the 
barhis,  or  the  tender  blades  in  which  the  spark  is  caught 
and  kept  alive  by  ghee. 

Verse  9. 
Note  1.  Comp.  above,  I,  36,  i,  note  a. 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  I  have  adopted,  though  I  do  not  believe  it  cer- 
tain, Grassmann's  opinion  on  the  meaning  of  pdri  in  this 
connection.  Comp.  H.  Q.,  Religion  des  Veda,  123,  note  4. 

R  2 


244  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MAJVZ?ALA  III,  HYMN  6. 
ASH7AKA  II,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  26-27. 

1.  Bring   forward,   ye    pious   singers,   stirred    in 
your  thoughts1,  (the  ladle)  which  is  turned  towards 
the  gods.     Carrying  (the  sacrificial  butter)  from  left 
to  right2  it  turns  eastward,  rich  in  strength,  bringing 
the  offering  to  Agni,  full  of  ghee. 

2.  When  born  thou  hast  filled  the  two  worlds, 
nay  thou  hast  even   exceeded  them,  O  friend  of 
sacrifices1.    May,  O  Agni,  thy  seven-tongued  horses2 
move  alon£,  by  the  greatness  of  heaven  and  earth 8. 

3.  Heaven  and  Earth  the  worshipful1  establish 
thee  as  Hotrz  for  the  house,  whenever  the  pious 
human  tribes  offering  food  magnify  the  bright  light. 

4.  (Thou  art)    seated,  the  great  one,   in  a  firm 
place1,  between  the  two  mighty  Heavens2,  thou  who 
art  longed  for — (between)  the  two  united3  never- 
ageing,  inviolable  wives,  the  two  juice-yielding  milch- 
cows4  of  the  far-reigning  one6. 

5.  Thy,  the  great  (god's)  laws,  O  Agni,  are  great 
Through  the  power  of  thy  mind  thou  hast  spread 
out  the  two  worlds.     Thou  hast  become  a  messenger 
at  thy  birth,  thou,  O  bull,  the  leader  of  the  tribes. 

6.  Or  bind  to  the  pole  by  means  of  thy  (art  of) 
harnessing  the  two  long-maned,  red  (horses)  of  J?/ta, 
that  swim  in  ghee1,  and  carry  hither,  O  god,  all 
gods ;  perform  splendid  worship,  O  G&tavedas  ! 

71.  Even  from  heaven  thy  shining  lights  have 
shone;  thy  splendour  follows  many  resplendent 
dawns,  when  the  gods,  O  Agni,  praised  the  cheerful 
Hotrfs  work2  who  eagerly  burns  in  the  forests3. 


MAMDALA    III,    HYMN   6.  245 

8.  Whether  it  be  the  gods  who  rejoice  in  the 
wide  air,  or  those  who  dwell  in  the  heavenly  light, 
or  those  who  are  helpful1,  ready  to  hear  our  call, 
and  worshipful ;     or    whether    the   horses   of  thy 
chariot,  O  Agni,  have  turned  themselves  hither — 

9.  Come  hither  with  them,  O  Agni,  on  one  chariot 
or  on  many  chariots,  for  thy  horses  are  powerful. 
Bring  hither,  after   thy  nature,  the  thirty  and  the 
three  gods  with  their  wives,  and   rejoice   (in  the 
Soma). 

10.  He  is  the  Hotrt  whose  sacrifice  even  the  two 
wide  worlds  salute  over  and  over  again  for  the  sake 
of  prosperity.     Turned  to  the  east1,  the  two  well- 
established2  (goddesses,    Heaven  and   Earth),  the 
righteous,  true  ones  stand  as  at  the  sacrifice3  of 
(Agni)  the  right-born. 

n  =  III,  i,  23. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rtshi  and  metre.— Verse  i=TB.  II,  8,  a,  5  ; 
MS.  IV,  14,  3-  Verse  9= AV.  XX,  13,  4. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  translation  of  manan£  is  conjectural,  and 
based  only  on  the  etymology.  The  passage  5t  ft  r^^nam 
mandndA  agr*bh«ata,  IX,  70,  3,  does  not  help  us  much. 
1  Does  not  X,  47,  7.  st6m£A  hrtdispr/sati  manas&  va£yd- 
mand/*,  indicate  the  original  reading,  manasd  va£ydm&n4m?' 
M.  M. 

Note  2.  The  sni£aA  are  called  dakshi»4vr/taA,  J,  144,  i. 
By  the  word  dakshi;/Av£/  the  poet  probably  intended  to 
designate  the  ladle  also  as  procuring  a  Dakshi#£  (sacrificial 
fee)  to  the  priest 


246  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  pray^fyu,  see  M.  M.,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  335,  and 
Pischel,  Ved.  Studien,  I,  98. 

Note  2.  The  flames  of  Agni. 

Note  3.  Comp.  below,  7,  10.  The  meaning  seems  to  be  : 
by  thy  (Agni's)  greatness  which  is  equal  to  that  of  Heaven 
and  Earth. 

Verse  3. 


Note  1.  I  refer  ya^Siyasa^,  though  it  is  a  plural,  to 
Heaven  and  Earth.  Comp.  Delbriick,  Altindische  Syn- 
tax, 103. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  PadapA/Aa  has  dhruviA.  I  think  it  should 
be  dhniv£,  comp.  II,  41,  5.  dhruv£  sidasi  uttame  .  .  .  dsAte  ; 
IX,  40,  2.  dhruv£  sidasi  sidati. 

Note  2.  I.e.  Heaven  and  Earth. 

Note  3.  Askra  seems  derived  from  £-sa£  (Joh.  Schmidt, 
Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXV,  71). 

Note  4.  Or  '  the  two  milch-cows  which  instantly  give 
milk,1  if  sabar-  is  to  be  connected  with  the  Greek  a<f>ap  ; 
comp.  Bartholomae,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XV,  17. 
,  Note  5.  Vishnu  is  not  the  only  god  who  is  called  uru- 
g£yd,  and  there  is  no  reason  therefore  why  the  epithet 
should  not  be  referred  here  to  Agni. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Lanman,  Noun-Inflection,  pp.  402,413.  — 
See  below,  IV,  2,  3. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  See  Geldner,  Vedischc  Studien,  I,  114  seq. 

Note  2.  Should  the  accent  be  apa£?  Comp.  Ill,  i,  3, 
note  3. 

Note  3.  Tt  is  very  probable  that  uradhak  (comp.  Ill,  34, 
3  ;  VII,  7,  2)  is  an  epithet  of  Agni.  We  should  expect  the 
genitive  ;  uradhak,  which  violates  the  construction,  seems 


MAA7)ALA   III,   HYMN   6.  247 

to  stand  metri  causa.  Or  is  tuddhak  an  accusative  sin- 
gular neuter,  so  that  the  literal  translation  would  be :  *  When 
the  gods  praised  the  work,  burning  in  the  forests,  of  the 
Hotr*"? 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  On  flma,  comp.  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  223. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  Comp.  above,  II,  2,  7. 

Note  2.  See  Windisch  in  the  Festgruss  an  Boehtlingk, 
p.  114. 

Note  3.  There  is  one  syllable  above  the  number ;  the 
metre  and  meaning  would  be  all  right  if  we  were  to  read 
adhvare  (for  adhvar^va) :  '  (the  two  goddesses)  stand  at  the 
sacrifice/  &c.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  explains :  *  Adhvar£-iva, 
like  two  sacrifices,  like  two  sacrificial  altars,  barhis.' 


248  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANDALA  Ill,  HYMN  7. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHY'AYA  1,  VARGA  1-2. 

1.  They  who  have  risen  out  of  the  drink  of  the 
white-backed  one,  have   entered   the  two   parents, 
the  seven  sounds.     The  (all-)encompassing  parents 
come  together ;    they  go  forth  to  aspire  after  long 
life1. 

2.  The  milch-cows  dwelling  in  heaven1  are  the 
mares  of  the  manly  one.     He  has   bestridden  the 
goddesses  who  carry  the  sweet  (food)2.     Thee  who 
Hvest  in  peace  in  the  abode  of  JRita,  the  one  cow3 
circumambulates,  making  her  way. 

3.  He  has  mounted   the   (mares)1   that  became 
well-manageable,  the  wise  lord,  the  finder  of  riches. 
He  with  the  dark  blue  back,  with  many  faces,  has 
made  them  depart  from  the  drink  of  the  brush- 
wood2 

4.  Giving  mighty  vigour  to  the  never-ageing  son 
of  Tvash/ri1,  the  streams2  carry  Him  the  firmly 
fixed  one.     Flashing  in  his  abode  with  his  limbs 
he  has  entered  upon  the  two  worlds  as  if  they  were 
one. 

<;.  They  know  friendship  towards  the  manly,  the 
red  one,  and  they  delight  in  the  command  of  ruddy 
(Agni),  (the  gods)  shining  from  heaven,  resplendent 
with  bright  shine,  to  whose  host  I/&  belongs,  the 
mighty  praise. 

6.  And  finding  it  out  by  following  the  noise  they 
brought  to  the  great  one's  great  parents  a  song 
of  praise,  when  the  bull  about  nightfall  (?)  has 
grown  strong  according  to  the  singer's  own  law1. 


MAtfZJALA   III,    HYMN    7.  249 

7.  With  the  five  Adhvaryus  the  seven  priests 
watch  the  beloved  footstep  which  the  bird  has 
made1.  Turned  forwards  the  never-ageing  bulls2 
rejoice:  for  they,  being  gods,  have  followed  the 
laws  of  the  gods. 

8=111,4,7. 

9.  The  many  (mares)  are  full  of  dejsire  for  the 
mighty  stallion.     For   the  manly,  bright   one,  the 
reins   easily  direct   (the   horses)1.     Divine   Hot^'! 
Thou  who  art  a  great  joy-giver  and  wise,  bring 
hither  the  great  gods  and  the  two  worlds2. 

10.  The  dawns,  O  wealth-giver,  the  mighty  sacri- 
ficers1,  well  spoken   and  bright   have   shone  with 
wealth.     And  by  the  earth's  greatness2,  O  Agni, 
forgive  us  even  committed  sin3,  that  we  may  be 
great. 

i,  23. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rishi  and  metre. — No  verse  of  this  hymn 
occurs  in  the  other  SawhitSs. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  On  the  meaning  of  this  difficult  verse  con- 
jectures only  can  be  given.  The  white-backed  one  may 
be  Agni.  If  this  is  right,  'they  who  have  risen  out  of 
Agni's  drink/  may  be  Agni's  rays  or  flames  (ye  rajmayaA 
.  .  .  prakarshe«odga££//anti,  Sdyawa);  these  flames  enter 
upon  the  two  mothers,  i.e.  Heaven  and  Earth,  and  upon 
the  seven  sounds,  the  sacrificial  songs  which  are  identified 
with  the  terrestrial  and  celestial  seven  rivers  (comp.  above, 
III,  i,  6).  All  this  rests  on  the  supposition  that  the  tradi- 
tional text  is  correct  Now  Ludwig  remarks  with  reference 


25O  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


to  the  pronoun  yd :  '  Warscheinlicher  ist,  dass  wir  hier  einc 
archaistische  anwendung  der  form  auf  e  fur  fem.  vor  uns 
haben,'  and  Griffith  says  that  ye  is  '  apparently  used  for 
the  feminine.'  I  do  not  believe  in  this  possibility,  but  for 
y6  (yd)  the  true  reading  may  be  y£(h).  In  this  case  the 
seven  v&ais  would  be  subject :  *  They  who  have  risen  out  of 
the  drink  of  the  white-backed  one,  the  seven  sounds  have 
entered  the  two  parents.'  The  meaning  of  this  may  be: 
The  sacrificial  songs,  rising  as  it  were  out  of  the  offering 
made  to  Agfni,  and  in  the  same  way  the  streams  of  water 
which,  in  the  shape  of  clouds  of  smoke  rise  out  of  the  offer- 
ing (comp.  I,  164,  51),  have  gone  to  Heaven  and  Earth. 

That  the  parents  in  the  third  P£da  are  again  Heaven 
and  Earth  is  shown  by  X,  65,  8.  parikshitd  pitdr4  .  .  . 
dyivApr/thivfc  It  may  be  observed  that  the  author  of 
.  X,  65  (see  especially  the  verses  6-8)  evidently  imitated  the 
expressions  of  the  hymn,  III,  7.  '  The  coming  together  of 
Heaven  and  Earth  marks  the  beginning  of  the  day  and  of 
the  year/  M.  M. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  divdkshas,  comp.  Joh.  Schmidt,  Pluralbil- 
dungen  der  Neutra,  417  seq. 

Note  2.  The  milch-cows,  mares,  or  goddesses  seem  to  be 
the  celestial  waters  or  Dawns. 

Note  3.  Comp.  X,  65,  6,  quoted  at  the  end  of  this  note. 
Is  the  cow  (Va£,  according  to  S£ya#a)  the  Dawn  which 
daily  returns  in  her  due  way  ?  Or  the  butter  offered  to 
Agni  ?  In  our  verse  and  in  the  parallel  passage,  X,  65,  6, 
the  vartanf  of  the  cow  is  mentioned ;  it  may  be  observed 
that  the  vartanf  of  Ushas  is  referred  to  in  X,  173,  I.  4. 
And  Ushas  is  represented  in  I,  123,  9  as  coming  to  the 
nishkr/ti :  comp.  X,  65,  6.  y£  gauA  vartanfm  pari-e*ti  niA- 
kr/tdm. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  See  verse  2. 

Note  2.  The  meaning  may  possibly  be  the  following. 
The  Waters  dwell  in  the  plants  as  their  sap  (comp.  H.  O., 


MAMD,iLA    III,    HYMN    7.  25! 

Religion  des  Veda,  113).  Agni,  when  burning  or  drinking 
as  it  were,  the  brushwood,  destroys  this  dwelling  of  the 
Waters  ;  he  makes  the  Waters  depart  from  the  wood. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  On  Agni  as  the  son  of  Tvash/>V,  see  Hillebrandt, 
Vedische  Mythologie,  I,  523  seq. 

Note  2.  'Could  vahata//  be  the  suyim&A  of  verse  3?' 
M.  M. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Or, '  when  the  singer's  bull  . .  .  has  grown  strong 
according  to  his  own  law*?  The  bull,  of  course,  is  Agni. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  See  above,  5,  5.  6. 
Note  2.  The  flames  of  Agni? 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  RajmayaA, '  the  reins/  at  the  same  time  means 
'  the  rays '  (of  Agni).  Suyam&i  being  an  apposition  to 
rarmdyaA,  one  is  tempted  to  derive  it  from  the  root  yam, . 
*  to  direct/  but  it  may  contain  the  word  ySma, '  the  way/ 
and  mean  *  having  a  good  way  .'—It  is  difficult  to  believe 
that  raymdya/j  suyam^A  is  a  second  subject  of  vr/sh&yante, 
in  which  case  the  translation  would  be:  'The  many  (mares) 
are  desirous  of  the  mighty  stallion,  the  .  .  .  reins  (or  rays) 
of  the  manly,  bright  one/ 

Note  2.  *  Bring  hither  to  the  two  worlds  the  great  gods.1 
M.  M. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  On  p^Tcshd-praya^a^,  comp.  M.  M.,  vol.  xxxii, 
p.  335 ;  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  98. 

Note  2.  The  meaning  seems  to  be:  By  thy  greatness 
which  is  equal  to  that  of  the  earth. 

Note  8.  Comp.  X,  63,  8.  krf'tft  &rit£t  &iasa^.  See 
also  I,  24,9;  VI,  51,8. 


252  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MAM0ALA  III,  HYMN  8. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  3-4. 

1.  The  worshippers  of  the  gods  anoint  thee  at 
the  sacrifice,  O  lord  of  the  forest1,  with  heavenly 
honey2.      When    standing   upright   bestow   wealth 
(on  us)  here,  or  when  abiding  in  this  mother's  lap 3. 

2.  Situated  in  front  of  the  kindled  (fire),  accepting 
our  sacred  spell  which  protects  from  old  age  and 
gives  valiant  offspring,  driving  away  far  from  us 
lack  of  thoughts1,  rise  up2  for  the  sake  of  great 
prosperity. 

3.  Rise  up,  O  lord  of  the  forest,  on  the  summit 
of  the  earth.     Erected  by  skilful  erection  bestow 
splendour   on   (the   worshipper)   who   fits  out   the 
sacrifice  as  a  vehicle l. 

4.  A  well-clothed  youth  dressed  has  come  hither. 
He  becomes   more   excellent  when   born1.     Wise 
sages  full  of  pious  thoughts,  longing  for  the  gods  in 
their  mind,  bring  him  forth. 

5.  He   who    has    been    born    is    born1   in    the 
auspiciousness  of  days,  growing  up  in  the  assembly 
and  at  the  sacrifice 2.     Wise,  active  men  purify  him 
by  pious  thoughts ;  the  priest  approaching  the  gods 
raises  his  voice 3. 

6.  You  whom  the  worshippers  of  the  gods  have 
fastened  down  (in  the  earth),  or  whom  the  axe  has 
fashioned,  O  lord  of  the  forest :  may  those  divine 
posts1  standing  (here)  take  care  to  bestow  on  us 
treasures  with  offspring. 

7.  (The  posts)  which   have  been   hewn  on  the 
earth  and  fastened  down,  and  to  which  the  sacrificial 


MAtfDALA    III,    HYMN    8.  253 

ladles  have  been  raised  1 :  may  they,  giving  bliss  to 
our  fields2,  eagerly  seek  precious  goods  for  us 
among  the  gods. 

8.  May  the  Adityas,  the  Rudras,  tfte  Vasus,  the 
good  leaders,  Heaven  and  Earth,  the  Earth  l  and 
the   Air — may   the    gods    unanimously   bless    this 
sacrifice ;    may   they   raise   up   the   banner   of  the 
sacrifice  (the  Yfipa). 

9.  Like  swans  ranging  themselves  in  rows,  array- 
ing  themselves   in  biightness  the  sacrificial  posts 
have  come  to  us.     Led  up  by  the  sages  they  go 
forward  as  gods  to  the  abode  of  the  gods. 

10.  Like  horns  of  horned  animals  the  sacrificial 
posts  with  their  head-pieces 1  are  seen  on  the  earth. 
Hearing  (us)  in  the  emulating  call  of  the  invoking 
(priests)   may   they   protect   us   in   the   racings   of 
battles. 

11.  O   lord  of  the   forest,  rise  with  a  hundred 
branches ;    may  we  rise  with  a  thousand  branches 
(offspring) — thou  whom  this  sharpened  axe  has  led 
forward  to  great  prosperity. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rtshi.  The  metre  is  Trislu'ubh  (verses  3  and  7 
Anush/ubh). 

This  Sftkta  is  a  collection  of  liturgical  verses  that  refer 
to  the  erecting  and  anointing  of  the  sacrificial  post,  and  to 
the  winding  of  a  rope  about  it.  See  Aitareya  Brihma^a 
II,  2;  A^valdyana  Srautasutra  III,  i,  8  seq. ;  Sdnkh&yana 
Srautastitra  V,  15,  3  seq. ;  Schwab,  Das  Altindische  Thier- 
opfer,  68  seq. ;  Bergaigne,  Recherches  sur  THistoire  de  la 
Liturgie  Vddique,  16.  On  the  ritual  acts  referring  to  the 
sacrificial  post  which  seem  to  be  connected  with  ancient 


254  VED1C    HYMNS. 


tree-worship,  comp.  also  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  90  seq., 
256.— Verses  1-5  =TB.  Ill,  6,  i,  i.  3;  MS.  IV,  13,  i. 
Verse  3  =  MS.  I,  2,  n.  Verse  4=TA.  I,  27,  2.  Verse  10 
=TB.  II,  4,  7,  ii-  Verse  n=TS.  I,  3,  5,  i  ;  VI,  3,  3,  3. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1,  The  tree  of  which  the  sacrificial  post  is  made. 

Note  2.  The  post  is  anointed  with  butter,  see  Schwab, 
I.e.,  69.  This  butter  is  spoken  of  as  honey  also  in  the 
Yatfiis,  which  refers  to  this  rite,  *  May  the  god  Savitr* 
anoint  thee  with  honey/  Taittiriya  Sawhit&  I,  3,  6,  i. 

Sote  3,  In  the  lap  of  the  mother  Earth. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Amati  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  verb  am  ;  it  is 
the  contrary  of  matf.  See  Rig-veda  IV,  n,  6,  dmatim  .  .  . 
AmhaA  .  .  .  du^mat/m ;  X,  33,  2,  and  such  passages  of  the 
younger  Vedic  SawhitSs  as  Vdg.  Sawh.  XVII,  54  (dpa 
imatim  du^matfm  b£dham£n£A).  The  same  is  the  opinion 
of  Geldner  (Ved.  Studien,  II,  184,  note  4). 

If  ote  2.  The  sacrificial  post  is  addressed. 

Verse  3. 
Note  1.  Comp.  below,  III,  24,  i. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  sacrificial  post,  round  which  a  rope  of  grass 
(Schwab,  Thieropfer,  p.  49)  is  tied,  is  compared  here  with 
a  well-dressed  youth.  This  seems  to  contain  an  allusion 
to  the  Upanayana  ceremony,  at  which  the  youth  was 
invested  with  the  sacred  girdle,  and  which  was  considered 
as  a  second  birth  (comp.  P£da  B :  *  He  becomes  more 
excellent  when  born').  There  is  no  doubt  that  this 
rite  is  as  old  and  older  than  the  Rig-veda  ;  see  H.  O., 
Religion  des  Veda,  466  seq.  It  may  be  noted  that  several 
Gr/hya-sOtras  prescribe  the  use  of  our  verse  at  the  Upana- 
yana (AjvalSyana  I,  20,  9,  &c,). 


MAJVDALA    III,    HYMN   8.  255 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Does  this  expression  refer  again  to  the  second 
birth  (see  the  preceding  note)  ? 

Note  2.  The  text  has  viddthe. 

Note  3.  Comp.  V,  76,  i.  lit  vfpr£«&m  devay£4  v£ka.h 
asthu//.  The  conjecture  devay£m  easily  suggests  itself, 
but  it  is  not  necessary. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  In  the  Rig-veda,  svaru  means  the  sacrificial  post 
itself,  not,  as  in  the  later  ritual  texts  (Schwab,  Thieropfer, 
pp.  n,  74),  that  splinter  of  the  wood  of  the  sacrificial  post 
(yftparakala),  with  regard  to  which  K£ty£yana  (VI,  3, 
1  7)  prescribes  :  c  Ytipajakalam  asyAm  (scil.  rasan£y£m) 
avagtihati.'  '  He  hides  the  splinter  of  the  wood  of  the 
sacrificial  post  in  the  rope  (tied  round  the  post).'  —  See 
Weber,  Indische  Studien,  IX, 


Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Comp.  below,  IV,  6,  3. 

Note  2.  Comp.  VIII,  71,  12.  kshaftrdya  s£dhase. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  Earth  is  mentioned  twice,  firstly  together 
with  the  Heaven,  in  the  compound  Dy£v£-KshSm£,  and 
then  separately  as  Pr/thivi. 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  On  the  wooden  head-piece  of  the  sacrificial  post 
),  see  Schwab,  Das  Thieropfer,  p.  9. 


256  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MA^VZ?ALA  III,  HYMN  9. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  5-6. 

1.  We,  thy  friends1,  have  chosen  thee  for  our 
protection,    (we)   the   mortals   (thee)  the   god,  the 
offspring  of  the  Waters,  the  blessed  one  with  fine 
splendour 2,  who  gloriously  advances,  the  unmenaced 
one. 

2.  When  thou,  finding  pleasure  in  the  wood,  hast 
gone  to  thy  mothers,  the  Waters,  that  return  of 
thine,  Agni,'  (to  this  world)  should  not  be  slighted, 
when  dwelling  afar  thou  hast  come  hither. 

3.  High  above  (all)  pungent  sharpness  thou  hast 
grown  up l,  and  verily  thou  art  kind-hearted.    Some 
go  forward  here  and  there  ;  others  sit  around  thee, 
in  whose  friendship  thou  abicjest *. 

4.  He   who    has    passed    beyond    (all)    failures, 
beyond  all  hindrances1,  the  guileless,  watchful  ones* 
have  found  him  as  a  lion  (is  found),  when  hs  had 
gone  into  the  Waters ; 

5.  He  who  had  run  as  it  were  by  his  own  might, 
Agni,  who  thus  dwelt  in  concealment — Him  M&ta- 
mvan  brought  hither  from  afar,  from  the  gods,  when 
he  had  been  produced  by  attrition  (of  the  woods). 

6.  (And  thus)  the  mortals  have  taken  thee  up, 
O  carrier  of  sacrificial  food  towards  the  gods  19  be- 
cause thou,  O  (god)  belonging  to  Manus,  protectest 
all  sacrifices  by  the  power  of  thy  mind,  O  youngest 
one ! 

71.  This  is  something  glorious;  herein  thy 
wonderful  power  shows  itself  even  to  the  simple, 
that  the  cattle  lie  down  round  about  thee  when 


MAM5ALA    III,    HYMN    9.  257 

thou  hast  been  kindled,  O  Agni,  at  the  approach  of 
darkness 2. 

8.  Make  your  offerings  in  (Agni),  the  best  per- 
former of  worship,  the  sharp  one  who  purifies  with 
his  flames1.  Serve  ye  obediently  the  god,  the  quick 
messenger,  the  agile,  the  old,  the  adorable. 

9  \  Three  hundred  and  three  thousand  gods  and 
thirty  and  nine  did  service  to  Agni.  They  sprinkled 
him  with  ghee  and  spread  out  for  him  the  sacrificial 
grass  :  then  they  made  him  sit  down  as  a  Hotrz. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Kishi.  The  metre  is  Brshatf;  the  last  verse 
is  Trish/ubh.— Verse  i=SV.  I,  62.  Verse  2  =  SV.  I,  53. 
Verse  9= VS.  XXXIII,  7  ;  TB.  II,  7,  12,  2. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  For  this  expression,  compare  I,  30,  7;  VIII,  21, 
2.  9. 

Note  2.  Comp.  VIII,  19,  4.  subhagam  sudi'ditim. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Comp.  I,  81,  5.  iti  vurvam  vavakshitha ;  102,  8. 
ati  iddm  vfrvam  bhuvanam  vavakshitha. 

Note  2.  The  different  officiating  priests  seem  to  be 
alluded  to. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Comp.  1,42,  7.  dti  na/t  sa^ataA  naya  ;  VII,  97,4. 
pArshat  naA  ati  saj&itaA ;  Lanrnan,  Noun-Inflection,  467. 
Note  2.  The  gods  who  searched  for  Agni. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  For  dev^bhyaA  havyav^hana,  comp.  X,  118,  5; 
1 19,  .13;  150,  i. 

[46]  S 


258  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Prof,  von  Schroeder's  translation  of  this 
verse,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXIX,  205. 

Note  2.  Regarding  apiVarvar£,  comp.  VI 1 1,  i,  29;  Geldner, 
Vedische  Studien,  II,  178.  I  cannot  adopt  the  conclusions 
of  Prof.  Bloomfield,  Contributions  to  the  Interpretation  of 
the  Veda,  Fifth  Series,  p.  36.  '  Wild  animals  run  away 
from  the  fire  at  night,  tame  animals  are  attracted  by  it.' 
M.  M. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  For  this  P4da,  comp.  VIII,  43,  31 ;  102,  n  ;  X, 
ai,  i. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  This  verse  is  identical  with  X,  52,  6. 


MAMDALA    III,    HYMN    IO.  259 


III,  HYMN  10. 
ASHrAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  7-8. 

i  \  Thee,  O  Agni,  the  highest  king  of  human 
tribes,  the  god,  thoughtful  mortals  kindle  at  their 
worship. 

2.  Thee,  O   Agni,  the   -/?/tvig,   the   Hotri,  they 
magnify  at  the  sacrifices.     Shine  as  the  guardian  of 
/?/ta  in  thy  own  house l. 

3.  He  indeed  who  may  worship  thee,  the  G&ta- 
vedas,  with  fuel,  acquires  abundance  in  valiant  men, 
O  Agni ;  he  will  prosper. 

4.  May  He,  the  banner  of  the  sacrifices,  Agni, 
come  hither  with  the  gods,  anointed  by  the  seven 
Hotris l  for  the  sake  of  the  man  who  offers  sacrificial 
food. 

5.  Bring  ye  forward  an  ancient,  mighty  speech  to 
Agni,  the  Hot/V,  who  is  like  a  worshipper  bearing 
the  lights  of  prayers  \ 

6.  May  our  prayers  increase  Agni,  since  he  is 
born  deserving  of  praises,  the  conspicuous  one,  for 
the  sake  of  great  strength  and  wealth. 

7  \  May  Agni,  as  the  best  sacrificer  at  the  worship 
(of  men),  perform  the  sacrifice  to  the  gods  for  the 
man  devoted  to  the  gods.  As  a  joyous  Hotri  thou 
reignest  (passing)  beyond  (all)  failures. 

8.  Thus,  O  purifier,  shine  on  us  glorious  abun- 
dance in  heroes.     Be  the  nearest  (friend)  to  those 
who  praise  thee,  for  their  welfare. 

9.  Thus  the  priests  full  of  admiring  praise,  having 
awoke,  kindle  thee,  the  immortal  carrier  of  sacrificial 
food,  the  increaser  of  strength. 

S  2 


26O  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  same  /?&hi.  The  metre  is  Ush;/ih.— Verse  5  =  SV.  I, 
98;  TB.  Ill,  2,  n,  i.  Verse  7  =  SV.  I,  100. 

Verse  1. 
Note  1.  The  first  P&da  is  identical  with  VIII,  44,  19. 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  Comp.  above,  I,  i,  8. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  most  ancient  list  of  officiating  priests  at  the 
Soma  sacrifice  contained  seven  priests.  See  H.  O.,  Religion 
des  Veda,  383  seq.  Hence  Agni  is  called  saptahota,  cf.  Ill, 

29>  14- 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  On  vfp,  see  the  note  on  III,  3,  i.  As  to  the 
'lights'  of  the  vipas,  comp.  va^a//^y6ti^-agra//,  VII,  101,  i, 
the  expression  ^yoti/^sh/oma — though  this  word  is  not 
known  in  the  Rig-veda — and  the  materials  collected  by 
Bergaigne,  Religion  V^dique,  I,  285. 

Verse  7. 
Note  1.  The  second  Pdda  is  identical  with  I,  15,  12. 


MAJTOALA    III,   HYMN    II.  26 1 


MA^VZ?ALA  III,  HYMN  11. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  9-10. 

1.  Agni  is  the  Hotr/,  the  Purohita  of  our  worship, 
he  who  dwells  among  many  tribes,  He  knows  the 
sacrifice  in  due  order. 

2.  He,    the   immortal    carrier   of    oblations,    the 
Usig1,  the    messenger,  with    satisfied   mind,    Agni 
sets  himself  in  motion 2  (incited)  by  the  thought  (of 
praying  men  ?). 

3.  Agni  takes  heed1  (of  us)  by  the  thought  (the 
prayer  ?),  the  banner  of  the  sacrifice,  the  ancient 
one  ;  for  his  purpose  triumphs2. 

4.  The  gods  have  made  Agni,  the  old-renowned 
son   of  strength,  the   6&tavedas,  their  carrier   (to- 
ward?  the  sacrifice) l. 

5.  Agni  the  undeceivable  one  who  goes  before  the 
human  tribes,  he  is  the  quick  chariot l,  ever  new. 

6.  Overcoming   all   attacks,    He,   the    uninjured 
mind  (power)  of  the  gods,  Agni,  is  most  mightily 
renowned. 

7.  Through  the  vehicle 1  (which  carries  the  gods) 
towards  the  delights  (of  sacrifice),  the  worshipping 
mortal  attains  the  dwelling-place 2  of  (Agni)  whose 
flames  are  purifying. 

8.  May  we,  the  priests,  by  our  prayers  obtain  all 
the  blissful  gifts  of  Agni  G&tavedas. 

9.  Agni!     May  we  win  all   the   best   things  in 
(the   trials  of)   strength.     In   thee  the  gods  have 
established  them l. 


262  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Ktshi.  The  metre  is  Giyatri.— Verse  2= VS. 
XXII,  1 6  ;  TS.  IV,  i,  ii,  4 ;  MS.  IV,  10,  i.  Verses  5,  7,  6 
=  SV.  II,  906-908.  Verse  5=TB.  II,  4,  8,  i. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Bergaigne,  Religion  V^dique,  I,  57  seq. 
Note  2.  On  the  intransitive  use  of  r/wvati,  comp.  Gae- 
dicke,  Der  Accusativ  im  Veda,  p.  53. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  seems  to  be  that  Agni  is  intent  on 
his  purpose  !(artham,  P2da  3) ;  comp.  I,  10,  2.  tat  fndra/* 
irtham  £etati. 

Note  2.  Comp.  Neisser,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XX,  42. 

Verse  4. 
Note  1.  See  the  note  on  I,  127,  8. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  On  Agni  considered  as  a  chariot,  see  Bergaigne, 
Religion  Vedique,  I,  144. 

Verse  7. 

Note  L  Comp.  I,  127,  8,  note  i. 
Note  2.  Comp.  above,  III,  2,  6. 

Verse  9. 

Note  L  I.c.  all  the  best  things  (P4da.i) ;  comp.  VI,  5,  2. 
tv£  visuni  .  .  .  &  irire 


MAtfDALA   III,    HYMN    12.  263 

M AND ALA  III,  HYMN  12. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  11-12. 

To    iNDRA-AcNi. 

1.  Indra-Agnl,   in   consequence   of    our   prayers 
come  hither  to  the  pressed  (Soma),  to  the  precious 
cloud l.     Drink  of  it  incited  by  our  thoughts  (i.e.  by 
our  prayers). 

2.  Indra-Agnie   the    brilliant1   sacrifice    of    him 
who  praises  you  goes  forward  together  (with  the 
Soma  libations,  the  praises,  &c.).     Thus  drink  this 
pressed  (Soma) ! 

3.  By  this  stirring  sacrifice  I  choose  Indra  and 
Agni  who  show  themselves  as  sages l ;    may  they 
here  satiate  themselves  with  Soma. 

4.  I  call  the  bounteous  \  the  killers  of  foes 2,  the 
united   conquerors,   unconquered,    Indra-Agnl,   the 
greatest  winners  of  booty. 

5.  The  praisers  rich  in  hymns,  knowing  all  the 
ways    (of    the    sacrifice),    laud    you.      Indra- Agni, 
I   choose  the  food  (which  you  give). 

6.  Indra-Agnt,    you   have   hurled   down  by  one 
deed  the  ninety  strongholds  together  of  which  the 
Dfisas  were  the  lords. 

7.  Indra-Agnl,  the  thoughts  (of  the  worshippers) 
go  forward  towards  (you)  from  the  work  (of  sacrifice) 
along  the  paths  of  jffi'ta. 

8.  Indra   and  Agni,  yours  are  powerful  abodes 
and  delights.     You  cross  the  waters:   this  is  the 
deed  which  belongs  to  you l. 

9.  Indra  and   Agni,   you  display  the  lights  of 
heaven   in   your  deeds   of  strength;    that  mighty 
deed  of  yours  has  been  known  far  and  wide. 


264  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Xishi  and  metre.  The  hymn  is  addressed  to 
the  couple  Indra  and  Agni. — Verses  1-3  =  SV.  II,  19-21. 
Verse  i  =  VS.  VII,  315  TS.  I,  4,  '5>  M  MS.  I,  3,  17. 
Verses  4~6  =  SV.  II,  1052-1054.  Verses  5--8  —  SV.  II/925- 
928.  Verse  5  =  MS.  IV,  u,  i.  Verse  6^TS.  I,  J,  14,  i  ; 
MS.  IV,  10,5.  Verses  9, 7, 8  =  SV.  II,  1044-1045.  Verse  9 
=  TS.  IV,  2,  1 1,  i  ;  3,  '3>  8 ;  TB.  Ill,  5,  7,  3 ;  MS.  IV,  10, 
4;  ii>  i- 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  *  Cloud/  of  course,  means  that  which  comes  from 
the  cloud.  In  the  Soma  hymns  of  the  ninth  Mafti/ala,  the 
word  nabhaA  seems  frequently  to  refer  to  the  water  with 
which  the  Soma  is  mixed  (see  IX,  69,  5  ;  71,  T.  3  ;  74,  4  ; 
83,  5  ;  86,  14;  97,  21  ;  Prof.  Hillebrandt's  opinion  on  these 
passages  is  different,  see  his  Vcdische  Mythologie,  I,  212). 
Perhaps  we  should  go  too  far  in  believing  that  in  our  verse 
the  poet  invited  the  gods  to  come  and  drink  that  water, 
but  possibly  the  mixture  of  water  and  of  the  juice  of  the 
Soma  plant  descending  from  heaven  and  nourished  by  the 
heavenly  waters  represented  itself  to  the  poet's  mind  as 
something  coming  from,  and  thus  being  identical  with,  the 
cloud. 

Verse  2 

Note  1.  On  £etana>4,  Prof.  Max  Miiller  remarks,  *  perhaps 
which  appeals  to  you  ...  so  that  they  take  note  of  it.' 

Verse  3. 

Note  L  There  may  be  doubts  about  kavi££Aad&.  Prof. 
Max  Miiller  remarks, '  is  it,  wishing  for  sages  ? '  I  think 
that  my  translation  is  recommended  by  X,  81,  i.  pratha- 


MAtfDALA   III,    HYMN    12.  265 


Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Comp.  I,  169,  5.  r£yaA  torftamaA;  VIII,  38,  2. 
tos£s£  rathayaVana  .  .  .  nidragni,  and  Brugmann  in  Kuhn's 
Ztitschrift,  XXIV,  24. 

Note  2.  Or,  the  killers  of  Vr/tra. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  On  aptur  and  aptflrya,  comp.  Pischel,  Vedischc 
Studicn,  I,  12^  seq.,  and  II.  O.,  Gottingischc  Gelehrte 
An/cigcn,  1889,  4  seq. 


266  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MA7VZ?ALA  III,  HYMN   13. 
ASH7VUCA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  13. 

1.  To  this  god  Agni  I  sing1  for  you  most  power- 
fully.    May  he  come  to  us  with  the  gods ;  may  he, 
the  best  sac  rificer,  sit  down  on  the  sacrificial  grass. 

2.  The   righteous    one    to   whose    skill    the    two 
worlds  (Heaven  and  Earth)  and  (all)  blessings  cling 
— Him  the  men  rich  in  offerings  magnify,  Him  those 
who  long  for  gain,  that  they  may  obtain  his  blessing. 

3.  He,  the  priest,  is  the  guide  of  these  (men)1, 
and  he  indeed  (is  the  guide)  of  sacrifices.      Praise 
ye  this  Agni  who  is  the  giver,  the  winner  of  wealth. 

4.  May  this  Agni  give  us  most,  blissful  shelter 
for  our  (sacrificial)  feast,   whence   he    may  shower 
wealth  on  us  in  heaven,  the  (human)  dwellings1,  and 
in  the  waters. 

5.  The  singers  kindle  Agni,  the  Hotrt,  the  lord 
of  the  tribes,  the  brilliant,  the  wonderful,  with  his 
excellent  thoughts  l. 

6.  And  mayst  thou,  the  best  invoker  of  the  gods, 
help  us  in  our  spell,  in  our  hymns.     Shine  bliss  on 
us,  Agni  whom  the  Maruts  strengthen1,  the  greatest 
winner  of  thousandfold  (wealth). 

7.  Now  bestow  on  us  thousandfold  wealth  with 
offspring  and  prosperity,   splendid,  most  powerful, 
and  undecaying  abundance  in  heroes,  O  Agni ! 


MAtfDALA   III,    HYMN    13.  267 


NOTES. 

The  jRtshi  is  /?*shabha  Vawv4mitra.  The  metre  is 
Anush/ubh. — Verses  6,  7  =  MS.  IV,  n,  a. — Comp.  con- 
cerning this  hymn,  Aitareya  Brdhma;/a  II,  40. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Ante  (anta)  may  be  first  or  second  person. 
Comp.,  for  instance,  VI,  16,  22.  prd  va//  sakhiyaA  agnaye 
st6mam  .  .  .  an£a  gaya  £a  vedhase ;  X,  50,  i.  pra  vaA  mah£ 
.  .  .  ar£a  (Sawhitap.  ar£a)  vi^vanaraya  vuvabhiive,  and  see 
Benfey,  Die  Quantitatsvcrschiedenheiten  in  den  Sawhitft- 
und  Pada-Textcn  der  Veden,  III,  p.  8. — On  the  metre  of 
the  second  Pdda,  comp.  my  Prolegomena,  p.  188. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Perhaps  we  should  supply,  on  account  of  the 
preceding  nominative,  vfpraA  (*  priest ') :  of  these  (priests). 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  KshitfbhyaA  seems  to  me  to  be  co-ordinated' 
with  divf  and  apsii  £;  comp.  X,  89,  u.  The  locative 
kshitfshu  would  not  have  suited  the  metre  as  well  as  the 
dative.  Prof.  Max  Mull^r  proposes  to  translate :  *  Whence 
he  may  shower  wealth  on  our  dwelling,  whether  he  be  in 
the  sky  or  in  the  waters.' 

Verse  5. 
Note  1.  Comp.  X,  172,  2.  &  y&hi  vdsvyA  dhiy£. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Comp.  ^hkhayana  Srautasdtra  VIII,  16.  indraA 
marutvdn  .  .  .  marutstotra^  marudga^aA  marudvr/dha^ 
marutsakhd. 


268  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAM0ALA  III,  HYMN  14. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  14. 

1.  The  joy-giving  Hotri  has  taken  his  place  at 
the  sacrifices1,  He  the  true,  the  sacrifice^  the  highest 
sage,  the  worshipper.  Agni  whose  chariot  is  lightning, 
the  son  of  strength,  whose  hair  is  flame,  has  spread 
forth  his  light  over  the  earth. 

2.  It1  has  been  offered  to  thee — be  pleased  with 
the  adoring  speech2 — to  thee  who  is  observant  of  it, 
O  righteous,  strong  one.     Bring  hither  thou  who  art 
wise,  the  wise  (gods).     Sit  down  on  the  sacrificial 
grass  in  the  middle  (of  it)  for  bliss,  O  worshipful  one  ! 

3.  To  thee,  Agni,  Night  and  Dawn  who  further 
thy  strength1,  shall  hasten  on  the  paths  of  the  wind. 
When  (the  mortals)  anoint   the  ancient  one 2  with 
offerings,  they3  stand  in  the  house  as  on  a  chariot- 
seat4. 

4.  Mitra  and  Varu/^a,  O  strong  Agni,  and  all  the 
Maruts  shall  sing  to  thee  a   pleasant   song,  when 
thou,  O  son  of  strength,  standest  with  thy  flames, 
a   sun   spreading   out    men1    over   the    (terrestrial) 
dwellings. 

5.  We  have  given  thee  thy  desire  to-day,  sitting 
down  near  thee  adoringly  with  outstretched  hands1: 
sacrifice  thou  to  the  gods  as  a  priest  with  thy  mind 
most  skilled   in  sacrifice,  with   unerring   thoughts, 
O  Agni ! 

6.  From  thee  indeed,  Q  son  of  strength,  proceed 
manifold   divine    blessings   and   gains1.      Give   us 
thousandfold  true  wealth  according  to  thy  guileless 
word,  O  Agni ! 


MAJVDALA    III,    HYMN    14.  269 

7.  What  we  have  done  here  for  thee  at  this 
sacrifice,  we  mortals,  O  skilful  and  thoughtful  god, 
take  thou  notice  of  all  that,  O  (god)  with  the  good 
chariot1 ;  make  all  this  (sacrificial  food)  here  savoury, 
immortal  Agni ! 


NOTES. 

The  same  /?/shi.  The  metre  is  Trish/ubh. — Verse  5  = 
VS.  XVIII,  75- 

Verse  1 
Note  1.  On  viddtha,  comp.  l,  31,  6,  note  2. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  subject  to  be  supplied  seems  to  be  n£ma/;- 
ukti//. 

Note  2.  The  words  namaA-uktim  ^ushasva  form  a  paren- 
thesis, as  Ludwig  has  seen. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  It  is  possible  that  here,  as  in  several  other  pas- 
sages, a  confusion  between  the  two  verbs  vS^ayati  and 
v^ayati  has  taken  place.  If  the  reading  were  va^ayanti, 
we  should  have  to  translate,  '  Night  and  Dawn  who  are 
striving  together  (as  if  running  a  race  against  each  other  ?).' 

Note  2.  The  ancient  one  is  Agni. 

Note  3.  The  two  goddesses,  Night  and  Dawn. 

Note  4.  The  Padapd///a  has  vandhiird-iva,  which  may  be 
the  dual  of  vandhiir  (1, 34, 9).  But  more  probably  it  should 
be  vandhiire-iva  (nom.  dual,  neuter  or  loc.  sing.),  comp.  I, 
64,  9.  £  vandhureshu  .  .  .  tasthau  ;  I,  139,  4.  £dhi  v£m 
sth£ma  vandhure;  III,  43,  i:  vandhuresh //&£//,  and  see  III, 
6,  10.  adhvar^va.  On  contracted  Pragr/hya  vowels,  sec 
H.  O.,  Die  Hymnen  des  Rig-veda,  I,  p.  456. 


2JO  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  4. 

Note  1.  On  nrfn  and  the  different  theories  proposed  for 
this  word,  see  above,  I,  146,  4,  note  5. 

Verse  5. 
Note  1.  Comp.  X,  79,  2.  uttdnahasta^. 

Verse  6. 
Note  1.  For  this  hemistich,  comp.  VI,  13,  I  ;  34,  I. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  The  traditional  text  has  tvdm  vfovasya  sura- 
thasya  bodhi,  which  can  only  mean,  '  take  thou  notice  of 
every  one  who  has  a  good  chariot* — which  Bergaigne 
(Quelques  observations  sur  les  figures  de  rhetorique  dans 
le  Rig-veda,  p.  15)  explains :  '  Le  char  en  question  est  la 
pri&re  qui  amene  le  dieu  au  sacrifice.'  I  believe  that  the 
text  is  corrupt ;  instead  of  surathasya  I  think  we  should 
read  surathasya  (=suratha  asya). 


MAJVDALA    III,    HYMN    15.  271 


M AND ALA  III,  HYMN  15. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  15. 

1.  Flaming  with  thy  broad  stream  of  light  beat 
away  fiends,  sorcerers,  plagues.     May  I   dwell  in 
the  protection  of  the  great,  well-protecting  (god), 
under  the  guidance  of  Agni  who  readily  listens  to 
our  call. 

2.  Be  thou  our  protector  when  this  dawn  shines 
forth,  be  thou  (our  protector)  when  the  sun  has  risen. 
Cherish,  O  Agni,  well-born  in  body,  this  praise  of 
mine  as  (a  man  rejoices)  in  the  birth  (of  a  son),  in 
his  own  offspring1. 

3.  Beholding  men,  shine  thou  after  many  (dawns) !, 
O  bull,  Agni,  red  in  the  dark  (nights).     O  Vasu! 
Lead  us  and  bring  us  across  anguish.     Help  us, 
the  U-ri^s2,  to  wealth3,  thou  youngest  (of  the  gods) ! 

4.  Shine,  O  Agni,  thou  the  invincible  bull,  who 
hast  conquered  all  strongholds  and  all  delights,  the 
leader  of  the  first,  the  protecting1,  mighty  sacrifice, 
O  G&tavedas,  best  guide. 

5.  O  singer,  thou  who  art  wise,  brightly  shining 
towards  the  gods1,  bring  to  us  thy  many  perfect 
shelters,  and  gain  like  a  victorious  car8 ;  Agni,  (carry) 
thou  (hither)  towards  us  the  two  well-established3 
worlds  (Heaven  and  Earth). 

6.  O  bull,  increase  and  rouse  our  gains.     Agni ! 
(Increase)  for  us  the  two  worlds  (Heaven  and  Earth) 
rich  in  milk,  O  god  together  with  the  gods,  shining 
with  beautiful  shine !    May  a  mortal's  hatred  never 
enclose  us. 

7  =  111,  i,  23. 


272  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  Rtshi  is  Utkfla  KAtya,  the  metre  Trish/ubh.— 
Verse  i=VS.  XI,  49;  TS.  IV,  J,  5,  J  ;  MS.  II,  7,  5; 
III,  i.  6. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VII,  i,  21.  tanaye  nftye ;  X,  39,  14.  nft- 
yam  nd  sunum  tdnayam  dadhdn£A,  and  besides  II,  26,  3. 
^anena  .  .  .  v\s&  .  .  .^-Anmana  .  .  .  putraf/* ;  Hirzel,  Gleich- 
nisse  und  Metaphern  im  Rig-veda,  77. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  For  this  expression,  compare  IV,  19,  8 ;  IX,  71, 
7  ;  X,  31,  7,  and  especially  III,  6,  7 ;  VI,  39,  4- 

Note  2.  The  poet  compares  himself  and  his  friends  with 
the  mythical  priestly  tribe  of  the  Uslgs  (Bergaigne,  Religion 
Wdique,  I,  57  seq.),  using,  as  it  seems.  -«,  the  same  time 
the  word  usfgab  in  its  adjective  sense  'tne  willing  ones/ 

Note  3.  The  Padapa/^a  is  right  in  giving  r£y£ ;  comp. 
VIII,  26,  13.  jubhe  £akrate. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Is  the  text  correct  ?  I  think  that  pay6A  should 
be  corrected  into  payo  or  pay uA  :  '  the  leader  and  protector 
of  the  first  mighty  sacrifice/  The  mistake  may  have  been 
caused  by  the  gfenitives  which  surround  the  word. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Geldner  (Vedische  Studien,  I,  160)  translates  this 
hemistich:  'Die  vielen  sicheren  Zufluchtsorte  (=Opfer- 
platze)  bis  zu  den  Gottern  erleuchtend  als  Weiser,  o  Sanger.' 
I  do  not  believe  that  ^drma  is  the  object  of  dicIyanaA  ;  and 
4  Zufluchtsorte  =  Opferplatze '  is  too  much  in  the  style  of 
S&ya«a.  I  take  £6&Aidr£  jdrma  as  depending  on  abhi 
vakshi ;  comp.  I,  34,  6.  tridh£tu  .rarma  vahatam. 

Note  2.  For  abh(  vakshi  v^gam,  comp.  Ill,  30,  ti ;  VI, 

21,  12. 

Note  3.  On  sum^ka,  comp.  Windisch,  Festgruss  an 
Boehtlingk,  114. 


MAJVDALA    III,    HYMN    1 6  273 

MAM9ALA  III,  HYMN  16. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAVA  1,  VARGA  16. 

1.  This  Agni  rules   over  abundance   in   valiant 
men,  over  great  happiness*     He  rules  over  wealth 
consisting  in  offspring  and  cows ;  he  rules  over  the 
killing  of  foes. 

2.  O  Maruts1,  ye  men,  cling  to  this  furtherer8  who 
possesses  joy-furthering  boons — (the  Maruts)  who3 
in   battles   overcome   ill-minded   (foes),   who   have 
deceived  the  enemy4  day  by  day. 

3.  As  such,  O  bounteous  Agni,  prepare1  us  riches2 
and  wealth  in  valiant  men,  which,  O  highly  glorious 
one,  may  be  most  exalted,  rich  in  offspring,  free  from 
plagues,  and  powerful. 

4.  The  maker  who  victoriously  (stands)  over  all 
beings,   the   maker    who   makes   the  praise  arrive 
among  the  gods1 :  he  stands  firm  among  the  gods, 
among  the  host  of  heroes,  firm  also  in  the  praise  of 
men. 

5.  Give  us  not  up,  Agni,  to  want  of  thought1  nor 
to  want  of  heroes  nor  to  want  of  cows,  O  son  of 
strength,  nor  to  the  scoffer.     Drive   away  hostile 
powers2. 

6.  Help  us  at  this  sacrifice,  O  blessed  one,  with 
mighty  gain  which  is  accompanied  by  offspring-,   O 
Agni!     Let  us  be  united  with  greater,  gladdening 
glorious  v/ealth,  O  thou  of  mighty  splendour ! 


274  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  same  JRishi.  The  metre  is  Prag^tha,  each  Pragdtha 
distich  being  composed  of  one  BHhat!  and  one  Satob/ihatt. 
The  position  of  the  Sukta  in  the  collection  and  the  opening 
words  of  verse  3  show  that  the  three  Pragdthas  are  not 
independent,  but  form  one  hymn. — Verse  i  =  SV.  I,  60. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VII,  18,  25.  imdm  nara//  maruta^  saj- 
£ata  anu. 

Note  2.  The  passages  which  Grassmann  gives  for  the 
meaning  of  vr/dh,  *  starkend,  erquickend,'  I,  167,  4;  X,  89, 
10,  are  quite  doubtful.  Probably  we  should  have  to  alter 
the  accent  and  read  vr/dhdm. 

Note  3.  The  relative  clause  seems  to^refer  to  the  Maruts, 
not  to  the  goods  (r£ya^). 

Note  4.  Comp.  VI,  46,  10.  yd  .  .  .  jatrum  ddabhu/*. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Literally,  '  sharpen.' 

Note  2.  The  genitive  seems,  as  is  also  Prof.  Ludwig's 
opinion,  to  be  the  partitive  genitive,  so  that  the  literal 
meaning  would  be :  '  Prepare  us  (a  deal)  of  riches  and  of 
wealth/  &c.  Comp.  pfba  sutasya,  'drink  of  the  pressed 
Soma,'  &c. 

Verse  4. 

ETote  1.  On  fcakriA  dev^shu  &  diiva^r,  comp.  IV,  2,  9  ; 

VIII,  31,  9- 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  On  amati,  comp.  above,  III,  8,  2,  note. 
Note  2.  Comp.  VI,  59,  8.  dpa  dveshiwsi  &  kr*'tam. 


MAtfDALA    III,    HYMN    17.  275 

MAN&ALA  III,  HYMN  17. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  17. 

1.  He  who  is  inflamed  after  the  primitive  ordi- 
nances, is  anointed  with  ointments1,  the  giver  of  all 
treasures,  he  whose  hair  is  flame,  whose  stately  robe 
is  ghee,  the  purifier,  skilled  in  sacrifice,  Agni — that 
he  may  sacrifice  to  the  gods. 

2.  As  thou  hast  performed,  O  Agni,  the  Hotrfs 
duty  for  the  Earth,  as  thou  hast  done  it  for  Heaven, 
O  Gatavedas,  full  of  intelligence,  in  the  same  way 
sacrifice  with  this  offering  to   the   gods.     Prosper 
this  sacrifice  to-day  as  thou  hast  done  for  Manus. 

3.  Thou  hast  three  lives,  O  £&tavedas,  and  three 
births  from  the  Dawn1,  O  Agni !    Being  wise,  sacrifice 
with  these  to  the  favour  of  the  gods,  and  bring 
luck  and  welfare  to  the  sacrificer. 

4.  Praising  Agni  full  of  splendour,  full  of  beauty, 
we    adore    thee,    O    G&tavedas,    deserving    to    be 
magnified.     Thee  the  gods  have  made  their  mes- 
senger, their  steward1,  and  carrier  of  offerings,  the 
navel  of  immortality. 

5.  O  Agni,  the  Hotri  who  before  thee  was  an 
excellent  sacrificer,  who  verily1  sat  down  and  brought 
luck  by  himself2:  sacrifice  according  to  his  rules, 
O  intelligent  one,  and  set  down  our  sacrifice  at  the 
feast  of  the  gods. 

NOTES. 

The  JRishi  is  Kata  ValrvAmitra,  the  metre  Trish/ubh. — 
Verse  i  =  TB.  I,  2,  i,  10.    Verse  3  =  TB.  Ill,  a,  11,  a; 


276  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MS.  IV,  ii,  i  ;  12,  5.    Verse  4  =  TB.  Ill,  6,  9,  i ;  MS.  IV, 
*3>  5- 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Possibly  the  poet  intended  to  allude  also  to  the 
other  meaning  of  aktubhi/j,  which  means  both  '  ointments' 
and  '  nights.'  The  nights  render  Agni  conspicuous  and 
anoint  (&ng)  him  as  it  were  with  beauty.  I  do  not  believe 
that  the  existence  of  a  Vedic  word  aktu, '  ointment/  should 
be  denied;  cf.  Bechtel,  Nachrichten  d.  Gottinger  Ges.  d. 
Wissi.  1 894,  p.  398. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  See  Bergaigne,  Religion  Vedique,  II,  14.  Prof. 
Max  M tiller  translates  :  Three  lives  are  thine,  the  dawns  are 
thy  three  birthplaces,  or  three  dawns  are  thy  birthplaces. 

Verse  4. 
Note  1.  See  above,  I,  58,  7,  note  i. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Literally,  'doubly.'  Grassmann  is  right  in 
observing  that  the  Vedic  poets  show  a  certain  predilection 
for  the  word  dvitci  when  speaking  of  Agni's  being  estab- 
lished and  doing  his  work  at  the  sacrifice.  Prof.  Max 
Miiller  thinks  of  Agni's  two  homes,  earth  and  heaven. 

Note  2.  On  the  Hotrt  more  ancient  than  Agni,  comp. 
Bergaigne,  Religion  Vedique,  1, 109.  Probably  this  simply 
refers  to  the  Agni  or  the  fire  used  at  former  sacrifices. 


MAJVDALA    III,    HYMN    l8.  277 


MAJVX>ALA  III,  HYMN  18. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  18, 

1.  Be  kind,  O  Agni,  when  we  approach  thee,  as 
a   friend    a    friend,  as    parents1,  a  straight   leader. 
For  full  of  deceit  are  the  tribes  of  men  :  burn  thou 
against  (all)  malign  powers  so  that  they  turn  back. 

2.  Burn,  O  Agni,  the  nearer  enemies,  burn  the 
curse    of   the    distant    evil-doer.      Burn,    O  Vasu, 
seeing   the   unseen   ones.     May  thy  never-ageing, 
never-tiring  flames1  spread  out. 

3.  Wishing  for  (thy  blessings),  O  Agni,  by  fuel 
and  ghee  I  offer  this  sacrificial  food  for  (the  attain- 
ment of)  advancing  power  and  of  strength ;   wor- 
shipping thee  with  my  spell  as  far  as  I  have  power 
(I  offer)  this  divine  prayer  for  the  attainment  of 
hundredfold  blessings). 

4.  (Shining)  forth  with  thy  flame,  O  son  of  strength, 
praised  (by  us),  bestow  mighty  vigour  on  those  who 
toil  for  thee,  bright  luck  and  welfare,  O  Agni,  on 
the  VLrvimitras !     We  have  cleaned  thy  body  many 
times. 

5.  Give  us  treasures,  O  best  gainer  of  riches: 
such  indeed  art  thou,  Agni,  when  thou  hast  been 
kindled.     In  the  blessed  praiser's  house  thou  hast 
placed,  together  with  wealth,  thy  mighty(?)  arms1, 
thy  marvellous  shapes. 

NOTES. 

The  same  JWshi  and  metre. — Verser  a  »  TA.  IV,  5,  5. 
Verse  3  =  AV.  Ill,  15,  3. 


278  VEDIC  HYMNS. 


Verse  1. 

Note  1.  It  is  rather  strange  that  Agni  is  compared  with 
the  two  parents.  Generally  it  is  the  two  A^vins,  or  Heaven 
and  Earth,  or  the  pair  of  Indra  and  Varuwa,  &c.,  who  are 
compared  with  father  and  mother  (see  Hirzel,  Gleichnisse 
und  Metaphern  im  Rigveda,  71  seq.).  No  doubt  in  our 
verse  the  dual  was  chosen  on  account  of  the  metre. — I  do 
not  think  that\  Bollensen  (Orient  und  Occident,  II,  473)  and 
Kirste  (Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XVI,  297)  are  right  in 
believing  that  a  dative  of  pit*-/  is  found  here,  and  in  trans- 
lating :  *  as  a  good  (son)  to  his  father/ 

Verse  2. 

Note'  1.  The  meaning  of  aySsaJt  is  doubtful ;  comp. 
Brugmann  in  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXIV,  24  seq. ;  M.  M., 
vol.  xxxii,  p.  37 1  (VI,  66,  5) ;  von  Bradke,  Festgruss  an 
Roth,  124. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  On  sr/prd,  see  I,  96,  3,  note  3.  Karasna  must 
mean  something  like  'arm/  though  the  exact  meaning  is 
doubtful.  In  VIII,  32,  10  the  compound  sr/prdkarasna 
occurs.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  writes:  'Thou  hast  brightly 
assumed  a  body  with  soft  arms  or  with  stretched-out  arms, 
if  we  do  not  read  sriprakarasnd.' 


MAJWALA   III,    HYMN    1 9.  279 

MAjV£>ALA  III,  HYMN  19. 
ASH^AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  19. 

1.  I  choose  Agni  as  Hotrz  at  this  sacrificial  meal, 
the  clever  sage  all-knowing  and  not  foolish.     May 
he,  the  excellent  sacrificer,  sacrifice  for  us  amid  the 
host   of  the   gods ;    may  he  obtain   liberal  boons 
(for  us)  for  the  sake  of  wealth  and  strength. 

2.  To  thee,  O  Agni,  I  stretch  forth  the  (ladle) 
rich  in  sacrificial  food,  splendid,  full  of  gifts,  full  of 
ghee.     From  left  to  right,  choosing  the  host  of  the 
gods  ],  he  has  established  the  sacrifice  with  gifts  and 
goods *. 

3.  Whoever    is    favoured    by    thee,    is    blessed' 
with  the  sharpest  spirit.     Favour  him  with  good 
offspring,  O  god  rich  in  favours 1 !     Agni,  may  we, 
(dwelling)  in  the  copiousness  of  manliest  wealth,  be 
rich  in  perfect  praise  of  thee,  the  Vasu. 

4.  On  thee  indeed,  O  Agni,  sacrificing  men  have 
put  many  faces  of  (thee)  the  god l.     Bring  hither 
then  the  host  of  the  gods,  O  youngest  one,  when 
thou  wilt  sacrifice  to-day  to  the  divine  host 2. 

5.  When  the  gods  will  anoint  thee  as  the  Hoirt 
at  the  sacrificial  meal  making  thee  sit  down  for  the 
sacrifice,  be  thou  here,  O  Agni,  our  furtherer,  and 
bestow  glory  on  our  bodies. 

NOTES. 

The  Rishi  is  Githin  Kau^ika,  the  metre  Trish/ubh.— 
Verse  3  =  TS.  I,  3, 14,  6 ;  MS.  IV,  14, 15- 


280  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  below,  IV,  6,  3.  This  parallel  passage 
shows  that  pradakshiwft  belongs  to  ur£n&A,  not  to  a^ret. 
Agni  is  represented  as  choosing,  i.e.  inviting  the  host  of 
the  gods  by  moving  around  the  sacrificial  food  from  left  to 
right.  See  concerning  the  Paryagnikaraaa,  which  seems 
to  be  alluded  to,  Hillebrandt,  Neu-  und  Vollmondsopfer, 
42seq. 

Note  2.  Or,  '  with  the  (divine)  givers  and  with  the 
Vasus.' 

Verso  3. 

Note  1.  Boehtlingk-Roth  seem  to  be  right  in  reading 
.riksho.  Comp.  VIII,  53,  8.  ydsmai  tvdm  .  .  .  jfksho  .rfkshasi 
dlnishe. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  They  have  inflamed  many  fires,  each  of  which  is 
a  face  of  the  god  Agni. 

Note  2.  Or, '  that  thou  mayest  sacrifice/  &c.  See  Del- 
briick,  Syntaktische  Forschungen,  I,  148. 


MAMDALA    III,    HYMN    2O.  28 1 

M AND ALA  III,  HYMN  20. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  20. 

1.  The  carrier  (of  the  gods) l  calls  by  his  hymns 
Agni,  Ushas  (dawn),  the  two  A^vins,  Dadhikrd2  at 
daybreak.     May  the  gods  rich  in  light,  unanimously 
longing  for  our  sacrifice,  hear  us. 

2.  Agni,  threefold  is  thy  strength ;  three  are  thy 
abodes;  three  are  thy  many  tongues,  O  thou  who 
art   born  in   jRita.1     And  three,   O  Agni,  are  thy 
bodies  beloved  by  the  gods.     With  these  protect 
our  prayers  unremittingly. 

3  \  Agni !  Many  are  the  names,  O  G^tavedas, 
of  thee  the  immortal  one,  O  self-dependent  god ! 
And  whatever  the  secret  powers  of  the  powerful 2 
are,  thou  all-enlivener,  in  thee  they  have  placed 
together  (those)  many  (powers),  O  (god)  after  whose 
relations  men  ask 3. 

4.  Agni  is  the  divine  leader  of  the  divine  tribes 
like   Bhaga,   the    guardian    of    the    seasons1,   the 
righteous.      May    He,   the   killer   of  Wztra2,   the 
ancient  one,  the  possessor  of  all  wealth,  bring  the 
singer  across  all  troubles. 

5.  I    invite   hither1    Dadhikri2,  Agni,   and   the 
goddess   Ushas,   Brzhaspati,  and  the  god  Savit/7, 
the   Ajvins,   Mitra  and   Varuwa    and   Bhaga,   the 
Vasus,  Rudras,  and  Adityas. 

NOTES. 

The  same  Tfrshi  and  metre. — Verse  a  =  TS.  II,  4,  11, 
a;  III,  a,  ii,  i ;  MS.  II,  4,  4.  Verse  3  =  TS.  Ill,  I, 
11,6. 


282  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  'carrier*  of  the  gods  is  the  Hotr*.  See 
above,  I,  127,  8,  note  i,  and  compare  the  article  of 
Dr.  Neisser  quoted  there.  See  also  M.  M.,  vol.  xxxii, 
pp.  40-43  (I,  6,  5). 

Note  2.  On  Dadhikrd  or  Dadhikr^van,  the  deified  horse 
of  Trasadasyu,  see  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  124  ;  Lud- 
wig,  vol.  iv,  p.  79;  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  71.  Prof. 
Max  Miiller  writes,  '  It  seems  to  me  some  form  of  Agni 
generally  in  company  with  matutinal  gods.1 

Verse  3. 

Note^l.  The  reader  who  compares  this  passage  with  19, 
4,  will  observe  a  general  resemblance  pointing  to  the 
conclusion. that  both  verses  belong  to  the  same  author. 

"Note  2.  UL^y&h  m£yfn&m  :  comp.  concerning  the  idea  of 
m&y£,  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  163,  294. 

Note  3.  With  pr/sh/abandhu,  comp.  bandhupr/^,  ban- 
dhveshd. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Perhaps  ritu-p&i  should  be  changed  into  r/ta- 
p&A :  '  the  god  who  protects  the  Rite,  the  righteous.1 
Note  2.  Or  'the  killer  of  foes.5 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Possibly  we  have  to  read,  on  account  of  the 
metre,  ihi  hve. 

Note  2.  See.above,  verse  i,  note  i. 


MAJV0ALA  III,    HYMN    21.  283 

MAA/X>ALA  III,  HYMN  21. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  21. 

1.  Take   this   our    sacrifice    to    the    immortals; 
accept    graciously   these    offerings,    O    G&tavedas. 
O    Agni,    partake   of  the  drops  of  fat   and  ghee, 
O  Hotnf,  having  sat  down  as  the  first. 

2.  To  thee,  O  purifier,  the  drops  of  fat  mixed 
with  ghee  drip  down.     O  (god)  who  followest  thy 
own  ordinances,  give  us  the  best  boon  for  this  feast 
to  which  the  gods  come  eagerly. 

3.  To  thee,  the  priest,  O  Agni,  (belong)  the  drops 
dripping  with  ghee,  O  good  one !    Thou  art  kindled 
as  the  best  7?zshi.     Be  a  furtherer  of  our  sacrifice ! 

4.  For  thee,  O  liberal  one1,  full   of  power,  the 
drops  of  fat  and  ghee  drip  down,  O  Agni !     Praised 
by  the  sages  thou   hast  come  hither  with  mighty 
light.     Accept  graciously  the  offerings,  O  wise  one ! 

5.  For  thee  the  richest  fat1  has  been  taken  out 
from  the  midst.     We  give  it  to  thee.     On  thy  skin, 
O  Vasu,  the  drops  drip  down.    Accept  them  eagerly 
for  each  of  the  gods. 

NOTES. 

The  same  /?*shi.  Verses  i  and  4  are  Trish/ubh,  verses 
a  and  3  Anush/ubh,  verse  5  VirlrfrdpA  Satobrihati. 

The  hymn  belongs  to  the  ritual  of  the  animal  sacrifice. 
It  has  to  be  recited,  according  to  the  prescription  of  the 
later  Vedic  texts,  while  the  vap4  (omentum)  of  the 
sacrificial  animal  is  roasted  and  the  drops  of  fat  drip  down 
from  it.  See  Schwab,  Das  Altindische  Thieropfer,  p.  j  14 


284  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


seq.,  and  the  Sfttra  texts  quoted  by  him  (for  instance, 
A^valayana  »Srautasutra  111,4,  *)•  Bergaigne  (Recherches 
surl'Histoire  de  la  Liturgie  VeMique,  18)  seems  to  be  right 
in  observing:  '  Bien  qu'il  (1'hymne  III,  21)  soit  re'cite'  tout 
d'une  piece  dans  le  pajubandha,  pendant  la  cuisson  de  la 
vapa,  pour  les  gouttes  de  graisse  qui  tombent  dans  le  feu, 
sa  complexity  me*trique  .  .  .  le  trahit  et  nous  y  fait  voir  une 
simple  collection  de  vers  liturgiques.'  It  may  be  observed, 
however,  that  the  two  last  verses  seem  to  form  a  distich  of 
an  irregular  Pragatha  type;  comp.  H.  O.,  Die  Hymnen  des 
Rigveda,  vol.  i,  p.  118. — Verses  1-5  =  TB.  Ill,  6,  7,  i.  2; 
MS.  IV,  13,  5. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  On  the  word  adhrigu,  cf.  Bloomfield,  American 
Or.  Soc.  Proceedings,  March,  1 894,  p.  cxxiii. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Vap&khyaw  havi//,  Sayawa.  This  explanation  is 
evidently  correct.  After  the  sacrificial  animal  has  been 
killed,  the  omentum,  which  is  very  rich  in  fat,  is  first  drawn 
out  of  its  body  and  offered.  See  H.  O.,  Die  Religion  des 
Veda,  360  seq. 


MAJVDALA   III,    HYMN    22.  285 

MAJV72ALA  III,  HYMN  22. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  22. 

i.  This  is  that  Agni  with  whom  the  desiring 
Indra  took  the  pressed  Soma  into  his  body. 
Having  obtained  thousandfold  strength  like  a 
horse,  a  racer l,  thou  art  praised,  O  G&tavedas ! 

2  *.  Thy  splendour,  O  Agni,  which  dwells  in 
heaven  and  on  earth,  in  the  plants,  O  worshipful 
one,  and  in  the  waters,  wherewith  thou  hast  spread 
through  the  wide  air — that  light  of  thine  is  fierce, 
waving 2,  man-beholding. 

3.  Agni,   thou   goest   to   the   floods   of  heaven. 
Thou  hast  spoken  to  the  gods  who  are  liberal  (?)  \ 
(Thou  goest)  to  the  waters  which  (dwell)  on  high 
in  the  ether  of  the  sun,  and  to  those  which  approach 
below. 

4.  May  the  fires  of  the  soil  united  with  those  on 
the  hill-sides1,  without  guile  graciously  accept  our 
sacrifice  and  plentiful  food  free  from  all  plague. 

5  =  111,  i,  23. 

NOTES. 

The  same  Rishi.  The  metre  is  Trish/ubh,  except  in 
verse  4  which  is  Anush/ubh. — A  conjecture  on  the  ritual 
use  for  which  the  hymn  has  been  composed,  see  in  the  note 
on  verse  4. — Verses  1-5  -=  VS.  XII,  47-51  ;  TS.  IV,  2,  4, 
2.  3;  MS.  II,  7,  ii — A  sort  of  commentary  on  this 
hymn  is  found  in  the  .Satapatha  Brahmawa  VII,  i,  i, 
22  seq. 

Verso  1. 

Note  1.  In  the  traditional  text  the  words,  c  a  horse, 
a  racer,'  are  arcusativts.  But  it  is  the  dtya  who  attains 


286  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


(san)  the  v£ga  and  who  is  called  va^/n  (comp.  M.  M., 
vol.  xxxii,  pp.  1 1 6,  442,  and  on  sdpti,  ibid.  p.  102):  see 
I,  130,  6;  III,  2,  7  ;  38,  i  (V,  30,  14;  IX,  93,  i  ;  96,  15, 
&c.)  ;  VII,  24,  5  J  IX,  43.  5  ;  «*,  *  5  85,  5  ;  «6,  3  ;  96,  20 ; 
X,  96,  10  (I,  52,  i,  and  III,  2,  3  do  not  contradict  this). 
Pischel  (Vedische  Studien,  I,  105)  believes  that  dtyam  na 
stands  for  dtya>6  na,  which  seems  impossible  to  me.  But 
I  think  that  we  should  -correct  the  text  and  read  atya// 
nd  sdpti^.  The  preceding  accusatives  have  caused  the 
blunder. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Grassmann,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XVI,  165. 
Note  2.  Comp.  kfetii/*  arwavaV*  sffryasya,  VII,  63,  2. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  In  the  translation  of  dhfsh«ya  I  have  followed 
Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  II,  87,  though  this  translation  is 
quite  uncertain.  Should  the  meaning  be  :  *  the  gods  who 
dwell  on  the  dhishwya  altars '  ? 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Agni  purishya,  i.  e.  the  fire  dwelling  in  thef  soil 
(comp.  Roth  in  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVI,  64),  is  mentioned 
very  frequently  in  the  Mantras  belonging  to  the  Agni- 
£ayana,  i.  e.  to  the  construction  of  the  brick  altar.  Agni  is 
considered  as  residing  in  the  soil  used  at  that  rite.  Now  in 
the  Ya^us  texts  the  whole  of  our  hymn  occurs  among  the 
texts  to  be  recited  at  the  Agni^ayana  (Taitt.  Sawh.  IV,  2, 
4,  2,  &c. ;  comp.  also  A-rvalAyana  Srautasfttra  IV,  8,  20). 
Perhaps  we  may  conjecture,  therefore,  that  the  Agni£ayana 
rite  in  its  simplest  form  was  known  already  in  the  Rig-veda 
period,  and  that  our  hymn  was  destined  for  it. — The 
pr£va;;a  fires  (fires  dwelling  on  the  hill-sides)  may  be  the 
fires  dwelling  in  the  rivers  which  run  down  the  pravaaas  or 
descents. 


MAtfDALA   III,    HYMN    2$.  287 

M AND ALA  III,  HYMN  23. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  23. 

1.  Produced  by  attrition,  well  preserved  in  his 
abode,  the  young  sage,  the  leader  of  worship,  Agni 
ever  young  in  the  forests1  that  grow  old — 6&tavedas, 
has  here  assumed  immortality a. 

2.  The  two  Bharatas  *,  Devasravas  and  Devavita, 
in  the  midst  of  wealth  have  produced  by  attrition 
Agni   the    skilful   (god).      Agni,   look    forth   with 
mighty  wealth,  and  then  be 2  for  us  a  guide  of  food 
day  by  day. 

3 l.  The  ten  fingers  have  brought  him  to  the 
birth,  the  ancient,  beloved  (Agni),  well  born  in  his 
mothers 2.  Praise,  O  Devasravas,  the  Agni  of 
Devav&ta  who 3  should  be  the  lord  of  people. 

4.  I  have  laid l  thee 2  down  in  the  best  (place)  of 
the  earth  3,  in  the  place  of  I /a 3,  in  the  auspiciousness 
of  days.  O  Agni,  as  the  god  who  has  belonged  to 
Manns 4,  shine  with  wealth  on  the  D^/shadvatl,  on 
the  Apay&,  on  the  Sarasvati. 

5  =  111,  i,  23. 

NOTES. 

The  /?/shis  are  Devaurravas  Bh&rata  and  Devav4ta  Bh&- 
rata  (see  verse  2) ;  the  metre  is  TrishAibh  (verse  5 
Satobrzhati). — No  verse  occurs  in  the  other  SawhitAs. 

Verse  1. 

Kote  1.  The  c forests'  are  the  fuel.  'Does  the  poet 
mean :  Never  consumed  in  the  consumed  wood  or  forests, 


288  VEDIC   HYMNS, 


i.  e.  the  fire  burns  and  is  kept  alive  while  the  wood  is  burnt 
up?'   M.  M. 

Note  2.  Or,  c  he  has  received  the  drink  of  immortality ' — 
which  may  refer  to  the  ghee  offered  in  the  fire. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Oh  the  tribe  of  the  Bharatas  having  their  seats,  as 
verse  4  seems  to  show,  on  the  borders  of  the  Sarasvatl  and 
of  the  Dr/shadvatl,  see  H.  O.,  Buddha  (first  edition),  .413 
seq. 

Note  2.  This  is  an  imperative  in  -t£t,  signifying,  as 
Delbriick  ha^^hown  (Syntaktische  Forschungen,  III,  2  seq. ; 
Altindische  Syntax,  363),  an  injunction  to  be  carried  out 
after  something  else  has  been  done  or  has  happened.  Agni 
is  first  to  look  about  (v{  pa^ya),  and  shall  then  become 
(bhavatat)  a  guide  of  food,  i.  e.  he  shall  lead  plenty  of  food 
to  the  worshipper's  house. — Prof.  Max  Miiller  translates 
ish£m  net£,  '  a  guide  to  food.' 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Should  this  Satobrshatl,  standing  alone  among 
Trish/ubh  verses,  be  considered  as  forming  a  distich  to- 
gether with  verse  a  ?  Comp.  H.  O.,  Die  Hymnen  des  Rig- 
veda,  vol.  i,  p.  102,  note  7. 

Note  2.  The  woods. 

Note  3.  Agni,  not  Devavdta,  is  referred  to. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Or,  'he  has  laid.1  The  form  may  be  first  or 
third  person,  present  or  perfect. 

Note  2.  Agni  is  addressed. 

Note  3.  The  best  place  of  the  earth,  the  place  of  I/d 
(i.  e.  of  the  nourishment  coming  from  the  cow,  of  the  ghee 
offered  into  Agni)  is  the  sacrificial  ground  or  more 
especially  the  spot  on  which  the  sacrificial  fire  is  estab- 
lished. 

Note  4.  Or  '  to  men.*  The  Padap£///a  has  manushe,  but 
mcinusha/j  seeins  more  roL^M. 


MAA7)ALA   III,    HYMN    24.  289 

MAA^ALA  III,  HYMN  24. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  24. 

\.  Agni,  be  victorious  in  battles ;  thrust  away  the 
plotters.  Difficult  to  overcome,  overcoming  malign 
powers,  bestow  splendour  on  (the  worshipper)  who 
fits  out  the  sacrifice  as  a  vehicle 1. 

2.  Agni,  thou  art  kindled  with  nourishment1,  the 
immortal  offerer  of  a  feast  (to  the  gods).     Accept 
graciously  our  worship. 

3.  Agni,  wakeful  one,  son  of  strength,  into  whom 
offerings  are  poured,  sit  down  with   thy  splendour 
on  this  sacrificial  grass  of  mine. 

4.  Agni,  together  with  all  Agnis,  with  the  gods 
exalt  our  prayers  and  those  who  are  respectful  at 
the  sacrifices. 

5.  Agni,  give  wealth    to   the  worshipper,  abun- 
dance in  valiant  men  ;  further  us  *  that  we  may  be 
rich  in  sons. 


NOTES. 

The  Rishi  is  Vwvamitra.  the  metre  G&yatri,  the  first 
verse  Anush/ubh.  On  this  combination  of  a  begin- 
ning AnushAibh  with  G^yatris  following,  comp.  H.  O., 
Die  Hymnen  des  Rig-veda,  vol.  i,  p.  148. — Verse  I  =  VS. 
IX,  37.  Verse.  5  =  TS.  II,  *,  12,  6 ;  MS.  IV,  ia,  2 ;  14,  6. 
[46]  U 


290  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


Verse  1. 


Note  1.  See  above,  III,  8,  3,  and  on  y^£rcdv£has,  I,  127, 
8,  note  i ;  Bergaigne,  Religion  Vidique,  II,  287,  note  2. 


Verse  2. 


Note  1.    I/a:    especially   designating  the   nourishment 
coming  from  the  cow  (personified  as  I/a),  such  as  ghee. 

Verse  5. 
Note  1.  Literally, '  sharpen  us.' 


MAADA1  A    TIT,    I1VMN     25.  29! 


M  AAV;  A  I  A    in,   HYMN   25. 
ASHTAKA  III.   Ai>))YAYA  1,  VARGA  25. 

1.  Agni,  thou  atf  f  -•  ever  the  wise  son  of  Heaven 
and    of  the    E^iJv    r.r-    all-wealthy    one.      In    thy 
peculiar  way1  s^j,'f.<  f    bore  to  the  gods,  O  intelli- 
gent one  ! 

2.  Agni,  the  kno\*!   .*    obtains  (for  his  worshipper) 
heroic  powers;  he  rl  :  *r.is  (for  him)  strength,  being 
busy  for  the  soke    of  ^mnortality.     Bring  then  tlic 
gods  hither,  O  (Agt»i',  lich  in  food. 

3.  Agni,  the  \\isc,  sl-ints  on  Heaven  and  Faith, 
the    two    iininoital    goddesses    who    encompass    all 
people  —  he  who  iult  s  t'.  rough  his  strength,  and  who 
is  full  of  light  through  adoration. 

4.  Agni  and  Indra,  come  hither  to  the  sacrifice  in 
the  house  of  the  worshipper  ricli  in  pressed  (Soma), 
never  failing,  ye  two  gods,  at  the  drink  of  Soma. 

5.  Agni,   thou   art  kindled   in  the  house    of  the 
waters,  (our)  own  (god),  O  son  of  strength,  G&tavedas, 
who  exaltest  the  abodes  (in  which  thou  dwellest)  by 
thy  blessing, 

NOTES. 
The  same  Rislii.  Met  re,  Vira£\—  Verse  4=  MS.  IV,  12,6, 


1. 
Notel.  On  r/dhak,  sec  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  II,  45* 


U  2 


292  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MANDALA   III,   HYMN   26. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  26-27. 

1.  With  our  offerings  revering  in  our  mind  Agni 
Vaisvclnara,  the  follower  of  truth,  the  finder  of  the 
sun — we,  the  Kurikas  *,  desirous  of  goods,  call  with 
our  prayers  the  god  who  gives  rain,  the  charioteer, 
the  cheerful. 

2.  We  call  that  beautiful  Agni  to  help  iis,Vaisva- 
nara,  MatarLrvan  the   praiseworthy1 ;    we  the  men 
(call)  Brzhaspati 2  for  (the  worship)  of  the  divine 
host,  the  priest  who  hears  us,  the  guest  who  swiftly 
glides  along. 

3.  Vaisvdnara,  neighing  like  a  horse,  is  kindled 
by  the  women  \  by  the  Ku^ikas,  from  age  to  age ; 
may  this  Agni  give  us  abundance   in  valiant  men 
and  in  horses  and  treasures,  he  who  wakes  among 
the  immortals. 

4.  May  the  Va^as  l  come  forward,  the  Agnis  with 
their   powers.     United2   they   have   harnessed   the 
spotted  deer  for  their  triumphal  procession 3.     The 
Maruts,  mightily  growing,  the  all-wealthy,  make  the 
mountains  tremble,  the  unbeguiled  ones. 

5.  The  Maruts  who  possess  the  beauty  of  Agni  *, 
belong  to  all  races  of  men.    We  implore  their  fierce, 
strong   help.     They  are   tumultuous,   the   sons   of 
Rudra,  clothed  in  rain,  hot-spirited  like  lions 2,  givers 
of  rain. 

6.  We  implore  with  our  best  praises  every  host, 
every  troop  (of  the  Maruts)1,  the  splendour  of  Agni, 


III,    HYMN    26.  293 


the  power  of  the  Maruts.  With  the  spotted  deer  as 
horses  -,  with  gifts  that  cannot  be  taken  away,  they 
go  "to  the  sacrifice  wise  in  the  (sacrificial)  ordinances  3. 

7.  Agni  am  I,  by  birth  G&tavedas.     Ghee  is  my 
eye  ;  (the  drink  of)  immortality  is  in  my  mouth.    The 
threefold  song1  traversing  the  aerial  space,  the  im- 
perishable Gharma2,  the  sacrificial  food  am  I  by  name. 

8.  With  three  purifying  strainers  he  (Agni)  puri- 
fied the  song,  with  his  heart  the  thought,  discovering 
the  light.     The  mightiest  treasure  he  produced  by 
the   powers  of  his  own  nature,  and  then  he  looked 
over  heaven  and  earth. 

9.  Carry  him  who  is  the  inexhaustible  spring  with 
a  hundred  rills,  who  has  knowledge  of  prayers  (?), 
the  father  of  (every  speech)  that  should  be  uttered, 
the  roaring  one  l,  gladly  excited  in  the  lap  of  his 
parents  —  carry  him    the   truth-speaking   across   (all 
dangers),  O  ye  two  worlds  ! 


NOTES. 

VLrvamitra  is  the  Kishi  of  this  Sukta  with  the  exception 
of  the  seventh  verse  of  which  the  Atman  or  Brahman  is  the 
JRtshi.  The  metre  is  C*agati  verses  1-6,  Trish/ubh  verses 
7_9._ Verse  5  =  TB.  II,  7,  12,  3.  Verse  7  =  VS.  XVIII, 
66;  MS.  IV,  12,5. 

The  position  of  this  Sukta  in  the  collection  shows  that  it 
is  to  be  divided  into  three  independent  hymns.  This  is 
confirmed  by  the  metre,  the  first  and  second  of  these  three 
hymns  being  In  Gagati,  the  third  in  Trish/ubh,  and  also  by 
the  contents :  the  first  hymn  is  addressed  to  Agni  Vauva- 
nara,  the  second  to  Agni  accompanied  by  the  Maruts, 
the  third  contains  mystical  speculations  about  the  nature 
and  the  deeds  of  Agni. 


294  YKWC   ri,rviNS. 


Verse  1. 

Koto  1.  The  Kiuik.'is  are  identical  with  the  Vijrvamitras, 
or  possibly  the  latter  form  one  }»rtt?»i  ii  of  the  Ku^tkas  ;  see 
H.  O.,  Zeitschrift  der  Dcutsch-'ti  Morion!  mdischen  Gc- 
sellschaft,  XLII,  209. 

Vorao  ri. 

Note  1.  On  the  relation  of  MAUi  'OVMII  to  A^ni,  see  above, 
I,  96,  4,  note  i. 

Note  2.  Br/haspati,  though  ir  his  origin  distinct  from 
Agni,  is  here  identified  with  him,  like  JVLitarLvan. 

Verso  3. 
Note  1.  By  the  ten  fingers.     CA.I{>,  .ib:>u\  [,  ,M,  i. 

Versa  1. 

Note  1.  I  adopt  the  interpretalion  .>f  "»«.•!  jaionc  (Religion 
Vedique,  IT,  4Q5>  notc  i)  and  Pischcl  (Vcilische  Studien,  I, 
46).  Va^a//  seems  to  be  the  proper  pruae  synonym  with 
^/bhavaA;  the  Maruts  may  be  c.-Uied  \"\»-&7i  as  they  are 
called  several  times  ^ibhuksha/^1//.  Hut  it  is  possible  that 
we  should  have  to  translate  simply,  •  May  the  powers  of 
strength,'  &c. ;  comp.  below,  27,  i. 

Note  2.  Possibly  we  have  to  supply,  '  united  with  their 
spotted  deer,  with  their  beauty,'  &c. ;  see  II,  36,  2.  ya^tfaf// 
sammula//  pr/shatibhi//  r/shribhiA;  VrII,  56,  6.  jriya  sam- 
mi^la//.  Or  the  meaning  may  be,  *  the  Maruts  united  with 
Agni  or  with  the  Agnis;'  comp.  I,  166,  n.  sammula// 
fndre. 

Note  3.  On  jubhe,  see  M.  M.,  I,  87,  3,  note  2  (vol.  xxxii, 
p.  162). 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Or,  they  receive  their  beauty  through  Agni. 

Note  2.  Of  heshakratu  the  probable  explanation  has 
been  given  by  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  48.  See  also 
von  Bradke,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVIII,  297. 


MAtfDALA    III,    HYMN    26.  2Q5 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Comp.  V,  53,  u,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  320. 
Note  2.  Comp.  II,  34,  4,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  302,  note  5. 
Note  3.  The  text  has  vidatheshu. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Comp.  VIII,  51,  4.  arkam  saptlrirshaflam  .  .  . 
tridhatum  uttame  pade.  Is  the  song  called  tridhStu  because 
it  is  sung  by  the  three  Udgatr/s  (singers)  ?  Or  because  it 
generally  comprises  three  verses  (see  H.  O.,  Zeitschrift  der 
Deutschen  Morgenlandischen  Gesellschaft,  XXXVIIL 

453)? 

Note  2.  The  Gharma  is  the  offering  of  hot  milk  brought 

to  the  A^vins.     On  the  probable  meaning  of  this  offering, 
see  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  447  seq. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  The  translation  of  me/i  (comp.  IV,  7,  n; 
Atharva-veda  XI,  7,  5  ;  Taitt.  Sa;/*h.  V,  7,  8,  i)  is  quite 
conjectural. 


296  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA   III,   HYMN    27. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  28-30. 

1.  Forward  (goes)  your *  strength  tending  heaven- 
ward, rich  in  offerings,  with  the  (ladle)  full  of  ghee. 
To  the  gods  goes  (the  worshipper)  desirous  of  their 
favour. 

2.  I  magnify1  with  prayer  Agni  who  has  know- 
ledge of  prayers  (?),  the  accomplisher  of  sacrifice, 
who  hears  us,  and  in  whom  (manifold  wealth)  has 
been  laid  down. 

3.  O  Agni,  may  we  be  able  to  bridle  thee  the 
strong  god l ;  may  we  overcome  (all)  hostile  powers. 

4.  Agni,  inflamed  at  the  sacrifice,  the  purifier  who 
should  be  magnified,  whose  hair  is  flame — him  we 
approach  (with  prayers). 

5.  With  his  broad  stream  of  light  the  immortal 
Agni,  clothed  in  ghee,  well  served  with  oblations,  is 
the  carrier  of  offerings  at  the  sacrifice. 

6.  Holding  the  (sacrificial)  ladles,  performing  the 
sacrifice  they  have  with   right   thought  pressingly 
brought  Agni  hither I  for  help. 

7.  The  Hotrz,  the  immortal  god  goes  in  front 
with  his  secret  power1,  instigating  the  sacrifices 2. 

8.  The  strong  (horse,  i.e.  Agni)  is  set  at  the  races. 
He   is  led   forth   at  the  sacrifices,  the  priest,  the 
accomplisher  of  sacrifice. 

9.  He  has  been  produced J  by  prayer,  the  excel- 
lent one.     I  have  established2  him,  the  germ  of 
beings,  for  ever  the  father  of  Daksha 3. 


MAtfDALA   III,    HYMN    27.  297 

10.  I  have  laid  thee  down1,  the  excellent  one, 
with  the  nourishment2  of  Daksha,  O  thou  who  art 
produced  by  power,  O  Agni,  thee  the  resplendent 
one,  O  U^3. 

11.  The  priests,  eager  to  set  to  work  the  ^/ta1, 
kindle  with  quick  strength  Agni  the  governor2,  him 
who  crosses  the  waters 3. 

12.  I   magnify1  the  child  of  vigour  at  this  sacri- 
fice, who  shines  under  the  heaven,  the  thoughtful 
Agni. 

13.  He  who  should  be  magnified  and  adored,  who 
is  visible  through  the  darkness,  Agni,  the  manly,  is 
kindled  \ 

14.  Agni,  the  manly,  is  kindled,  he  who  draws 
hither  the  gods  like  a  horse.    The  (worshippers)  rich 
in  offerings  magnify  him. 

1 5.  We  the  manly  ones  will  kindle  thee  the  manly 
(god),  O  manly  Agni  who  shinest  mightily. 


NOTES. 

The  same  jRzshi.  The  metre  is  Gayatri. — The  position 
of  the  hymn  in  the  collection  shows  that  it  is  to  be  divided 
into  Trifcas,  and  this  is  confirmed  by  the  ritual  use  of 
several  of  these  Trikzs  (see  Bergaigne,  Recherches  sur 
ITIistoire  de  la  Liturgie  Vedique,  19,  note  i).  Some  of  the 
T*7>fras  at  least,  however,  do  not  seem  to  form  independent 
hymns ;  verse  10  very  probably  stands  in  connection  with 
verse  9,  and  the  same  seems  to  be  the  case  with  verses  i  2 
and  13.  Ludwig  (IV,  30,5)  and  Bergaigne  (loc.  cit.)  consider 
the  whole  Sfikta  as  a  collection  of  SSmidhenis  or  verses  to 
be  recited  for  each  piece  of  wood  thrown  into  the  fire. 
Comp.  Hillebrandt,  Neu-  und  Vollmondsopfer,  77. — Verse  i 


298  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


=  TS.  IT,  5,  7,  2;  TB.  Ill,  5,  2,  i ;  MS.  I,  6,  i  ;  IV,  14,  3- 
Verses  2,  3  =  TB.  II,  4,  2,  4.  5  ;  MS.  IV,  n,  2.  Verse  4 
=  TS.  II,  5,  8,  6 ;  TB.  Ill,  5,  2,  3.  Verses  5-6  =  TB.  Ill, 
6,  i,  3  ;  MS.  IV,  jo,  i  (verse  5  =  MS.  IV,  n,  2).  Verses 
7-9  =  SV.  II,  827-829.  Verses  13-15  =  SV.  II,  888-890 ; 
TB.  111,5,2,2;  AV.  XX,  102,  1-3. 

Verse  1. 
Note  1.  Of  the  priests  and  sacrificers  ? 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  The  text  has  ?/e. 

Verse  3. 
Note  1.  Comp.  above,  II,  5,  i. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Comp.  IV,  17,  18.  vayam  hf  a  te  £akr/ma 
sabadha//. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  Mayaya:  comp.  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  163, 
294. 
Note  2.  Vidathani :  comp.  I,  31,  6,  note  2. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  This  seems  to  mean,  *  he  has  been  set  to  work.' 
Note  2.  A  dadhe  must  be  first  person  (comp.  nf  dadhe, 

verse  10)  for  the  bhutanam  garbha/*  is  Agni. 

Note  3.   Or,  the  father  of  intelligence.     Daksha  is  the 

personified    intelligence.     Comp.  vol.  xxxii,  p.  24^  seq.  ; 

Bergaigne,  Religion  Vediquc,  III,  93  seq. 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  See  above,  III,  23,  4. 

Note  2.  The  text  has  i/S,  the  same  word  as  in  14,  2.--  - 
Prof.  Max  Miiller  observes,  *  Could  it  be,  ni  tvi  dadhe  i/£, 
I  have  placed  thee  on  the  altar  with  nutriment,  son  of  the 
strength  of  Daksha  ?  ' 

Note  3.  Or,  *  the  willing  one/ 


MA/VDALA    III,    HYMN    27.  299 


Verse  11. 

Note  1.  '  Setting  to  work  the  Right  (Rita) '  means  here 
*  performing  the  sacrifice.'  The  sacrifice  is  considered  as 
a  sphere  especially  pervaded  by  the  power  of  Rita.  Comp. 
H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  197. 

Not*  2.  Yantiiram  (comp.  VIII,  19,  a.  agnim  1/ishva 
yanturam  ;  Lanman,  486)  must  be  the  same  as  yantaram 
(comp.  pdpTvp?  [M.  M.]  See  de  Saussure,  Memoirc  sur  le 
Systfeme  Primitif  des  Voyelles,  p.  207 ;  but  comp.  also 
Kretschmer,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXXI,  p.  447).  To  me  it 
seems  to  be  an  accommodation  to  aptiiram,  facilitated 
probably  by  the  influence  of  the  genitive  yantiir.  See 
Lanman,  Noun-Inflection  in  the  Veda,  p.  486  ;  Wacker- 
nagel  in  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXV,  287. 

Note  3.  See  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  12?,  seq. ; 
II.  O.,  Gottingjsche  Gelehrte  Anzeigen,  1889,  p.  4  srq. 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  The  text  has  i/e.  In  the  same  way  :/iiny3// 
verse  13,  I/ate  verse  14. 

Verse  13. 

Note  1  Observe  sam  idhyate  here  and  verse  I'j.,  sim 
idhimahi  verse  15.  The  verses.  13-15  form  one  T/7,£a. 


3OO  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAAVJALA    III,    HYMN    28; 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  31. 

1.  O  Agni  G£tavedas,  accept  graciously  our  offer- 
ing,   the    sacrificial    cake    at   the    morning  libation, 
O  god  who  givest  wealth  for  our  prayers. 

2.  The  sacrificial  cake,  O  Agni,  has  been  baked 
or  made   ready  for  thee :    accept  it  graciously,   O 
youngest  (god). 

3.  Agni,  accept  eagerly  the  sacrificial  cake  which 
has  been  offered,  which  has  stood  overnight.     Thou 
art  the  son  of  strength,  established  at  the  sacrifice. 

4.  At  the  midday  libation,  G^tavedas,  "accept  here 
graciously  the  sacrificial  cake,  O  sage.     Agni,  the 
wise  ones  do  not  diminish  at  the  sacrificial  distri- 
butions1  the    portion   which    belongs    to    thee,   the 
vigorous  one  2. 

5.  Agni,   at   the  third  libation  take  joyfully  the 
sacrificial  cake,  O  son  of  strength,  which  has  been 
offered.    And  in  thy  admirable  way  place  our  wakeful 
sacrifice,  blessed  with  treasures,  before  the  immortal 
gods. 

6.  Agni,   grown    strong,    O    6&tavedas,    accept 
graciously  our  offering,  the  sacrificial  cake  which  has 
stood  overnight. 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rishi.  The  metre  is  GAyatri  in  verses  i,  2, 6, 
Ush#ih  in  verse  3,  TrishAibh  in  verse  4,  and  £agati  in 
verse  5. — No  verse  occurs  in  the  other  SawhitSs. 


MAtfDALA    III,    HYMN    28.  3OI 

This  Sftkta  and  the  following  are,  as  their  position  at  the 
end  of  the  Anuvaka  and  the  number  of  their  verses  show, 
later  additions  to  the  original  collection.  The  28th  hymn 
contains  verses  destined  for  the  offerings  of  sacrificial 
cakes  to  Agnt  at  each  of  the  three  Savanas.  Quite  in  the 
same  way  hymn  52,  which  also  belongs  to  the  later 
additions,  refers  to  sacrificial  cakes  offered  to  Indra.  The 
oblation  of  such  cakes  to  Indra  at  each  Savana  is  found 
also  in  the  later  Vedic  ritual  (comp.  Katyayana  IX,  9, 
2  seq. ;  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  X,  369,  376),  and  several 
verses  of  III,  52  are  indicated  there  as  Puronuvakya  verses 
for  those  very  offerings ;  see  A.svalayana  Srautasutra  V,  4, 
2.  3.  After  each  cake-offering  to  Indra  follows  the 
Svish/akrzt-oblation  to  Agni :  and  for  these  oblations 
A^valayana  (loc.  cit.  Sutra  6)  prescribes  verses  i,  4,  and  5 
of  our  hymn,  according  to  the  order  of  the  three  Savanas. 
From  the  text  of  the  hymn  it  seems  to  be  evident  that 
verses  1-3  have  been  composed  for  the  first,  verse  4  for  the 
second,  and  verses  5-6  for  the  third  Savana,  With  this 
distribution  the  change  of  the  metres  evidently  stands  in 
connection.  In  accordance  with  the  theories  of  the  later 
Vedic  theologians,  we  have  here  the  Gayatri  as  the  charac- 
teristic metre  of  the  first,  the  Trish/ubh  of  the  second,  the 
(JagatJ  of  the  third  Savana. 

Comp.  also  A^valayana  VI,  5,  25,  and  the  very  ingenious 
but  at  the  same  time  somewhat  hazardous  observations  of 
Bergaigne,  Recharches  sur  1'Histoire  de  la  Liturgie  V^dique, 
1 6  seq. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  text  has  vidatheshu. 
Note  2.  Comp.  I,  36,  i,  note  2. 


302  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MA^WJALA    III,    HYMN   29. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  32  34. 

i !.  This  is  the  support  on  which  the  rubbing  (for 
producing  the  fire)  is  performed  2 ;  the  creative  organ3 
has  been  prepared.  Bring  hither  the  house-wife  * ; 
let  us  produce  Agni  by  rubbing  in  the  old  way. 

2.  In  the  two  fire-sticks  dwells  Gatavedas,  as  the 
germ    (lies)   safe   in   pregnant   women — Agni   who 
should  be  magnified1  day  by  day  by  wakeful  men 
\viio  bring  offerings. 

3.  Place  it1  skilfully  into  her  who  lies  extended2. 
Having  conceived  she  has  quickly  given  birth  to  the 
manly  one.     He  whose  summit  is  red — bright  is  his 
splendour — the  son  of  I/d  has  been  born  in  the  (due) 
way a. 

4.  In  the  place  of  I /a,  on  the  navel  of  the  earth 
we  will  lay  thee  down,  Gatavedas,  that  thou,  O  Agni, 
mayst  carry  the  offerings  (to  the  gods). 

5.  Rub,   ye   men,   the    truthful    sage,    the   wise, 
the  immortal,  the  fair-faced.     Bring  forth,  ye  men, 
Agni,  the  banner  of  sacrifice,  the  first  in  the  front, 
the  gracious  one. 

6.  When  they  produce  him  by  rubbing  with  their 
arms,  he  shines  forth  flaming  in  the  wood  like  a  red 
race-horse.     Like  the  bright  one  on  the  path  of  the 
A^vins l  the  unrestrained  (Agni)  spares  the  stones, 
burning  the  grass2. 

7.  Agni,  when  born,  shines  forth  resplendent,  the 
racer,  the  priest,  praised  by  the  sages,  the  giver  of 
rain,  whom  the  gods  placed  in  the  sacrifices,  to  be 


MAtfDALA   III,    HYMN    2Q.  303 

magnified,  as  the  omniscient  carrier  of  the  sacrificial 
offerings. 

8.  Sit  down,  O  Hot/%  in  the  space  which  is  thine, 
as  the  knowing  one.    Place  the  sacrifice  in  the  abode 
of  good  works  (i.e.  on  the  altar).     Eagerly  longing 
for   the    gods    thou    shalt   worship    the    gods    by 
offerings.      Agni,    bestow    mighty   vigour   on    the 
sacrificer. 

9.  Produce  a  mighty1  smoke,  ye  friends.     With- 
out fail  go  forward  towards  strength.     This  Agni  is 
the  conqueror  in  battles,  rich  in  valiant  rnen,  he  by 
whom  the  gods  have  overpowered  the  Dasyus. 

10.  This  is  thy  birth-place  in  due  time  whence 
born  thou  shonest  forth  ;    knowing  it,  O  Agni,  sit 
down  on  it,  and  make  our  prayers  prosper. 

1 1.  He  is  called  Tantinapat  as  the  Asura's  germ. 
Narisawsa  he  becomes  when  he  is  born,  MdtariLrvan 
when  he  has  been  shaped  in  the  mother  *.     And  he 
has  become  the  rush  of  the  wind  in  his  swift  course2. 

12.  Rubbed  forth  by  skilful  rubbing,  established 
by  skilful  establishing,  as  a  sage,  O  Agni,  perform 
excellent  sacrifices.     Sacrifice  to  the  gods  for  him 
who  is  devoted  to  the  gods1. 

13.  The   mortals   have   generated   the  immortal 
one,  the  .  .  .\  advancing  one  with  strong  jaws.    The 
ten  unwedded  sisters 2  united  take  care  of  the  man 
(Agni)  when  he  has  been  born. 

14.  He  the  god  of  the  seven  Hotris  shone  forth 
from  of  old,  when  he  flamed  up  in  his  mother's  lap, 
at  her  udder.     Day  by  day  the  joyous  one  never 
closes  his  eyes,  when  he  has  been  born  from  the 
.Asura's  (i.e.  of  the  Heaven's  ?)  belly1. 

15.  The  onsets  of  (Agni)  when  he  attacks   his 
enemies,  are  like  those  of  the  Maruts,     (He  is)  the 


304  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


first-born  (son)  of  the  sacred  spell.  They  know  every 
(fire)1.  The  Kimkas  have  raised  their  brilliant 
spell;  they  have  kindled  Agni,  every  one  in  his 
house. 

1 6.  After  we  had  chosen  thee  here  to-day,  O  wise 
Hotrt,  while  this  sacrifice  was  going  on,  thou  hast 
firmly  sacrificed  and  firmly  laboured.  Come  to  this 
Soma,  expert  and  knowing  ! 


NOTES. 

The  same  -fashi.  The  prevalent  metre  is  Trish/ubh. — 
Verses  i,  4,  10,  la  are  Anushlubh;  verses  6,  u,  14,  15, 
Cagati. 

The  Sftkta,  which  belongs  to  the  later  additions  (see  the 
note  on  hymn  28),  consists  of  a  number  of  verses  and  small 
groups  of  verses  referring  to  the  production  of  fire  by  the 
attrition  of  the  two  fire-sticks.  The  order  in  which  the 
verses  stand  does  not  always  agree  with  the  natural  order 
of  the  ritual  acts.— Verse  a  =  SV.  I,  79.  Verse  3  = 
VS.  XXXIV,  14-  Verse  4  =  VS.  XXXIV,  15  ;  TS.  Ill,  5, 
n,  i ;  MS.  I,  6,  a.  7  ;  IV,  10,  4  ;  ",  i-  Verse  8  =  VS.  XI, 
35';  TS,  III,  5,  ii,  * ;  IV,  i,  3,  3 ;  MS.  II,  7,  3 ;  IV,  10,  4- 
Verse  10  =  VS.  Ill,  14 ;  XII,  5a ;  XV,  56 ;  TS.  I,  5>  5,  a  ; 
IV,  2,  4,  35  7i  13.  5J  TB.  I,  2,1,16;  II,5,»,8;  MS.  I, 
5,  i  ;  6,  i ;  AV.  Ill,  ao,  i.  Verse  13  =  TB.  I,  a,  i,  19. 
Verse  16  =  VS.  VIII,  ao ;  TS.  1, 4,  44,  a ;  MS.  I,  3,  38 ; 
AV.  VII,  97. 1- 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  verses  1-3  a,  b  have  been  translated  by  Muir, 
Original  Sanskrit  Texts,  V,  p.  209. 

Note  2.  On  the  adhimanthanajakala,  the  piece  of  wood 
on  which  the  lower  fire-stick  is  laid,  see  Satapatha  Brlh- 


MAJVDALA    III,    HYMN    2Q.  305 


ma;/a  III,  4,  i,  20.  so«dhimanthana;#  jakalam  adatte  agner 
^•anitram  asity  atra  hy  agnir  ^ayate.  Schwab,  Das  Altin- 
dische  Thieropfer,  p.  78  seq. 

Note  3.  Pra^anana  seems  to  be  used  in  the  concrete 
sense  as  the  male  organ.  As  such,  the  poet  may  have 
considered  the  so-called  pramantha  in  the  generation  of 
Agni,  which  is  described  as  having  the  shape  of  the  male 
organ  (Schwab,  loc.  cit.,  78  ;  see  also  Roth,  Zeitschrift  der 
Deutschen  Morgenl.  Gesellschaft,  XLIII,  591).  It  does  not 
seem  very  probable  that  the  darbhapiw^tala  of  which  Saya;/a 
thinks  should  be  meant. 

Note  4.  Sayawa  explains  this  as  meaning  the  Aram  (fire- 
stick),  i.e.  the  lower  Aram,  the  receptacle  of  the  upper  fire- 
stick.  In  the  Taittiriya  Brahma^a  I,  2,  i,  13  the  two 
Arams  arc  addressed  as  mahi  vupatni. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.   The  text  has  i 


Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  upper  fire-stick  or,  more  accurately,  the 
pramantVn. 

Note  2.  Comp.  above,  II,  10,  3.  The  lower  Aram  is 
alluded  to,  which  is  considered  as  a  wife  and  more  particu- 
larly as  the  nymph  Urvajl  (Katyayana  V,  i,  30,  &c.). 

Note  3.  Prof.  Pischel  (Vedische  Studien,  I,  301)  takes 
the  genitive  f/aya//  as  dependent  on  vayiine  :  *  wurde  der 
Sohn  geboren  am  Orte  (Wege)  der  Opferspende.'  To  me 
it  seems  unnatural  not  to  connect  i/ayaA  with  putra^,  which 
words  arc  connected  also  by  the  Sandhi  (the  Sa/whita  text 
has  i/ayas  putro,  not  iVaya/z  putr6). 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  For  y£man,  cf.  I,  37,  3;  III,  2,  14;  VI,  15,  5. 
Should  not  the  bright  one  on  the  path  of  the  Ajvins  be  the 
sun  ?  Saya//a  thinks  of  the  chariot  of  the  AJVI  is,  which 
also  may  be  right 

[46]  X 


3O6  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Note  2.  Are  the  stones  and  the  grass  identical  with  the 
stones  and  grass-blades  occurring  in  the  later  ritual  of  the 
agny£dheya  and  agnimanthana  (.Satapatha  Br.  II,  I,  i,  8 ; 
III,  4,  i,  21  ;  Kdtydyana  IV,  8,  16,  &c.)? 

Verse  9. 
Note  1.  Literally,  a  manly,  strong,  or  bull-like  smoke. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  This  is  a  play  upon  words  (Mdtarfovci  and  ami- 
mita  m£tari,  *  he  has  been  shaped  in  the  mother'). 

Note  2.  Von  Bradke  (Dy&us  Asura,  p.  51) :  des  Windes 
Heerde  (?)  wird  er,  wenn  er  dahingleitet. 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  This  Pada  is  identical  with  I,  15,  12.  It  is 
a  galita. 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  of  asreman  (comp.  X,  8,  2.  asrem£ 
vatsa^  [i.e.  Agni]  simiv£n  ar£vit)  is  unknown. 
Note  2.  The  ten  fingers. 

Verse  14. 
Note  1.  Comp.  von  Bradke,  loc.  cit.,  50. 

Verse  16. 

Note  1.  Or  prathama^Sm  brahmanaA  visve  ft  viduA  :  'all 
(people)  know  him  the  first-born  (son)  of  the  sacred  spell '? 
Comp.  I,  34,  2.  s6masya  ven£m  anu  vtave  ft  vidu/z. — Prof. 
Max  Muller  writes  :  '  Prathama^a^  is  the  wind,  X,  168,  3. 
It  might  here  refer  to  the  Maruts,  who  are  often  said  to 
sing  prayers ;  they  know  all  about  Brahman  (prayer)/ 


M  AMD  ALA   IV,    HYMN    I.  307 

MAJVZ>ALA  IV,  HYMN  1. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  4,  VARGA  12-15. 

1.  Thee,  O  Agni,  the   gods  concordantly  have 
ever  set  to  work  as  their  divine  steward ;  with  this 
intention l  they  have  set  thee  to  work.     They  have 
generated a  thee,  O  worshipful  one  2,  the  immortal 
among  the  mortals,  the  wise,  god-loving  god  ;  they 
have  generated  every  wise,  god-loving  (Agni)  3. 

2.  Do  thou,  [O  Agni  *,]  turn  to  brother  Varuwa* 
towards  the  gods 2  with  thy  kindness 3,  to  (Variwa) 
who  accepts  the  sacrifice,  to  the  eldest  (god)  who 
accepts    the    sacrifice,    the    righteous    Aditya   who 
supports  the  (human)  tribes,  the  king  who  supports 
the  (human)  tribes. 

3.  O   friend,   turn    to    thy   friend    (Varuwa),   as 
a  wheel  of  a  chariot1  rapidly  (follows)   the  swift 
(horse),   for   our   sake,  O   wonderful   one,  rapidly. 
O  Agni,  find  mercy  (for  us)  with  Varuwa,  with  the 
all-brilliant    Maruts.      Bless    (us),    O    flaming  one, 
that   we   may   propagate   ourselves,  that   we   may 
press  onward  ;  bless  us,  O  wonderful  one ! 

4.  Mayst  thou,  O  Agni,  who  knowest  Varurca, 
deprecate  for  us  the  god's  anger.     Being  the  best 
sacrificer,  the  best  carrier  (of  the  gods),  flaming, 
remove  from  us  all  hatred. 

5.  As  such,  O  Agni,  be  for  us  the  lowest  *  (god) 
with  thy  help,  our  nearest  (friend)  while  this  dawn 
shines  forth.     Being  liberal  (towards  us),  cause,  by 
sacrificing,   Varu«a   to   go  away  from   us*     Love 
mercy ;  readily  hear  our  call. 

X  2 


308  VEDIC    HYMNS. 

6.  His,  the  fortunate  god's,  appearance  is  excellent, 
and  most  brilliant  among  mortals.     Like  the  bright, 
heated  butter  of  the  cow  (the  appearance)  of  the 
god  is  lovely,  like  the  bountifulness  of  a  milch-cow. 

7.  Three1   are   those   highest,   true,    and   lovely 
births  of  this  god  Agni.     Being  enveloped  in  the 
infinite2  he  has  come  hither,  the  bright,  brilliant, 
shining  Aryan. 

8.  He,  the   messenger,  longs  for  all   seats,  the 
Hotrt   with    the   golden   chariot,   with   the   lovely 
tongue,  with  the  red  horses,  of  marvellous  appear- 
ance,   brilliant,    always    lovely    like    an    assembly 
abundant  in  food. 

9.  He,  the  kinsman  of  sacrifice,  has  enlightened 
men  l.     They  lead  him  forward  by  a  great  rope  2. 
He  dwells  in  his  (the  mortal's)  dwelling,  accomplish- 
ing   (his   task).      The   god  has  obtained   the  com- 
panionship of  the  mortal. 

10.  May  this  Agni,  the  knowing  one,  lead  us  to 
the   god-given    treasure   which    belongs    to    him l. 
That    (treasure)    which    all    the    immortals    have 
created  by  their  thought,  which  Dyaus,  the  father, 
the  begetter  (has  created) :  that  real  (treasure)  they 
have  besprinkled 2. 

11.  He  has  been  born  in  the  dwellings  as  the 
first,  at  the  bottom  of  the  great  (air) *,  in  the  womb 
of  this  air 2,  footless,  headless,  hiding  both  his  ends, 
drawing  towards  himself  (his  limbs  ?),  in  the  nest 
of  the  bull 3. 

12.  The  host1  came  forth  wonderfully  at  first,  in 
the  womb  of  7?z'ta,  in  the  nest  of  the  bull 2,  lovely 
and  young,  of  marvellous  appearance,  and  brilliant 3. 
Seven  friends 4  were  born  for  the  bull. 

13.  Here  our   human   fathers   have  sat   down1, 


MA/MALA    IV,    HYMN    I.  309 

aspiring  after  .AYta 2.  Invoking  the  dawns  A,  they 
have  driven  out  the  milch-cows  which  dwelt  in  the 
rock-stable,  in  the  prison. 

14.  Having  rent  the  rock  they  cleaned  themselves. 
Others   around   told    forth    that   (deed)   of    theirs.* 
Taking  ...  as  an  instrument  (?)  \  they  sang  triumph- 
antly2.    They  found  the  light;  they  chanted  their 
prayers. 

15.  Longing  for  the  cows  in  their  mind,  those 
men,  the   Ujjfs1,   have  opened  with  godly  words 
the  fast-holding,  closed  rock,  which   enclosed   and 
encompassed  the  cows,  the  firm  stable  full  of  cows. 

16.  They    have    devised   the   first   name  of  the 
milch-cow;  they  have  found  the  three  times  seven 
highest  (names  or  essences)  of  the  mother1.     The 
hosts2,    understanding   this,   acclaimed.      The   red 
one 3  became  visible  through  the  brilliant  (milk  ?) 4 
of  the  cow. 

17.  The   confused1   darkness    disappeared;    the 
sky    appeared    in    splendour;     the    shine    of    the 
goddess    Dawn   rose    up.      The   Sun   ascended   to 
the  wide  plains,  beholding  right  and  wrong  deeds 
among  the  mortals. 

1 8.  Then,  afterwards,  being  awoke  they  looked 
around;    then   they   took   that   treasure   given   by 
Heaven,  all  the  gods  in  all  the  houses.     O  Mitra, 
may    true    (fulfilment)     belong     to    (our)    prayer, 
O  Varuwa! 

19.  I  will  address  flaming  Agni,  the  Hotri,  the 
supporter  of  everything1,  the  best  sacrifices     He 
has  perforated,  as  it  were,  the  pure  udder  of  the 
cows,  (and  has  made  flow  the  milk)  purified  like  the 
poured  sap  of  the  Soma  shoots. 

20.  He,  the  Aditi  (i.  e.  the  freedom)  of  all  the 


310  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


worshipful  gods,  the  guest l  of  all  men,  Agni,  choos- 
ing (for  us)  the  protection  of  all  gods — may  he, 
Gatavedas,  be  merciful. 


NOTES. 

The  /Wshi  is  Vdmadeva,  the  metre  Trishfubh,  except  in 
verses  1-3,  the  metres  of  which  are  Ashri,  Ati^agati,  and 
Dhr/ti  respectively.— Verses  4-5= VS.  XXI,  3-4;  TS.  II, 
5,12,3;  IV,  2,  n,  3;  TB.  III,7,ii,3;  12,6;  TA.II,4,4; 
IV,20,3;MS.  IV,  10,4;  14,17-  Verse  20  =  VS.  XXXIII, 
16;  TB.  II,  7,  12,  5. — The  hymn  has  been  translated  and 
commented  upon  by  Bergaigne,  Quarante  Hymnes  du 
Rig-veda,  p.  1 1  seq. 

This  Sfikta  seems  to  be  composed  of  two  independent 
hymns.  Grassmann  believed  that  the  first  three  verses  are 
the  fragment  of  one  hymn,  and  that  verses  4—20  form 
a"  second  hymn.  His  reason  was  that  verses  1-3  are 
composed  in  metres  similar  to  Atyashri,  while  the  rest  are 
composed  in  Trish/ubh.  I  think  that  he  was  on  the  right 
way,  but  his  opinion  should  be  slightly  modified.  In 
verses  1-5  Agni  is  invoked  to  appease  the  anger  of  Varu^a  ; 
while,  on  the  other  hand,  no  allusion  to  Varu«a  occurs  in 
verses  6-20.  I  believe,  therefore,  that  the  first  hymn 
shoulji  be  considered  as  consisting  of  verses  1-5 ;  it  is 
composed  in  the  metres  of  the  Atyash/i  class  (1-3)  with 
two  concluding  Trish/ubh  verses  (4, 5).  The  second  hymn 
comprises  the  verses  6-20.  The  arrangers  of  the  SawhitA, 
however,  considered  these  two  hymns  as  one,  as  is  shown 
by  the  position  which  they  have  assigned  to  it,  before  the 
second  .Stikta,  which  has  the  same  number  of  verses  (20) 
as  this  first  Sflkta.  Comp.  my  Prolegomena,  p.  141. 

Verse  i. 

Note  1.  I.e.  with  the  intention  that  he  should  act  as  the 
steward  of  the  gods.  As  to  fti  krdtv4,  comp.  I,  138,  3.  fti 


MARSALA   IV,    HYMN    I.  311 

krdtv4  bubhqgrir&  Delbriick,  Altindische  Syntax,  p.  530, 
paraphrases  fti  krdtvd :  mit  Entschluss  '  so  sei  es.' 

Note  2.  SAya«a,  whom  Ludwig  follows,  seems  to  be  right 
in  explaining  ya^ta  as  a  vocative  ('  ya^niya '),  and  ^anata 
as  3rd  plural  (' a^anayan ').  Bergaigne  takes  both  forms 
as  2nd  plural  imperative:  'honorez  rimmortel  chez  les 
mortels ;  engendrez  le  Dieu  qui  honore  les  Dieux/ 

Note  3.  I  cannot  believe  that  Bergaigne  is  right  in  trans- 
lating v/jvam  £devam,  'celui  qui  honore  tous  les  Dieux/ 
His  theory  is  that  'vfjvam  depend  .  . .  de  £,  qui  logique- 
ment  gouverne  le  terme  devd  a  1'accusatif/ 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  metre  shows,  as  Benfey  (Vedica  und  Ver- 
wandtes,  p.  19,  note  i)  has  pointed  out,  that  this  vocative 
agne  is  a  spurious  addition. 

Note  2.  Should  we  not  read  devam  ?  *  Turn  to  brother 
Varu/sa  with  thy  kindness,  towards  the  god  who  accepts 
the  sacrifice/ 

Note  3.  Or  '  for  the  sake  of  his  kindness/  *  for  winning 
his  favour  (for  the  mortals) '  ?  Sumatf  may  be  dative ;  see 
Lanman,  p.  382 ;  Brugmann,  Grundriss  der  vergleichenden 
Grammatik,  II,  p.  602.  Comp.  I,  186,  10.  &kkh&  sumnSya 
vavrftiya  devSn,  *  may  I  turn  to  the  gods  for  the  sake  of 
their  favour/ 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  I  believe  that  rathyeva  (Padapd/Aa  rdthy4-iva) 
stands  for  rathyam-iva.  Comp.  Lanman,  p.  331 ;  Roth, 
Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenlandischen  Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII,  p.  681  seq.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  refers  rdthyd-iva 
to  two  horses;  he  translates:  CO  friend,  bring  hither  thy 
friend,  as  two  swift  chariot-horses  bring  rapidly  a  swift 
wheel/ 

Verse  5. 
Note  1.  I.e.  the  nearest  to  men. 


312  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  7. 

Note  1,  Literally  '  thrice.'  But  I  think  that  we  should 
correct  tr?  ('  three ').  The  same  blunder  seems  to  occur  in 
III,  56,  5.  tn  sadhastM  sindhavaA  trlA  (read  tr?)  kavin£m, 
1  Three  are  your  abodes,  O  rivers ;  three  (are  those)  of  the 
sages.'  Comp.  also  III,  56,  8  ;  I,  116,  4- 

Note  2.  This  seems  to  mean,  in  the  infinite  sky. 

Verse  0. 

Note  1.  Manusha//  seems  to  be  ace.  plur. ;  comp.  VII,  86, 
7.  a>6etayat  a^ita//,  *he  has  enlightened  the  unenlightened 
ones.'  Bergaigne  takes  mdnusha//  as  a  genitive  depending 
on  ya^»dbandhuA,  *  fils  du  sacrifice  de  Manus.' 

Note  2.  Bergaigne  compares  IX,  87,  i,  where  it  is  said 
that  they  lead  Soma  to  the  sacrificial  grass  like  a  horse  by 
ropes  (d££//a  barhiV/  ra^an^bhi^  nayanti).  Saya;/a  says, 
stutirupayd  ra^vd,  'by  a  rope  which  has  the  shape  of 
praises/ 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  Comp.  below,  verse  18. 

Note  2.  I.e.  anointed,  adorned.     l  Poured  down.'    M.  M. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  Mahd/z  budhne  seems  to  mean,  maha// 
budhn£ ;  comp.  ra^asaA  budhndm,  I,  52,  6 ;  budhn^ 
II,  a,  3  ;  mahdA  rd^-asaA,  I,  6,  10 ;  ra^asaA  mahAA,  I,  168,  6 ; 
mah?  rd^asl,  IX,  68,  3. 

Note  2.  With  the  second  Pdda,  compare  IV,  17,  14. 
tva£4/z  budhnd  rd^asaA  asyd  y6nau. 

Note  3.  The  bull  seems  to  be  Agni  himself.  Comp. 
verse  12. 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  The  word  jdrdha  (or  s&dhaA  ?  see  note  3),  which 
in  most  passages  is  applied  to  the  host  of  the  Maruts  (see 
vol.  xxxii.  p.  67  seq.),  seems  here  to  refer  to  the  company 
of  the  Angiras  or  seven  -foshis,  alluded  to  in  the  fourth 


MAtfDALA    IV,   HYMN    I.  313 

Pdda.  The  seven  /fc'shis,  'our  fathers'  (verse  13),  have, 
with  the  aid  of  Agni,  rent  the  mountain  and  delivered  the 
cows  or  dawns  (verses  i^'seqq. ;  IV,  2,  15  seq.).  Comp. 
H,  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  p.  145  seq. 

Note  2.  The  bull  again  seems  to  be  Agni.  Comp. 
verse  1 1 ,  note  3. 

Note  3.  Do  these  epithets  (comp.  verse  8,  Pdda  3)  refer 
to  the  jrardha  (host)  ?  Or  are  they  applied  to  Agni,  so  that 
we  would  have  to  translate :  '  Lovely  was  the  young  one 
(Agni),  of  marvellous  appearance,  and  brilliant'?  In  this 
way  Bergaigne  interprets  the  passage.  If  this  translation 
is  light,  ^ardha//  may  be  considered  as  neuter,  and  the  first 
Pada  could  be  translated :  The  first  host  came  forth 
wonderfully. 

Note  4.  Evidently  the  seven  7v?/shis  (see  note  i).  13er- 
gaigne  .  Les  sept  prieres  ?  ou  les  sept  rivieres  ? 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  The  seven  JRishis  sat  down  for  chanting  and 
sacrificing,  by  which  they  have  opened  the  mountain-prison 
of  the  cows. 

Note  2.  The  mention  of  ftita  in  this  connection  is  both 
Vedic  and  Avestic.  Comp.  Darmesteter,  Ormazd  et 
Ahriman,  p.  146  ;  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  p.  144,  note  2. 

Note  3.  The  cows  in  thi*  myth  seem  to  be  a  mythical 
representation  of  the  cfcwns.  Comp.  M.  M.,  Science  of 
Language,  II,  p.  584;  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  pp.  147, 
J49  srq. 

Verse  14. 

Note  1.  Parvayantra  (comp.  jhSkayantra,  IX,  73,  6)  is 
quite  doubtful.  Docs  there  exist  a  stem  p&rva,  meaning 
possibly,  *  the  herd  of  cattle '  ?  And  can  we  translate, 
'  they  who  had  thfeir  (battering-  ?)  machines  directed  on  the 
cow-herds '  ?  Or,  *  holding  the  herds  with  their  instruments 
(i.e.  with  the  ropes  used  for  drawing  the  cows  out  of  the 
cavern) '  ? — Prof.  Max  Muller  suggests  the  translation, '  the 
cattle-drivers/  and  writes, '  Does  it  stand  for  psuni-yantr4- 


314  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


sa/*  ?  Yantra  seems  the  same  as  yoktra,  or  something  like  it, 
cf.  X,  94,  7,  8.  Pa^uyantra  would  be  they  who  hold  the 
ropes  of  the  cattle,  who  drive  them  away/  Bergaigne's 
translation,  '  n'ayant  rien  (d'autre)  pour  conduire  le  betail  ' 
(paju-ayantra),  and  that  of  Roth  ('  die  der  Sperre  ledigen 
Thiere  [pa^vaA  ayantr^saA]  erhoben  ein  Freudengeschrei,' 
Zeitschr.  der  D.  Morg.  Gesellschaft,  XL  VIII,  678),  do  not 
carry  conviction,  nor  does  a  conjecture  like  p&rva  yant£ra// 
('the  leaders  of  the  cattle  together  with  the  cattle  itself 
shouted  triumphantly'),  seem  to  furnish  a  satisfying  solu- 
tion of  the  difficulty. 

Note  2.  See  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  120. 

Verse  15. 


Note  1.  On  the  Uji^s,  compare  Bergaigne's  Religion 
Vedique,  I,  57  seq. 

Verse  16. 

Note  1.  The  mother  seems  again  to  be  the  cow,  or  more 
exactly  the  Dawn  considered  as  the  mother  of  the  cows 
(m£t£  gavim,  IV,  52,  2.  3  ;  VII,  77,  2),  and  as  the  mother 
of  the  Rishis  (IV,  2,  15).  Comp.  V,  45,  2.  &  urv£t  gdv£m 
m&t£  g&nati  geit.  The  seven  names  of  the  cow  are  men- 
tioned also  in  I,  164,  3,  its  three  times  seven  names,  in 
VII,  87,  4. 

Note  2.  Bergaigne  (Quarante  Hy  nines,  p.  14)  and  Pischel 
(Ved.  Studien,  II,  121  seq.)  give  to  the  word  vrii  the 
meaning  'woman'  (Bergaigne:  'femme,'  particuli&rement 
'  femme  en  rut,'  '  femme  amoureuse  *).  I  prefer  to  follow 
the  opinion  of  Bechtel,  Nachrichten  der  Gottinger  Gesell- 
schaft der  Wissenschaften,  philolog;-historische  Klasse, 
1894,  p.  393  seq.  The  hosts  seem  to  be  the  assembly  of 
the  JZishis. 

Note  3.  The  dawn. 

Note  4.  Comp.  IX,  81,  i  (H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda, 
p.  147,  note  i).  dadhnfi  ydt  1m  linnitAA  yajdsd  gdvdm,  '  When 
(the  Somas)  have  been  drawn,  together  with  the  brilliant 
curds  of  the  cow/  The  brilliant  milk  of  the  cow  which  the 


MAJVDALA   IV,   HYMN    I.  315 

Rtshis  have  obtained,  seems  to  be  considered  as  a  magical 
means  for  procuring  to  men  the  aspect  of  the  brilliant  light 
of  the  dawn.  Comp.  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  p.  450. 

Verse  17. 

Note  1.  On  diidhitam,  comp.  Geldner,  Ved.  Studien,  II, 
9,  and  see  Rig-veda  II,  17,  4;  IV,  16,  4. 

Verse  19. 
Note  1.  Comp.  vol.  xxxii,  p.  330  (V,  54,  10,  note  i). 

Verse  20. 

Note  1.  '  Guest '  is  atithiA ;  the  play  on  words  (dditiA  and 
dtithi^)  is  untranslatable. 


!l6  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANDALA    IV,   HYMN   2. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  4,  VARGA  16-19. 

1.  He  who  has  been  established  as  the  steward 
among  the  mortals,  the  immortal,  righteous  one,  and 
among  the  gods,  being  a  god  himself,  the  HotK  the 
best  sacrificer  shall  mightily  flame * ;  Agni  shall  rise 
up1  with  the  offerings  of  Manns. 

2.  Here,  O  Agni,  son  of  strength,  thou  goest  for 
us  to-day  as  a  messenger,  thou  who  art  born,  between 
the  two  races  (of  men  and  gods),  having  harnessed, 
O  tall  one,  thy  puissant,  manly,  brilliant  (stallions)1. 

3.  Harnessing  the   two  mighty,  red  steeds   that 
swim  in  ghee — (the  steeds)  of  /frta,  I  think,  that 
are  most  swift  with   their  mind1,  the  ruddy  ones, 
thou  goest  (as  a  messenger)  between  you,  the  gods, 
and  the  tribes  of  men 2. 

4.  O  Agni,  with  thy  good  horses,  and  thy  good 
chariot,  rich  in  bounties,  bring  hither  from  among 
them    (the   gods)1   Aryaman,   Varima,   and   Mitra, 
Indra  and  Vishnu,  the  Maruts  and  the  A^vins,  to 
him  who  offers  goofd  oblations. 

5.  This   sacrifice,  O   Agni,  is   rich  in  cows1,  in 
sheep  and  horses,  in  manly  friends ;  it  is  never  to 
be  despised ;  it  is  rich  in  nourishment,  O  wonderful 
lord2,  rich  in  offspring;    it  is   long-lasting  wealth, 
broad-based,  with  (brilliant)  assemblies. 

61.  Be  a  self-strong  protector,  O  Agni,  of  the  man 
who  in  the  sweat  of  his  brow  brings  fuel  to  thee  *,  or 
heats  his  head  desirous  to  worship  thee.  Deliver 
him  from  every  harmful  man. 


MAATDALA    IV,    HYMN    2.  317 

7.  The  man  who  brings  food  to  thee  who  art 
desirous  of  food,  he  who  stirs  up1  the  cheerful  guest 
and  rouses  him,  the  godly  man  who  kindles  thee  in 
his  dwelling :  to  him  may  belong  lasting  and  generous 
wealth* 

8.  The  sacrificer  who  praises  thee  in  the  evening 
and  in  the  morning  and  gratifies  thee :  that  liberal 
man   thou  shouldst  bring   across   all   distress,  like 
a  well-impelled  horse  \  (dwelling)  in  his  house. 

9.  The  man  who  worships  thee,  the  immortal  one, 
O  Agni,  and  who  honours  thee,  holding  the  sacri- 
ficial ladle — may  he,  the  toiling  (sacrificer),  not  be 
deprived  of  wealth ;    may  no   distress  that  comes 
from  a  harmful  (foe),  surround  him. 

10.  That  mortal  whose  well-ordered  sacrifice  thou, 
as  the  god,  acceptest,  O  Agni,  as  a  liberal  giver, 
may  his  worship l  be  welcome,  O  youngest  god,  (the 
Hotrz's  work  performed)   for  a  worshipper  whose 
helpers  we  may  be. 

n.  May  he,  the  knowing  one,  distinguish  wisdom 
and  folly  of  mortals  \  like  straight  and  crooked  backs 
(of  horses)2.  And  for  the  sake  of  wealth  and  noble 
offspring,  O  god,  grant  us  Diti  and  keep  off  Acliti3. 

12.  The   undeceived    sages    instructed   the    sage 
(Agni),  setting  him  down  in  the  dwellings  of  Ayu1. 
Hence'  mayst  thou  behold,  O  Agni,  with  thy  eyes2 
these  beings  visible  and  secret  (that  move)  on  the 
Arya's  ways 3. 

13.  Bring  thou,  O  Agni,  youngest  (god),  who  art 
a  good  guide,  a  plentiful,  brilliant  treasure   to  the 
worshipper  who  presses  Soma,  who  serves  thee  and 
toils,  to  help  him,  O  brisk  one,  who  fillest  the  dwell- 
ings of  peoples. 

14*.  And  whatsoever  we  have  done,  O  Agni,  out 


3l8  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


of  devotion  for  thee,  with  our  feet 2,  with  our  hands, 
with  our  bodies :  (in  those  deeds  of  ours)  the  wise 
have  held  up  the  </?*'ta,  aspiring  after  it,  like  those 
who  manage  a  chariot  by  means  of  the  two  pole- 
arms  (?)3. 

15.  And  may  we  be  born  from  the  Dawn,  the 
mother,  as  the  seven  priests1,  as  the  first  worshippers 
among  men 2.    May  we  be  the  Arigiras,  the  sons  of 
Heaven.     May  we  flaming  break  the  rock  which 
contains  the  prize  of  the  contest3. 

1 6.  And  as  our  first,  ancient  fathers,  O  Agin,  were 
aspiring  after  Rita.1 — they  attained  to  pure  devotion2, 
chanting  their  litanies.      Cleaving   the   earth  they 
disclosed  the  red  (cows). 

1 7.  The  pious  men,  well  performing  the  acts  (of 
worship),  resplendent,  melting1  the  generations  of 
the  gods2  like  ore3,  kindling  Agni,  strengthening 
Indra,  went  along4,  besieging  the  stall  of  cows. 

1 8.  He  looked  (on  the  gods)  as  on  herds  of  cattle1 
in  a  rich  (pasture)2,  when  the  generations  of  the 
gods  (were)  near  him,  O  mighty  one3.     After  (the 
generations)    of    the    mortals    the   Urvarfs*  have 
pined,  for  the  growing  strong  of  the  Arya 6,  of  the 
nearer  Ayu 6. 

19.  We  have  done  our  work  for  thee;  we  have 
been  good  workers — the  brilliant  dawns  have  shone 
out  Rha.\ — brightening 2  the  perfect  Agni  who  mani- 
foldly shines  with  fine  splendour,  (brightening)  the 
god's  beautiful  eye. 

20.  We  have  recited  these  hymns  for  thee,  the 
sage,  O  Agni,  worshipper  (of  the  gods)1;   accept 
them !    Blaze  up ;  make  us  wealthier.    Bestow  great 
wealth  on  us,  O  bountiful  one ! 


MANDALA   IV,    HYMN    2.  319 


NOTES. 

The  Rishi  is  Vamadeva,  the  metre  Trish/ubh. — Verse  5  = 
TS.  I,  6,  6,  4;  III,  i,  n,  i  ;  MS.  I,  4,3.  Verse  6  =  TA. 
VI,  2,  i.  Verse  u=TS.  V,  5,  4,  4.  Verse  i6=VS. 
XIX,  69  ;  TS.  II,  6,  12,  4.  Verses  i6-i9  =  AV.  XVIII,  3, 
21-24. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  On  this  use  of  these  infinitives,  comp.  Delbruck, 
Altindische  Syntax,  p.  412. — ManushaA  seems  to  be  gen- 
itive;  comp.  II,  2,  6.  havyci  manusha// ;  II,  2,  8.  hotrabhiA 
.  .  .  manushaA ;  I,  76,  5.  mdnusha/J  havirbhi/*. 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  Comp.  below,  IV,  6,  9. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  As  to  the  horses  of  ^zta,  comp.  above,  III,  6,  6. 
In  spite  of  the  different  accent  there  is  no  doubt  that 
ghrztasnuva,  which  occurs  in  that  verse,  is  the  same  word 
as  ghr/tasnO,  in  our  verse,  a  compound  of  ghrz'ta  with 
a  noun  snu  which  seems  to  be  different  from  sanu,  and 
connected  with  the  root  sna  (cf.  ghrz'tasna,  IV,  6,  9  ;  and 
see  Bechtel,  Hauptprobleme  der  Indogerm.  Lautlehre, 
p.  21 1).  Vralhasnu,  on  the  other  hand,  seems  to  be  no 
compound,  but  an  adjective  formed  like  vadhasnu,  ni- 
shatsmi.  It  is  evident,  however,  that  the  poet  here 
employed  the  two  words  w/dhasmi  and  ghn'tasnu  as 
parallel  expressions. 

Note  2.  Read  martam  (for  mdrtan  ;  gen.  plur.).  Comp. 
below,  verse  n  ;  VI,  47,  16.  visa/i  manushyan,  where  we 
ought  to  read  manushy£m.  See  Lanman,  p.  353  ;  Pischel, 
Vedische  Studien,  I,  p.  44 ;  Bartholomae,  Studien  zur  Indo- 
germanischen  Sprachgeschichte,  I,  p.  48. 


32O  VEDIC    HYMNS. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  '  Could  it  be  Mitram  esham,  the  rapid  Mitra  ?  * 
M.M. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  is,  it  is  rich  in  reward  consisting  in 
cows,  &c. 

Note  2.  The  text  has  asura.  Cf.  H.  O.,  Religion  des 
Veda,  p.  J  64. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  With  the  first  Pada,  comp.  below,  1 2,  2. 

Note  2.  On  svatavan,  see  Benfey,  Vedica  und  Lin- 
guistica,  p.  i  seqq  ;  Lanman,  p.  559  ;  Joh.  Schmidt,  Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift,  XXVI,  p.  357  seq. ;  H.  O.,  Prolegomena, 
p.  471. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  NWshat  is  not  derived,  as  is  the  case  for 
instance  with  &  jishSmahi,  VIII,  24,  i,  from  (ni-)^as  (Grass- 
mann,  Ludwig),  but  from  ni-^a  (Bohtlingk-Roth);  comp. 
VII,  3,  5.  nisisana/i  atithim.  We  must  read,  consequently, 
ni,mat,  formed  like  dadhat  (3rd  sg.  subj.  pres.,  or  possibly 
nom.  sing.  part.  pres.). 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Bohtlingk-Roth  conjecture  harmyd'van  *  im 
Hause,  im  Stall  gehalten.'  It  is  true  that  beasts  may  be 
kept  in  the  harmya;  comp.  VII,  56,  16  ;  X,  106,  5; 
Zimmer,  Altindisches  Leben,  p.  149.  But  I  do  not  think 
that  *  being  kept  in  the  harmya '  could  be  expressed  by 
harmya-vat.  Hemyavat  seems  to  be  derived  from  the 
root  hi,  and  to  have  the  same  meaning  as  a^uheman  ;  such 
a  word  very  well  fits  into  a  phrase  referring  to  a  swift 
horse.  Hemy£vat  stands  to  heman  in  the  same  relation 
as  omy£vat  tc  omdn.  All  this  was  pointed  out  first  by 
Ludwig  (vol.  iv,  p.  22). 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  Literally  the  Hotrfs  work  (performed  for  such 
a  Ya£am£na). 


M  AMD  ALA    IV,    HYMN    2.  321 


Verse  11. 

Note  1.  I  read  martdfn  (gen.  plur.) ;  comp.  above,  verse 
3,  note  z.  It  is  possible,  however,  to  leave  the  text  un- 
changed ;  in  this  case  the  translation  would  be :  '  May  he, 
the  knowing  one,  distinguish  wisdom  and  folly,  the  (wise 
and  foolish)  mortals  like  straight  and  crooked  backs  (of 
horses).' 

Note  2.  Comp.  vitdpr/sh/Aa, '  straight-backed/  a  frequent 
epithet  of  horses. 

Note  3.  For  Prof.  Max  Miiller's  interpretation  of  this 
passage,  comp.  vol.  xxxii,  p.  256.  See  also  Bergaigne,  ReL 
V6dique,  III,  97  ;  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  297  seq.  It 
is  very  strange  that  the  poet  should  ask  the  god  to  keep  off 
Aditi  (comp.  I,  152,  6.  dditim  urushyet)  who  must  here  be 
considered,  consequently,  as  a  malevolent  deity.  I  think  that 
this  conception  of  Aditi  is  derived  from  the  idea  of  this 
goddess  as  punishing  sin ;  it  is  the  same  goddess  who  may 
free  the  sinner  from  the  bonds  of  sin  and  who  may  fetter 
and  destroy  him.  Keeping  off  Aditi  seems  to  mean,  con- 
sequently, removing  from  the  mortal  the  danger  of  being 
bound  by  the  fetters  of  sin  ;  the  idea  is  the  same  as  above 
in  IV,  i,  5,  where  Agni  is  invoked  to  make  Varu«a,  the  son 
of  Aditi,  go  away  (comp.  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  p.  336, 
note  i).  In  that  case  granting  Diti  would  mean  granting 
freedom  from  those  same  fetters.  (On  Diti,  who  veiy 
appropriately  has  been  called  a  mere  reflex  of  Aditi,  see 
M.  M.,  loc.  cit. ;  Bergaigne,  III,  97  seq.) 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  On  Ayu,  the  mythical  ancestor  of  the  human 
race,  see  Bergaigne,  Religion  Wdique,  I,  p.  59  seq. 

Note  2.  On  parfbhfA,  comp.  Pischel,  Ved.  Studien,  I,  228 
se.q. ;  Bartholomae,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XV,  3  seq. ; 
Bloanifield,  Contributions  to  the  Interpretation  of  the  Vedt , 
Second  Series,  p.  32  seq.  (American  Journal  of  Philology, 
XI,  350  seq.).  I  believe  that  in  our  verse  padbhi/i  should 
be  derived  from  a  noun  p£r,  and  translated, c  with  thy  eyes,' 
[46]  Y 


322  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


while  in  verse    14  we  ought  to   read   padbhi//,   and   to 
translate, '  with  the  feet/ 

Note  3.  Pischel  (Ved.  Studien,  I,  229,  note  i)  believes 
that  arydA  is  nom.  sing.,  referring  to  Agni.  But  compare 
VI,  51,  2.  rig\\  mdrteshu  vrigm£  £a  pa^yan  abhi  £ash/e 
sfira^  arya^  £vdn.  This  verse  makes  it  very  probable 
that  arya>&  is  a  genitive  dependent  on  ^vai//,  £van  ('  behold- 
ing right  and  wrong  deeds  among  the  mortals,  the  Sun 
looks  upon  the  Arya's  ways').  On  the  stem  arf,  'the  Arya,' 
see  Pischel,  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft,  XL,  p.  125. 

Verse  14. 

Note  1.  This  verse  has  been  commented  upon  by  Pischel, 
Ved.  Studien,  I,  229  seq. 

Note  2.  On  parfbhf//  or  rather  padbhf/z,  comp.  verse  12, 
note  2. 

Note  3,  Tn  translating  bhur(f  I  have  followed,  though 
not  without  doubt,  the  theory  of  Pischel,  Ved.  Studien, 
I,  239  seq. — Pischel  seems  to  be  right  in  making  rti£m 
depend  both  on  yemu^  (comp.  IV,  23, 10)  arid  on  <Ls\ish&n<i& 
(comp.  above,  IV,  i,  13,  and  below,  verse  16). 

Verse  15. 

Note  1.  The  seven  jRishis  or  Angiras,  the  sons  of  Heaven 
aod  the  Davyn  (cf.  above  i,  16). 

Note  2.  nnfti  (or  rather  nrt'm)  is  genitive  plural.  See 
Lanman,  p.  430 ;  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  p.  42. 

Note  3.  Here  we  have  again  the  seven  ^shis  breaking 
the  mountain  in  which  the  cows  were  imprisoned. 

Verse  16. 

Note  1.  The  apodosis  is  wanting.  As  verse  15  shows, 
tne  meaning  is:  As  our  fathers  have  done  their  mighty 
deeds,  aspiring  after  Rite,  thus  may  we  do  the  same. 

Note  2.  Suktt  (Padap.  sbki  ft)  possibly  stands  for  shklm 
ft;  cf.  Roth,  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft,  XLVIII,  p.  680.  Or  may  we  correct  sukl  ft ... 


M  AND  ALA.    IV,    HYMN    2.  323 

dfdhiti  (instr.  sing.),  'they  went  along  in  pure  devotion'? 
Ditihiti  seems  to  be  what  is  called  in  III,  31,  J ;  IX,  102, 
i.  <S,  r/tasya  dfdhitiA. 

Verse  17. 

Note  1.  See  Zimmer,  Altindisches  Leben,  p.  252. 

Note  2.  Evidently  the  pious  men,  not  the  gods,  form  the 
subject.  I  propose  to  read,  therefore,  deveim  (gen.  plur.) 
^vinima  ;  cf.  verse  18  devanam  "yat  ^anima.  They  kindle 
Agni ;  they  strengthen  Indra :  in  short,  they  treat  the 
divine  people  as  the  smith  treats  the  metaL 

Note  3.  I  do  not  enter  here  upon  the  archaeological 
question  as  to  the  meaning  of  aya/*.  Comp.  on  this  much- 
discussed  question  especially  Max  Miiller,  Biographies  of 
Words,  p.  252  seq. ;  Schrader,  Sprachvergleichung  und 
Urgeschichte  (2nd  ed.),  p.  271  seq.;  von  Bradke,  Methode 
der  arischcn  Alterthumswissenschaft,  p.  93  seq. 

Note  4.  Cf.  X,  61,  13.  parishadvana//  agman. 

Verse  18. 

Note  1.  Pasva/t  is  gfcnitive  sing. ;  it  depends  on  yuthci. 
Cf.  V,  31,  i  ;  VI,  19  3, 

Note  2.  There  is  no  reason  for  taking,  as  Lanman 
(p.  516)  does,  kshumati  as  ace.  plur.  neut,  which  would 
be  kshuma'nti.  See  Joh.  Schmidt,  Pluralbildungen  der  In- 
dogermanischen  Neutra,  p.  237  ;  Bartholomae,  Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift,  XXIX,  p.  493.  Bartholomae  translates,  *  bei 
einem  wolhabenden.' 

Note  3.  Is  this  vocative  ugra  right  ?  It  would  be  easy  to 
correct,  with  Ludwig,  ugra  ('  when  the  mighty  generations 
of  the  gods  were  near  him ')  or  ugra//,  as  suggested  by 
Delbruck  (Grassmann's  Translation,  vol.  i,  p.  573):  'the 
mighty  one  (Agni)  looked  on  them/  &c. 

Note  4.  I  believe  that  Geldner  (Ved.  Studien,  I,  260, 
note  i)  is  right  in  contending  that  Urvajf,  wherever  it 
occurs,  is  the  name  of  an  Apsaras  and  nothing  else.  The 
name  of  Ayu,  occurring  in  the  fourth  Pada,  confirms  this; 
for  Ayu,  as  is  well  known,  is  the  son  of  Pururavas  and  of 
the  nymph  Urva^i.  Geldner  translates,  'Selbst  mit  den 

Y  2 


324  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


Sterblichen  hatten  die  Urvarfs  Mitleid/  But  I  do  not 
think  that  kr/p  means  'having  compassion/  In  my 
opinion  we  should,  with  Ludwig,  supply  ^animd  to  mdr- 
t£n&m,  so  that  dev£ndm  ^inimd  in  the  second  P&da 
corresponds  with  mart&nslm  (gammS)  in  the  third.  This 
finimSi  is  an  accusative  which  depends  on  akr/pran  ('  they 
pined  after  ....,'  cf.  IX,  85,  u.  n£ke  supar^dm  upapapti- 
v&Ksam  gfraA  ven£n4m  akr/panta  pflrvi'A;'  X,  74,  3.  y£ 
krVpdwanta  ratnam).  Thus  the  meaning  seems  to  be: 
When  the  cows  had  been  conquered,  and  when  Agni  looked 
over  the  generations  of  the  gods  that  were  near  him,  the 
Urvarfs,  i.  e.  the  Apsarases  such  as  Urva,rf,  longed  for  the 
love  of  mortals  such  as  Purflravas,  and  for  the  propagation 
of  the  human  generations ;  they  gave  birth  to  children  such 
as  Ayu. 

Note  5.  Or  '  of  the  indigent '  ?  Or  is  arya//  nom.  plur. 
fern,  referring  to  the  Urvarfs  ?  Or  nom.  sing.  masc.  refer- 
ring to  Agni  ? 

Note  6.  On  Ayu,  see  note  4.  But  I  cannot  tell  why  he 
is  called  the  nearer  Ayu.  Is  this  nearer  Ayu  opposed,  as 
a  nearer  or  later  (lipara)  ancestor,  to  the  pitaraA  pardsa/z 
pratnasa^,  the  Arigiras,  mentioned  in  verse  16?  The  same 
nearer  Ayu  (lipara  which  stands  there  in  t  opposition  to 
pflrvfibhiA)  is  mentioned  also  in  I,  104,  4,  connected,  as  it 
seems,  with  some  Apsarases.  I  do  not  pretend  to  be  able 
to  interpret  that  very  difficult  verse,  but  I  am  convinced 
that  it  has  been  misinterpreted  both  by  Roth  (Siebenzig 
Lieder,  p.  vii)  and  by  Bergaigne  (I,  60). 

Verse  19. 

Note  1.  I.  e.  the  dawns  have  sent  forth  their  shine,  which 
is  a  visible  manifestation  of  the  eternal  law  of  /?/ta. 

Note  2.  The  construction  is :  we  have  been  good  workers, 
brightening  &c.  The  words,  'the  brilliant  dawns  have 
shone  out  <£zta,'  are  a  parenthesis. 

Verse  20. 

Note  L  The  text  is  nearly  identical  with  the  first  hemi- 
stich of  I,  73,  10  (see  above). 


MAtf/)ALA    IV,    HYMN    3.  325 

MAM9ALA  IV,  HYMN  3. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  4,  VARGA  20-22. 

1.  Draw   Rudra  hither  for  your  protection1,  the 
king  of  sacrifice,  the  truly  sacrificing  Hotri  of  the 
two  worlds 2,  the  golden-coloured  Agni,  before  the 
unseen  thunderbolt  (strikes  you). 

2.  This  is  the  home  which  we  have  prepared  for 
thee  as  a  well-dressed,  loving  wife  (prepares  the 
marriage-bed)  for  her  husband1.     Directed  hither- 
ward,  dressed  (in  offerings  and  prayers  ?)2  sit  down. 
These    (sacrificial   ladles  or   prayers  ?)    are   turned 
towards  thee,  O  most  skilful  one 3 ! 

3.  To  him  who  hears  us,  who  is  not  proud,  who 
beholds  men,  to  the  merciful,  immortal  god  recite 
a  prayer,  O  v/orshipper,  a  hymn — (to  Agni)  whom 
the  presser  (of  Soma),  the  Madhu-presser,  magnifies 
like  the  pressing-stone  T. 

4.  Thou  who  art  well-intentioned,  give  heed  to 
this  our  toiling *,  to  this  Rite,  *,  O  observer  of  Rite.  \ 
When  will  our  hymns  share  in  thy  rejoicings  ?   When 
will  our  friendship  dwell  in  thy  house  ? 

5.  How  wilt  thou,  O  Agni,  before  Varuwa,  and 
how   wilt   thou,  and  which    sin  of  ours  wilt   thou 
blame   before  Dyaus  ?     How   wilt  thou   speak   to 
bountiful  Mitra,  to  the   Earth  ?     What  .(wilt  thou 
say)  to  Aryaman,  to  Bhaga  ? 

6.  What  wilt  thou  say,  O  Agni,  when  thou  hast 
grown  strong  on  the  Dhish#ya  altars1  ?     What  to 
strong  Vita  who  goes  forward  in  triumph  2  ?     To 
the  Ndsatya  3  who  goes  round  the  earth  4,  to  .  .  . a  ? 
What,  O  Agni,  to  Rudra,  the  man-killer  ? 


32*6  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


7.  How  (wilt  thou  speak)  to  great  PQshan  who 
brings  prosperity  ?     What  (wilt  thou  say)  to  martial 
Rudra,  the  giver  of  offerings1  ?     What  sin2  wilt  thou 
announce  to  wide-ruling  Vishnu,  what,  O  Agni,  to 
the  mighty  weapon  (of-ttre  gods)  ? 

8.  How  wilt  thou  answer,  when  thou  art  asked, 
to  the  righteous l  host  of  the  Maruts  ?     How  to  the 
mighty   Sun,    to    the    quick    Aditi 2  ?      Accomplish 
thy  work,  O    G£tavedas,   thou   who   knowest 
Heaven ! 

9.  I  magnify l  the  Rite  of  the  cow  *  ruled  by 
and   also  by  the  raw  one3,  the  honey-sweet,  ripe 
(milk),   O  Agni.     Though   being  black   this  (cow) 
swells  of  bright  drink,  of ...  4  milk. 

10.  With  RI\SL  indeed,  with  the  milk  of  the  back  \ 
the  bull  has  been  anointed,  Agni  the  man.     Without 
trembling  he  moved  OP  bestowjjig  his  vigour.     The 
speckled  bull  has  poured  out  his  bright  ucldcr ;. 

ii  l.  By  the  Rita,  the  Arigiras  have  broken  the 
rock  and  cleft  it  asunder ;  they .  have  shouted' 
together  with  the  cows.  Prosperously  the  men 
have  surrounded2  the  Dawn.  The  Sun  appeared 
when  Agni  (the  fire)  had  been  born  •". 

12.  By  the  Rita,  the  immortal,  uninjured1  god- 
desses, the  Waters,  O  Agni,  with  their  honey-sweet 
waves  have  sped  forward 2  for  ever  to  flow  (along 
their  course),  like  a  racer  incited  by  shouting  when 
(the  race-horses)  are  let  loose. 

13.  Go  never  on  thy  crooked  way  to  the  spirit 
(which  avenges  the  guilt)  of  anybody1,  of  a  vassal 
who  has  trespassed,  or  nf  a  friend.     Require  not  (of 
us)  a  sinful  brothers  debt2.     May  we  not  have  to 
suffer  under  the  spirit  which  avenges  a  friend's  or 
a  (hostile)  deceivers  guilt3. 


MAMDALA   IV,    HYMN    3.  327 

14.  Protect  us,  O  Agni,  with  all  thy  protection, 
thou  who  art  protected,  O   martial  one  \  and  art 
gladdened  (by  us).     Sparkle  forth,  and  destroy  even 
strong  evil !     Slay  the  Rakshas  even  though  it  has 
grown  large. 

15.  Be   gracious,    O    Agni,    through    these    our 
hymns.     Touch,  O  hero,  this  wealth  moved  by  our 
prayers.     And  accept,  O  Angiras,  our  sacred  words. 
May  the  praise,  beloved  by  the  gods,  resound  to 
thee l. 

1 6.  I,    the   priest,    have   rehearsed    to   thee   the 
omniscient  one,  O  Agni,  worshipper  (of  the  gods), 
all  these  songs,  these  inmost  words,  these  recitations 
and  words  of  wisdom,  to   thee  the  wise  one,  with 
prayers  and  hymns. 


NOTES. 

The  same -AJ/shi  and  metre. — Verse  i  =  SV.  I,  69;  TS. 
I,  3,  M,  i  ;  TB.  II,  8,  6,  9  ;  MS.  IV,  u,  4-  Verse  6  = 
MS.  IV,  11,4. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  On  the  identification  of  Agni  with  Rudra,  comp. 
Bergaigne,  Rel.  Vedique, III,  36 ;  von  Bradke,  Dyaus  Asura, 
p.  54  (Rig-veda  I,  27,  10;  III,  2,  5;  VIII,  72,  3). 

Note  2.  The  secbnd  Pdda  of  this  versfc  is  identical  with 
VI,  16,  46. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Cf.  Hirzel,  Gleichnisse  und  Metaphern  im  Rig- 
veda,  p.  69. 

Note  2.  On  pdrivitaA  SAyawa  remarks,  yash/avyadevais 
te^-obhir  va  parivita//.  In  the  commentary  on  I,  i:  8,  T,  on 
the  other  hand,  he  says,  r/tvigbhi//  paridhibhir  va  parito 
vesh/ita/z. 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


Note  3.  I  take  su-apAka  as  a  compound  of  su  and  a-p£ka 
(comp.  V&£.  Sawh.  XX,  44  =  Taitt.  Br.  II,  6,  8,  4  =  Maitr. 
Sa/#h.  Ill,  n,  i,  where  Tvashtri  is  called  ap&kdA).  In 
Rig-veda  VT,  1 1 ,  4  we  read  :  ddidyutat  sii  dpdka>6  vibh£v£  ; 
in  VI,  12,  2.  A  ydsmin  tv^  sii  dpdke  ya^tra,  &c.  Should 
we  not  correct  in  both  passages  suapdkaA,  suapdke  ? 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  pressing-stone  (grfivan)  is  frequently  con- 
sidered as  speaking,  as  praising  the  gods.  Cf.  Hillebrandt, 
Vedische  Mythologie,  I,  p.  152  sq. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  Padapd/^a  has  jdmyai.  I  think  it  should 
be  simySiA. 

Note  2.  I.  e.  to  this  sacrifice,  which  is  considered  as  one 
of  the  chief  manifestations  of  Rita.  See  H.  O.,  Religion 
des  Veda,  p.  197. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  At  the  Soma  sacrifice  fire  burns  on  eight  altars 
called  Dhish#ya ;  see  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  X,  pp.  366, 

375- 
Note  2.  See  vol.  xxxii,  p.  164. 

Note  3.  This  is  the  only  passage  in  the  Rig-veda  in 
which  n&satya  occurs  in  the  singular. 

Note  4.  On  pdri^-man,  cf.  abdve,  I,  79,  3  note. 

Note  6.  Ksh£  (cf.  Lanman,  pp.  440, 448,534)  is  evidently 
corrupt.  But  neither  Bollensen's  conjecture,  uksh»^  nor 
those  of  Ludwig  (£akshe,  yakshe),  carry  conviction. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  It  is  very  strange  to  find  Rudra  here  desig- 
nated as  'giver  of  offerings/  But  it  seems  too  bold 
to  explain  haviA-d^  as  a  dative  of  havi//-dd  (c  eater  of 
offerings '). 

Note  2.  I  read  with  Grassmann  r£pa£  ('sin')  for  reta>i 
(*  sperm '). 


MA^DALA  IV,   HYMN   3.  329 


Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  text  has  r*t£ya,  used  as  an  adjective  (see 
Bergaigne,  Rel.  V&lique,  III,  216). 

Note  2.  Aditi  is  masculine  and  seems  to  be  an  epithet 
('  unrestrained,  free ')  of  the  Sun.  Cf.  vol.  xxxii,  p.  262  ; 
Bergaigne,  III,  92.  Probably  at  the  same  time  the  word 
is  intended  to  allude  to  the  goddess  Aditi. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  The  text  has  i/e,  on  which  Ludwig  says, '  so  viel 
wie  ni/e/  1/e  of  course  cannot  be  the  same  as  ni/e,  but 
should  we  not  conjecture  ni/6?  Cf.  above,  IV,  i,  n». 
vr/shabhasya  ni/6,  and  IV,  i,  12.  rztdsya  y6na  v/7*shabhasya 
ni/d.  The  translation  would  be,  'By  Rita,  the  Rita,  is 
restrained  in  the  nest  of  the  cow/ 

Note  2.  The  c  Rita,  of  the  cow/  if  the  reading  is  correct 
(see  note  i)r  seems  to  be  the  milk. 

Note  3.  The  '  raw  one '  is  the  cow  as  opposed  to  the  ripe 
milk. 

Note  4.  The  meaning  of  ^iCmarya  (&ra£  Aiyo/mcpop)  is 
unknown.  Cf.  Bergaigne,  II,  398,  note  i.  S£ya«a  reads 
g$i  amarye^a.  *  I  should  prefer  ^3  amartyena/  M.  M. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  Does  this  mean,  with  the  milk  that  comes  from 
the  ridge  of  heaven  ?  Cf.  IV,  20,  4.  sam  andhas£  mamadaA 
pr/shMyena. 

Note  2.  This  P&da  seems  to  be  an  imitation  of  VI,  66,  i, 
where  Prism  ('the  speckled  one')  is  the  mother  of  the 
Maruts :  sak/-/t  jukrdm  duduhe  prisnlA  fldha^.  See  vol. 
xxxii,  p.  368. 

Verse  1L 

Note  1.  Here  we  have  again  the  same  myth  of  -he 
Ahgiras  and  the  cows,  to  which  so  many  allusions  are  found 
in  the  preceding  hymns. 

Note  2.  The  red  cows  of  the  myth  are  the  dawns ;  the 


33°  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Ahgiras  besiege  the  stronghold  in  which  these  cows  are 
imprisoned. 

Note  3.  On  the  kindling  of  the  fire  as  a  charm  by  which 
the  sun  is  made  to  rise,  see  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda, 
p.  109  seq.  The  Angiras  kindle  the  fire  for  performing 
their  sacrifice ;  thereby  they  make  the  sun  rise. 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  The  same  epithet  is  applied  to  the  waters  also 
in  X,  104,  8. 

Note  2.  The  optative  dadhanyu//  is  very  strange:  Pro- 
bably we  ought  to  read  dadhanvu/i. 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  seems  to  be  that  Agni  is  requested 
not  to  turn  against  the  sacrifice!*  a  spirit  which  has  to 
avenge  the  guilt  committed  by  a  third  person.  '  Why  not 
read  ya^/Zam  ?  Go  not  secretly  to  anybody's  sacrifice,  not 
of  a  hostile  house,  not  of  a  friend.  Do  not  require  (of  us) 
a  sinful  brother's  debt.  •  May  we  not  feel  the  might  of 
friend  or  foe.1  M.  M. 

Note  2.  Geldner  (Ved.  Studien  II,  1^7)  translates  and 
interprets :  *  tilge  nicht,  O  Agni,  die  Schulcl  cincs  falschen 
Bruders,'  namlich  die  Schuld  an  die  Manen,  also  dem  Sinn 
nach  *  mache  ihn  kinderlos.'  This  is  quite  unacceptable. 

Note  3.  The  text  is  evidently  corrupt.  I  propose  to 
read  :  m£  sakhyu^  yaksham  ma  ripo//  bhu^cma.  Comp.  V5 
70,  4.  mci  kasya  adbhutakratu  yaksham  bhu^ema  tanifbhi//. 

Verse  14. 

Note  1.  I  cannot  adopt  Bergaigne's  opinion  on 
(Quarante  Hymnes,  p.  75). 

Verse  15. 
Note  1.  Or,  awake  for  thee. 


MAJVDALA    IV,    HYMN   4.  33! 

MANDALA   IV,   HYMN    4. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  4,  VARGA  23-25. 

1.  Produce   thy   stream  of  flames  like  a  broad 
onslaught.     Go  forth   impetuous  like  a  king  with 
his    elephant1;  .  .  .  *  after   thy   greedy   onslaught, 
thou  art  an  archer  ;    shoot  the  sorcerers  with  thy 
hottest  (arrows). 

2.  Thy  whirls  fly  quickly.     Fiercely  flaming  touch 
(them).     O  Agni,  (send  forth)  with  the  ladle l  thy 
heat,  thy  winged  (flames) ;  send  forth  unfettered  thy 
firebrands  all  around. 

3.  Being  the  quickest,  send  forth  thy  spies  against 
(all  evildoers).     Be  an  undeceivable  guardian  of  this 
clan.     He  who  attacks  us  with  evil  spells,  far  or 
near,  may  no  such  (foe)  defy  thy  track. 

4.  Rise   up,  O    Agni  !    Spread   out   against   (all 
foes) !     Burn  down  the  foes,  O  (god)  with  the  sharp 
weapon  !     When  kindled,  O  Agni,  burn  down  like 
dry   brushwood,    the    man    who    exercises    malice 
against  us. 

5.  Stand  upright,  strike  (the  foes)  away  from  us  ! 
Make    manifest    thy    divine    (powers),    O    Agni ! 
Unbend   the   strong    (bows)    of    those    who    incite 
demons  (against  us)1.     Crush  all  enemies,  be  they 
relations  or  strangers. 

6.  He  knows  thy  favour,  O  youngest  one,  who 
makes  a  way  for  a  sacred  speech  like  this.     Mayst 
thou  beam  forth  to  his  doors  all  auspicious  days 
and  the  wealth  and  the  splendour  of  the  niggard. 

7.  Let  him,   O  Agni,  be  fortunate  and  blessed 
with  good  rain,  who  longs  to"  gladden  thee  with 


332  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


constant  offerings  and  hymns  through  his  life  in  his 
house.  May  such  longing  ever  bring  auspicious 
days  to  him, 

8.  I  praise  thy  favour  ;  it  resounded  here.     May 
this  song  (which  is  like)  a  favourite  wife,  awaken  for 
thee l.     Let  us  brighten  thee,  being  rich  in  horses 
and  chariots.     Mayst  thou  maintain  our  knightly 
power  day  by  day. 

9.  May  (the  worshipper)  here  frequently  of  his 
own  accord  approach  thee,  O  (god)  who  shinest  in 
darkness1,  resplendent  day  by  day.     Let  us  worship 
thee  sporting  and  joyous,  surpassing  the  splendour 
of  (other)  people. 

10.  Whoever,  rich  in   horses   and   rich  in  gold, 
approaches  thee,  O  Agni,  with   his  chariot  full  of 
wealth — thou  art  the  protector  and  the  friend  of  him 
who  always  delights  in  showing  thee  hospitality. 

11.  Through    my   kinship   (with    thee)    I    break 
down  the  great  (foes)  by  my  words  *.     That  (kin- 
ship) has  come  down  to  me  from  my  father  Gotama. 
Be  thou  attentive  to  this  our  word,  O  youngest, 
highly  wise  Hotrz,  as  the  friend  of  our  house. 

12.  May  those  guardians  of  thine,  infallible  Agni, 
sitting  down  together  protect  us,  the  never  sleeping, 
onward-pressing,  kind,  unwearied  ones,  who  keep  off 
the  wolf,  who  never  tire. 

131.  Thy  guardians,  O  Agni,  who  seeing  have 
saved  the  blind  son  of  Mamatd  from  distress — He 
the  possessor  of  all  wealth  has  saved  them  who 
have  done  good  deeds.  The  impostors,  though 
trying  to  deceive,  could  not  deceive. 

14.  In  thy  companionship  we  dwell,  protected  by 
thee.  Under  thy  guidance  let  us  acquire  gain. 
Accomplish  both  praises1,  O  (thou  who  art  the) 


MAtfDALA    IV,    HYMN   4.  333 

truth!     Do  so  by  thy  present   power,  O  fearless 
one! 

15.  May  we  worship  thee,  O  Agni,  with  this  log 
of  wood.  Accept  the  hymn  of  praise  which  we 
recite.  Burn  down  those  who  curse  us,  the 
sorcerers.  Protect  us,  O  (god)  who  art  great  like 
Mitra,  from  guile,  from  revilement,  and  from  dis- 
grace. 

NOTES. 

The  hymn  is  addressed  to  Agni  Rakshohan,  The  same 
jRtshi  and  metre. — Verses  i-i5=TS.  I,  2,  14,  1-6 ;  MS. 
IV,  u,  5.  Verses  1-5= VS.  XIII,  9-13;  MS.  II,  7, 15. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  On  {bhena,  cf.  Pischel-Geldner,  Vedische  Studien, 
I,  p.  xv. 

Note  2.  The  meaning  of  drQ^naA,  which  evidently  should 
be  pronounced  drun£n£A  (H.O.,  Prolegomena,  p.  478),  is 
uncertain.  This  verb  is  stated  to  occur  still  in  one  other 
passage,  Maitr.  Sawh.  U,  4,  2.  tad  ya  eva#z  vidvdnt  sur&m 
pibati  na  hainaw  drftwdti  (dru;*£ti,  two  MSS.).  But  should 
we  not  read  there  hrun&ti  ?  [And  possibly  in  our  passage, 
as  Prof.  Max  Miiller  observes,  hru»4n£A  ?] 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On^uhvd,  see  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  II,  113. 
Wherever  butter  is  poured  out  with  the  ladle,  the  flames 
arise. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  third  P£da  is  identical  with  X,  1 16,  5  b. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Or  '  resound  to  thee '  (sdm  ^areta).  Cf.  above, 
3,  15.  Shall  we  read,  in  consideration  of  this  parallel 


334  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


passage,  sam  devdvdtA  ^aratam  iyam  g\'/i  (*  may  this  song 
beloved  by  the  gods  resound  '  or  '  awaken ')  ? 

Verse  9. 
Note  1.  On  doshavasta/z,  see  above,  I,  i,  7,  note  i. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  I  have  taken  maha/i  as  ace.  plural.  If  it  is  gen. 
singular,  the  translation  will  be  :  '  Through  my  kinship  with 
the  great  (Agni)  I  break  down  (my  foes)  by  my  words.' 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  This  verse  is  identical  with  I,  147,  3.  See  the 
notes  there.  The  original  place  of  this  verse  seems  to  be 
in  the  first  Ma;#/ala,  because  it  mentions  Mamateya. 

Verse  14. 

Note  1.  Probably  the  praise  or  song  of  the  gods  and  of 
men.  See  vol.  xxxii,  p.  439. 


MA^DAL'A  iv,  HYMN  5.  335 


MAAf/JALA  IV,  HYMN  5. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  1-3. 

1.  How  may  we  unanimously  offer  mighty  light1 
to  bountiful  Agni   Vaisvanara  ?     With  his  mighty 
perfect  growth  he  supports  the  high  bank2  like  a 
pillar. 

2.  Do  not  reproach  Him,  the  self-dependent  one, 
who  has  given  this  bounty  to  me,  the  god  to  the 
mortal,  the  clever  one  to  the  simple,  the  wise  im- 
mortal, the  most  manly,  restless l  Agni  Vaisvanara. 

3.  Agni,  the  sharp-pointed,  the  mighty  bull  with 
thousandfold  sperm,  has  proclaimed  to  me  the  great, 
doubly-powerful  \  Saman,  the  prayer,  having  found, 
as  it  were,  the  hidden  track  of  a  cow 2. 

4.  May  Agni,  he  who  is  rich  in  wealth,  whose 
teeth   are  sharp,  consume  with  his  hottest  flames 
those  who  violate  the  laws  founded  by  Varu;/a,  the 
beloved,  firm  (laws)  of  attentive  Mitra. 

51..  They  who  roam  about  like  brotherless  girls2, 
of  evil  conduct  like  women  who  deceive  their  hus- 
bands, being  wicked,  sinful,  and  untrue — they  have 
created  for  themselves  this  deep  place3. 

6.  On   me,  however   small,  but   innocent,   thou> 
O  purifying  Agni,  hast  fiercely  placed  this  mighty, 
deep,  vigorous  prayer,   like   a  heavy  burden,  this 
Pnsh/fa1,  consisting  of  seven  elements2'. 

7.  Let  our  prayer  which  purifies  Him,  through 
the  power  of  mind  (inherent  in  it),  reach  Him  who 
is  the  common  (property  of  all  men)  alike,  the  good 
(name  ?)  of  Pmni  on  the  skin  of  the  herbs,  on  the. 
summit  of  the  .  .  -1. 


336  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


8.  What  should  be  openly  uttered  by  me  of  this 
speech  ?     They   secretly  speak  of  that  which    is 
hidden1.     When  they  have  uncovered,  as  it  were, 
the  water  of  the   cows2,  he  guards   the   beloved 
summit  of  the  . .  .8,  the  footstep  of  the  bird4. 

9.  He  has  found  in  secret  that  great  face  of  the 
great  ones  which   the   bright  cow   accompanied1, 
the  ancienU(face)  shining  in  the  abode  of  JRtta*  the 
quickly  running,  quickly  moving. 

10.  And  resplendent  near  his  parents  (Heaven 
and   Earth),  in  their  presence,  he  thought  of  the 
secret,  good   (name  ?)  of  Prisni.      The  tongue  of 
the  manly,  forward-bent  flame  (seized)  that  which 
was  near  at  hand  in  the  highest  abode  of  the  mother, 
the  cow l. 

11.  I  speak,  when  being  asked,  J?/ta  (i.e.  truth), 
out  of  reverence  (for  Agni,  or  for  the  gods),  out  of 
hope1  placed  in  thee,  O  G&tavedas,  as  I  am  here2. 
Thou  rulest  over  all  this  wealth  whatever  (dwells) 
in  heaven  and  earth. 

1 2.  Which  of  this  wealth  is  ours,  what  treasure  ? 
Mayst  thou  who   knowest   it  declare   to   us    (that 
treasure),  O  6&tavedas !    What  is  the  highest  (aim) 
of  this  our  w^y,  is   hidden.     We  have  not  come 
scolding  to  an  empty  (P)1  place. 

I31.  What  is  the  limit,  what  the  objects  ?  What 
pleasant  (wealth)  may  we  obtain  as  swift  (horses 
gain)  the  prize  ?  When  will  the  Dawns,  the  divine 
consorts  of  the  immortal,  expand  over  us  with  the 
sun's  splendour  ? 

14.  And  what  do  those  insatiable  ones  here  say, 
O  Agni,  with  their  sapless,  feeble,  weak  speech  that 
has  to  be  listened  to  ?  Let  them  unarmed  fall  into 
nothingness.  ' 


MAA7)ALA    IV,    HYMN    5.  337 

15.  The  face  of  this  kindled,  manly  Vasu  has 
shone  gloriously  in  the  house.  Clothed  in  brilliancy, 
with  his  shape  beautiful  to  behold,  the  bountiful  has 
shone  like  a  house l  with  its  wealth. 


NOTES. 

The  hymn  is  addressed  to  Vawv&nara.  The  same  Rishi 
and  metre. — No  verse  occurs  in  the  other  Sa*«hit£s. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Cf.  especially  I,  45,  8  (above,  p.  42).  brihit 
bb&A  bfbhrataA  havf/4. 

Note  2.  Cf.  vol.  xxxii,  p.  93  (I,  38,  I  j,  note  2). 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  See  above,  I,  36,  i,  note  2. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Dvibarh£A  is  neuter.  See  Lanman,  p.  560  ;  Joh. 
Schmidt,  Pluralbildungen  der  Indogermanischen  Neutra, 
p.  132. 

Note  2.  Agni  has  discovered  the  S^rnan  which  he  pro- 
claims to  the  mortal,  like  the  track  of  a  lost  cow. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  See  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  p.  539. 

Note  2.  Abhr£tara>i  cannot  be  accusative  plural  fern.,  as 
Zimmer  (Altindisches  Leben,  p.  419)  seems  to  take  it. 
The  correct  interpretation  has  been  given  by  Pischel, 
Vedische  Studien,  I,  p.  299. 

Note3.  I.e.  hell. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  In  the  younger  Vedic  ritual  certain  Stotras  are 
technically  designated  as  p/Vsh///a  or  '  backs '  of  the  liturgies 

[46]  z 


338  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


(see,  for  instance,  Weber,  Indische  Studien,  X,  385).  Does 
the  word  stand  here  in  the  same  sense?  Or  should  we 
correct  preshf/tam  ? 

Note  2.  The  seven  tones  of  the  scale  ? 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  This  passage  is  obscure.  The  text  runs  thus  : 
sasasya  barman  adhi  k£ru  pr/jneA  igre  rupa/i  arupitam 
(frupitam  Sawhitapa/Aa)  ^iblru.  As  to  the  first  words, 
see  III,  5,  6.  To  ££ru  possibly  a  noun  like  naVna  should 
be  supplied  (cf.  below,  verse  10).  The  last  Pada  (cf. 
above,  III,  5,  5,  note  i)  is  simply  untranslateable. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Of  the  milk  alluded  to  in  the  third  Pada  ?— On 
ni/ifk,  cf.  Lanman,  p.  436;  Joh.  Schmidt,  Pluralbildungen 
der  Indogerm.  Neutra,  p.  397. 

Note  2.  The  water  of  the  cows  is  the  milk,  cf.  X,  12,  3. 
Roth  (Zeitschr.  der  D.  Morgenl.  Gesellschaft,  XLVIII, 
682)  :  als  sie  den  Schatz  der  Kiihe  entdeckt  batten  (var 
iva=varam  iva). 

Note  3.  RupaA  dgram. 

Note  4.  Comp.  above,  III,  5,  5  with  note  I ;  III,  5,  6, 
note  2. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  The  sun,  the  face  of  the  great  gods  (cf.  1, 1 15,  i), 
accompanied  by  the  dawn  ? 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  Is  the  meaning  of  all  this  that  Agni,  shining  on 
the  altar  between  heaven  and  earth,  desires,  and  consumes 
rith  his  flames,  the  oblation  of  butter  which  has  its  home 
in  the  udder  of  the  cow  ? 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  On  ajasa,  see  Lanman,  p.  499  seq. ;  Bartholomae 
fndogcrmanische  Forschungen,  1, 182  seq. ;  Bechtel,  Haupt- 


M AM) ALA   IV,    HYMN    5.  339 


probleme  der  Indogcrm.  Lautlehre,  p.  262.     This  noun  is 
not  to  be  derived  from  the  root  jas,  but  from  sams. 
Note  2.  Compare  I,  79,  2  (with  note  3). 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  Comp.  X,  108,  7,  where  the  Pawis  say  to  Sarami : 
reku  padam  alakam  £  ^agantha  (*  the  place  is  empty  (?) ; 
thou  hast  come  in  vain  '). 

Verse  13. 

Note  1.  This  verse  has  been  treated  of  by  Pischel,  Ved. 
Studien,  I,  306. 

Verse  15. 

Note  1.  On  this  comparison,  see  Hirzel,  Gleichnisse  und 
Metaphern  im  Rigveda,  p.  102  seq. 


Z  2 


34O  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANDAL&  IV,  HYMN  6. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  4-5. 

1.  Stand  upright  for  us,  O  Agni,  Hotri  of  the 
sacrifice,  the  best  performer  of  sacrifices  among  the 
gods.     For  thou  art  the  master  of  every  thought ; 
thou  promotest  the  worshipper's  prayer. 

2.  The  unerring  Hotrz  has  sat  down  among  the 
people,  joy-giving  Agni,  the  wise  one  at  the  sacri- 
fices l.     Like  Savit^e  he  has  sent  his  light  upward. 
Like   a   builder  he   has   reared   his   smoke   up  to 
the  sky. 

31.  (The  ladle)  glowing,  filled  with  gifts,  with 
butter,  is  stretched  forth.  From  left  to  right  (does 
Agni  move)  choosing  the  divine  people.  Upright 
(stands)  the  (sacrificial)  post  like  a  new-born  foal  * ; 
well-placed,  well-established  it  anoints  the  victims8. 

4.  After   the   sacrificial    grass   has   been   spread 
and  the  fire  kindled,  the  delighted  Adhvaryu  has 
stationed  himself  upright.     Agni,  the  Hotr/,  chosen 
from  of  old,  goes  round  thrice,  like  a  shepherd. 

5.  As  Hotri,  measuredly  running,  Agni,  the  joy- 
giving,  sweet-tongued,  the  righteous,  goes  around 
by  his  own  might.     His  flames  run  forward   like 
race-horses ;  all  beings  are  afraid  when  he  has  shone 
forth. 

6.  Beautiful,  O  fair-faced  Agni,  is  thy  aspect,  who 
art  terrible  and  manifold ;  pleasant  (it  is).     As  they 
have  not  hindered  thy  light  by  darkness,  no  bespat- 
terers  have  left  stains  on  thy  body. 

7.  He  whose  mother  (P)1  has  not  been  hindered 
from  giving  birth,  nor  his  father  and  mother  when- 


MA^DALA    IV,    HYMN    6.  341 

ever  they  were  incited  (?)2:  this  Agni,  the  purifier, 
well-established  like  Mitra3,  has  shone  among  the 
tribes  of  men, — 

8.  Agni,  whom  the  twice-five  sisters *,  dwelling  to- 
gether, have  engendered  among  thtfhuhian  tribes,  who 
awakes  at  dawn,  who  is  bright  like  an  elephant's  (?)2 
tooth,  whose  mouth  is  beautiful,  who  is  sharp  like 
an  axe. 

91.  Agni,  those  golden  horses  of  thine  swimming 
in  ghee,  the  red  ones  which  go  straight  forward,  the 
fleet  ones,  the  brilliant,  manly,  wonderful  horses, 
puissant  stallions,  have  called  hither  the  divine 
people. 

10.  Those  victorious,  never-tiring1,  fierce  flames 
of  thine,  O  Agni,  which  move  about,  hasten2  to 
their  goal  like  hawks ;  they  roar  mightily  like  the 
host  of  the  Maruts. 

1 1 1.  (This)  hymn  has  been  produced  for  thee, 
O  Agni,  when  thou  wert  kindled.  May  (the  priest) 
recite  the  litany ;  mayst  thou  distribute  (treasures) 
to  him  who  sacrifices.  Men  ha.ve  set  down  Agni 
as  the  Hotrz,  the  U^i^s,  adoring  (Him),  the  praise 


of  A 


yu 


2 


NOTES. 
The  same  Rishi  and  metre. — Verse  6=TS.  IV,  3,  13,  i. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.    The  text  has  vidatheshu.     Cf.  above,  I,  31,  6 
note. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  With  the  first  hemistich  compare  abovq,  III,  19, 2. 
See  also  VI,  63,  4. 


342  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Note  2.  On  akra,  see  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  168. 

Note  3.  The  meaning  seems  to  be  that  the  sacrificial 
post,  which  has  been  anointed  itself,  imparts  ointment  to 
the  victim  tied  to  it. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1  The  meaning  of  s£tu  is  uncertain.  Boehtlingk- 
Roth  give  *  receptaculum.1  Joh.  Schmidt  (Kuhn's  Zeitschrift, 
XXV,  p.  29,  cf.  Hubschmann,  Indogerm.  Vocalsystem, 
p.  75)  translates  '  Mutterleib/  and  connects  the  word  with 
strf.  If c  womb '  is  right,  it  seems  to  be  the  womb  from 
which  Agni  was  born. 

Note  2.  Does  this  ish/au  belong  to  ish,  *  to  incite,'  or  to 
ish,  *  to  wish '  ?  '  Whenever  he  (Agni)  wishes/  M.  M. 

Note  3,  On  the  well-established  Mitra,  comp.  H.  O., 
Religion  des  Veda,  p.  186,  note  i. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  ten  sisters  of  course  are  the  fingers. 

Note  2.  In  translating  atharyaA  na  dantam  I  have  fol- 
lowed the  opinion  of  Pischel  (Vedische  Studien,  I,  99)  on 
the  meaning  of  athan,  though  his  theory  is  very  doubtful. 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  With  this  description  of  Agni's  horses,  comp. 
above,  IV,  2,  2.  3. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  On  ay£sa^,  cf.  above,  III,  18,  2,  note  i. 
Note  2.  See  Geldner,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVII,  234. 

Verse  11. 

Note  I.  The  second  hemistich  of  this  verse  is  nearly 
identical  with  V,  3,  4. 
Note  2.  Cf.  nar<Lra;#sa,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  439. 


MAJVDALA   IV,    HYMN    7.  343 

MAJV£>ALA  IV,  HYMN  7. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  6-7. 

1.  This  (Agni)  has  been  established  here  as  Hie 
first  by  the  establishes,  the  Horn,  the  best  sacrificer 
who  should  be  magnified  at  the  sacrifices,  whom 
Apnavana  '  and    the    Bhrtgus    have    made   shine, 
brilliant  in  the  woods,  spreading  to  every  house. 

2.  Agni !    When  will  the  splendour  of  thee,  the 
god,   appear   in   the   right  way  ?      For   verily  the 
mortals  have  seized  thee  who  shouldst  be  magnified 
in  the  houses. 

3.  Seeing  the  righteous,  wise  one,  like  the  heaven 
with  the  stars,  who  produces  joy  at  all  sacrifices, 
from  house  to  house — 

4.  The  quick  messenger  of  Vivasvat  who  rules 
over  all  human  tribes :  Him  the  Ay  us  have  brought 
hither  to  every  house,  the  light,  him  who  belongs  to 
the  Bhr/gus. 

5.  Him  the  knowing  one  they  have  set  down  in 
the  right  way  as  the  Hotrz,  the  gay  one  with  his 
purifying  flames,  the  best  sacrificer  with  his  seven 
(forms a) — 

6.  Him  who  is  enveloped  in  many  mothers,  in 
the  wood  l,  who  does  not  rest  thereon  (?)'2,  who  is 
brilliant,  though  hidden  in  secret,  easily  to  be  found, 
and  striving  for  all  that  is  desired. 

7.  When  the  gods  rejoiced  in  the  ...  of  the 
herbs  \  in  that  udder 2,  in  the  foundation  of  ^?ita  3f 
the  great  Agni,  to  whom  offerings  are  made  ivith 
adoration,   the   righteous   one,    always   approached 
eagerly  for  the  sake  of  sacrifice. 


344  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


8 1.  Thou,  the  knowing  one,  hast  eagerly  per- 
formed the  messengership  of  the  sacrifice,  looking 
over  both  ends,  over  the  two  worlds.  Thou  goest 
as  a  messenger,  chosen  from  of  old,  thou  who 
knowest  best  the  ascents  to  heaven. 

9.  Thy  path  is  black.     Light  is  before  thee,  the 
red  one.     Thy  flame  is  speedy.     This  is  one  of  the 
wonders  :    when  the  virgin  conceives  (thee  as  her) 
child  \  thou  becomest  a  messenger,  as  soon  as  thou 
art  born. 

10.  As  soon  as  he  is  born,  his  strength  shows 
itself,  when  the  wind  blows  upon  his  flame.      He 
turns  his  sharp  tongue  among  the  dry  brushwood. 
Even  solid  food  he  te^rs  to  pieces  with  his  teeth. 

11.  When  he  thirstily  has  grown  strong  by  thirsty 
food1,  restless  Agni  appoints  a  thirsty  messenger. 
Consuming  (the  wood)  he  follows  the  ... 2  of  the 
wind.     He  seems  to  drive  forward  a  quick  horse  ; 
the  racer  speeds  along. 


NOTES. 

The  same  jfrshi.  The  metre  is  £agati  in  verse  i, 
Anush/ubh  in  verses  2-6,  Trish/ubh  in  verses  7-11. — Verse 
i=VS.  Ill,  15;  XV,  26;  XXXIII,  6;  TS.  I,  5,  5,  i; 

MS.  I,  5,  i. 

Verse  5, 

Note  1.  The  seven  flames  or  tongues  of  Agni  ?  The 
seven  HotHs  ?  The  seven  Ratnas  ? 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Cf.  IX,  107, 1 8.  pari  g6bhi//  tittaraA  sfdan  vineshu 
avyata. 


MAtfDALA    IV,    HYMN    7.  345 

Note  2.  Possibly  we  might  conjecture  &ritam,  *  who  rests 
thereon.' 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  On  sasasya,  cf.  above,  III,  5,  6,  note  a.  Vfyut4 
seems  to  be  a  locative  standing  parallel  with  the  locative 
fldhan.  We  have  here  sasdsya  viyutd  .  .  .  ritasya.  dh£man, 
quite  as  in  V,  21,  4  the  two  accusatives  rztdsya  y6nim  and 
sasdsya  yonim  stand  parallel.  The  meaning  of  vfyuta*, 
however,  seems  to  me  quite  uncertain.  Is  it  an  action- 
noun  derived  from  vi-yu,  *  to  separate,1 '  to  keep  off/  or  from 
(vi-)  v&,  *  to  weave '  ?  Professor  Max  Miiller  proposes  :  '  at 
the  removal  of  the  grass  or  tinder  in  which  the  spark  is 
kept.' 

Note  2.  sdsmin  fidhan  ;  cf.  below,  10,  8. 

Note  3.  Cf.  above,  I,  147,  i. 

Verse  8. 
Note  1.  With  this  verse,  compare  below,  hymn  8,  verse  4. 

Verse  9. 
Note  1.  The  wood,  the  child  of  which  is  Agni. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  I  take  anna  here  as  an  instrumental. — Compare 
with  our  passage  VII,  3,  4.  trzshu  yat  anna  samavr/kta 
<fdmbhaiA ;  X,  79,  5.  y£A  asmai  annam  trishu  adadhati ; 
X,  91,  7.  tr/shii  ydt  dnn4  vevishat  vitfeh/Aase  ;  X,  113,  8. 
agnf//  na^ambhai^  tr/shii  annam  dvayat. 

Note  2.  me/fm  ,  cf.  above,  III,  26,  9. 


346  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MA^V/?ALA  IV,  HYMN  8. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  8. 

1.  I    press  on  for  you  with    my  prayer   to   the 
all-possessing   messenger,   the    immortal    bearer   of 
offerings,  the  best  sacrificer. 

2.  He,  the  great  one,  knows    indeed   the   place 
of  wealth  *,  the  ascent  to  heaven  ;  may  he,  (there- 
fore,) conduct  the  gods  hither. 

3.  He,  the  gocl,  knows  how  to  direct  the  gods  for 
the  righteous  (worshipper),  in  his  house.     He  gives 
(us)  wealth  dear  (to  us). 

4.  He   is   the    Hotr/;    he  who   knows  the  office 
of  a  messenger,  goes  to  and  fro  (between  men  and 
gods),  knowing  the  ascent  to  heaven. 

5.  May   we  be   of  those    who    have   worshipped 
Agni  with  the  gift  of  offerings,  who  cause  him  to 
thrive  and  kindle  him. 

6.  The  men  who  have  brought  worship  to  Agni, 
ire  renowned  as  successful  by  wealth  and  by  power- 
ful offspring. 

7.  May  much-desired  wealth  come  to  us  day  by 
day ;  may  gains  arise  among  us. 

8.  He  (Agni),  the  priest  of  the  tribes,  (the  priest) 
:>f  men,  pierces  (all  hostile  powers)  by  his  might  as 

a  tossing1  (bow). 


MAJWALA    IV,    HYMN    8.  347 


NOTES. 

The  same  J?/shi.     The  metre  is  GSyatrf. — Verse  i  =  SV. 
I,  12;  MS.  II,  13,  5. 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  Comp.  Pischel,  Ved.  Studien,  II,  118. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  KshiprS  evidently  is  an  instrumental.     Cf.  kshi 
prddhanvan,  kshipreshu,  kshipre//a  dhanvansi,  II,  24,  8. 


348  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA    IV,   HYMN   9. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  9. 

1.  Agni,  have  mercy!     Thou  art  great,  who  hast 
come  to  this  pious  man  to  sit  down  on  the  sacrificial 
grass. 

2.  He  who  cannot  be  deceived,  the  zealous,  the 
immortal  has  among  men  become   the  messenger 
of  all. 

3.  He,  the  joy-giving   Hotrz,  is  led  around  the 
sacred  seat  at  the  heaven-aspiring  sacrifices.     And 
he  sits  down  as  the  Potri  also. 

4.  Agni  sits  down  also  as  (the  sacrificer's)  wife 1 
at  the  sacrifice,  and  as  the  master  of  the  house  in 
the  house,  and  as  the  Brahman  2. 

5.  Thou  zealously  approachest  as  the  Upavaktrz'1 
of  the  people  who  perform  the  sacrificial  service,  and 
(thou  approachest)  the  offerings  of  men. 

6.  And  thou  zealously  performest  the  messenger- 
ship   for   the    man   in  whose  sacrifice    thou    takest 
pleasure,  in  order  to  bear  the  mortal's  offering  (to 
the  gods). 

7.  Find  pleasure  *  in  our  rites,  in  our  sacrifice, 
O  Ahgiras.     Hear  our  call ! 

8.  May   thy   unerring    chariot,    by    which    thou 
protectest    the    worshippers,    encompass    us    from 
every  side. 


MAMDALA   IV,    HYMN   Q.  349 


NOTES. 

The  same  JRtshi  and  metre. — Verse  i  =  SV.  I,  23.  Verse  8 
=  VS.  111,36;  MS.  I,  5,  4- 5- "• 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  '  Wir  vermuten :  ut£gn£  agnir  adhvare  .  .  .  die 
correctur  diirfte  evident  sein.'  Ludwig.  The  same  con- 
jecture has  been  proposed  already  in  1868  by  Prof.  Max 
Miiller  (Chips,  2nd  ed.,  vol.  iii,  p.  157).  In  my  opinion  the 
traditional  text  is  correct. 

Note  2.  The  Brahman  very  probably  is  not  the  Brahman 
of  the  later  ritual,  but  the  Brdhma;/a^//awsin.  See  H.  O., 
Religion  des  Veda,  p.  396. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  Upavaktr*  is  identical  with  the  Prajrastr*  or 
Maitravaruwa  of  the  later  ritual.  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda, 
p.  390. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  On  £x>shi,  cf,  Bartholomae,  Studien  zur  Indog. 
Sprachgeschichte,  I,  ai. 


3 SO  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MA7V77ALA  IV,  HYMN  10. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  10. 

i  l.  O  Agni !  May  we  to-day  successfully  perform, 
with  thy  heedfulness 2,  this  praise3  which  touches 
thy  heart,  which  is  like  a  horse,  like  auspicious 
power  of  the  mind. 

2.  For   verily    thou,  O    Agni,  hast   become    the 
charioteer  of  auspicious  power  of  the  mind,  of  real 
ability,  and  of  the  mighty  j^zta. 

3.  Through  these  our  hymns  direct  thyself  hither- 
wards   to  us  like  the  sun  with  its  light1,  O  Agni, 
gracious  with  all  thy  faces. 

4.  May  we  to-day  worship  thee,  O  Agni,  praising 
thee  with  these  songs.     Thy  roarings  thunder  like 
(the  thunder)  of  Heaven. 

5.  Thy  sweetest  aspect,  O  Agni,  shines  near  us 
for  glory's  sake,   now  by  day,  now  by  night,  like 
gold. 

6.  Like  purified  ghrita  is  thy  stainless  body ;  (it 
is)  brilliant  gold:  that  (body)  of  thine  has  shone1, 
O  self-dependent  one,  like  gold. 

7.  For  even  a  malice  which  one  has  committed, 
thou  verily  drivest  away  entirely,  O  righteous  Agni, 
from  the  sacrificing  mortal  *. 

8.  May  our  friendship,  O  Agni,  our  brotherhood 
with  you,  the  gods,  be  blessed.     This  is  our  navel 
(i.  e.  relation)  in  our  seat,  in  this  udder '. 


MAtfDALA    IV,    HYMN    IO.  35! 


NOTES. 

The  same  fiishi.  The  metre  is  stated  to  be  Padapankti 
(verses  4,  6,  7,  Padapankti  or  Ushwih ;  verse  5,  Mahapada- 
pahkti;  verse  8,  Ushmh):  see  on  this  metre  M.  M., 
vol.  xxxii,  p.  xcviii  seq.  ;  H.  O.,  Prolegomena,  p.  98  ; 
Kiihnau,  Die  TrishAibh-^agati-Familie,  p.  234  seq. — 
Verse  i  =  SV.  I,  434;  MS.  I,  10,  3.  Verses  i~3  =  SV.  II, 
1127-1129  ;  VS.  XV,  44-46.  Verses  i~4  =  TS.  IV,  4,  4,  7. 
Verse  r,  2,  4  =  MS.  II,  13,  8.  Verse  3  =  MS.  IV,  10,  2. 
Verse  6=TS.  II,  2,  12,  7;  MS.  IV,  12,  4. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  AvasAna  in  this  verse  ought  to  stand  before 
hr/dispmam,  not  after  this  word,  as  the  traditional  text 
places  it.  /?/dhy£ma,  consequently,  cannot  be  accented. 

Note  2.  Dr.  Neisser's  opinion  on  6ha  is  different 
(Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XVIII,  312). 

Note  3.  I  read  st6mam,  which  is  frequently  found  as  the 
object  of  the  verb  r/dh,  and  which  in  several  passages 
receives  the  epithet  hr*dispr/>. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  On  the  syntactical  form  of  this  comparison,  see 
Bergaigne,  Melanges  Renier,  p.  95. 

Verse  6. 
Note  L  Or  rotate, '  shines '  ? 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  The  AvasSna  ought  to  stand  before  martat.  Cf. 
above,  verse  i,  note  i. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Cf.  above,  IV,  7,  7.  The  meaning  seems  to  be : 
in  this  sacrificial  place,  where  the  cows  give  milk. 


352  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAAT/?ALA  iv,  HYMN  11. 

ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  11. 

1.  Thy  auspicious  face,  O  mighty  Agni,  shines  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  sun  l.     Brilliant  to  see,  it 
is  seen  even  by  night.     Soft  to  behold  is  the  food 
in  thy  (beautiful)  body2. 

2.  O  Agni,  disclose  (wise)  thoughts  for  him  who 
praises   thee ;    (disclose)   the   opening,  when   thou, 
O  strong-born,  hast  been  praised  with  trembling. 
Grant  unto  us,  O  very  great  one,  such  a  rich  prayer 
as  thou  with  all  the  gods  wilt  hold  dear,  O  brilliant 
one. 

•  3.  From  thee,  O  Agni,  genius  is  born,  from  thee 
(wise)  thoughts,  from  thee  beneficent  hymns.  From 
thee  comes  wealth  adorned  with  heroes1  to  the  thus- 
minded  mortal  who  worships  thee. 

4.  From  thee  the  racer  is  born  that  wins  booty, 
whose  energy  expands   round-about  *,  the  helpful, 
of  true  strength ;    from  thee  delightful  wealth  sent 
by  the  gods  ;    from  thee,   O   Agni,  the  swift  and 
impetuous  horse. 

5.  Thee,  O  Agni,  the  pious  mortals  seek  to  win 
by  their  prayers  as  the  first,  thee    the   god  with 
agreeable  speech,   O  immortal,  who  drivest  away 
malice,  the  household  god,  the  lord  of  the  house, 
the  wise  one. 

6.  (Drive)  far  from  us  senselessness  and  anguish  ; 
(drive)  far  all  ill-will  from  him  whom  thou  attendest1. 
Be  gracious  at  evening,  Agni,  son  of  strength,  to  him 
whom  thou,  the  god,  attendest  with  welfare. 


MA^DALA    IV,    HYMN    II.  353 

NOTES. 

The  same  Kishi.  Metre,  Trish/ubh.— Verse  i=TS.  IV, 
3>  J3>  !• 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Comp.  above,  IV,  10,  5.  rotate  upikd. 

Note  2.  Literally, '  in  thy  appearance '  (rfcp6).  Thus  the 
Soma  is  stated,  IX,  16,  6,  to  purify  itself  rftpe  avyaye, 
literally, '  in  the  appearance  of  the  sheep/  i.  e.  in  the  filter 
made  of  sheep's  hair. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  See  Lanman,  p.  560  ;  Pischel,  Ved.  Studien,  II, 

Verse  4. 

Note  1,  On  vih£.y£A,  see  V.  Henry,  Les  livres  VIII  et  IX 
de  l'Atharva-v<*da  (1894),  p.  40  (AV.  VIII,  2,  7). 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Probably  the  correct  Padap£/£a  reading  would 
be,  as  Prof.  Bartholomae  (Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XV, 
190)  has  noticed,  yim  nip£si  (cf.  Pdda  d :  ydm  .  .  .  sa£ase). 
If  ydt  is  correct,  the  translation  will  be :  '  (drive)  far  all  ill- 
will  when  thou  protectest  (us)/ — Bartholomae  proposes 
either  to  change  asmat  to  asmat,  or  to  interpret  it  as  an 
equivalent  of  asmdt.  It  is  possible,  though  in  my  opinion 
not  very  probable,  that  the  text  should  be  changed.  The 
ablative  asmdt  very  frequently  depends  on  dr& 


[46j  A  a 


354  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MANDALA    IV,    HYMN   12. 
ASH7VUCA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  12. 

i.  May  the  man  who  holds  the  sacrificial  ladle 
and  kindles  thee,  O  Agni,  who  thrice  prepares  food 
for  thee  on  this  day,  victoriously  overcome  (his  foes) 
through  his  lustre,  wise  through  the  power  of  thy 
mind,  O  G&tavedas. 

21.  He  who  toiling  brings  fuel  to  thee,  doing 
service  to  thy,  the  great  (god's)  face,  O  Agni, 
kindling  thee  at  evening  and.  at  dawn — he  prospers, 
obtains  wealth,  and  destroys  his  enemies. 

3.  Agni    is    master    of    mighty    royal    power l ; 
Agni  (is  master)  of  gain,  of  the  highest  wealth.     He, 
the  youngest,  self-dependent  (god)  in  the  right  way 
distributes  treasures  to  the  mortal  worshipper. 

4.  Whatever   sin,    O   youngest   (god),   we   have 
committed  against  thee  in  thoughtlessness,  men  as 
we  are  *,  make  thou  us  sinless  before  Aditi ;  release 
us  from  (every)  guilt  on  all  sides,  O  Agni ! 

5.  Even  from  great  guilt,  O  Agni,  from  the  prison 
of  gods  and  of  mortals — let  us,  thy  friends,  never 
be  harmed  ;  grant  luck  and  weal  to  kith  and  kin. 

6'1.  As  you  formerly  have  .released,  O  Vasus,  the 
buffalo, cow  bound  by  the  foot,  O  worshipful  gods, 
thus  take  away  from  us  this  distress.  May,  O  Agni, 
our  life  be  further  prolonged. 


MAMDALA   IV,    HYMN    12.  355 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rishl  and  metre.— Verse  4=TS.  IV,  7,  15,  6; 
MS.  Ill,  16,  5.  Verse  5  =  MS.  IV,  n,  i.  Verse  6=TS. 
IV,  7,  15,  7;  MS.  III.I6,  5;  IV,  n,  I. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  With  the  beginning  of  this  verse,  comp.  above, 
IV,  2,  6. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Comp.  Roth,  Zcitschr.  der  D.  Morg.  Ges., 
XLVIII,  114- 

Verae  4. 

Note  1.  Grassmann  is  right  in  giving  to  purushatrl  the 
meaning  'unter  den  Menschen,1  and  in  observing  with 
reference  to  our  passage:  'wo  die  Bedeutung  "nach 
Menschenweise  "  (s.  purushati)  besser  passt.'  The  same  is 
the  opinion  of  Bohtlingk-Roth.  No  doubt  we  should 
read  purushitA;  cf.  VII,  57,  4=X,  ij,  6.  yat  vaA  4gaA 
purushit4  kdrima ;  IV,  54,  3.  d£itti  ylt  Aakrimi  .  .  .  puru- 
shatvlt&. 

Vene  6. 

Note  1.  This  verse  is  identical  with  Rig-veda  X,  ia6p  8. 


A  a  2 


356  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MAA^ALA  IV,  HYMN  13. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  13. 

1.  Benevolent  Agni  has  looked  on  the  breaking 
of  the  shining  dawns,  on  the  bestowal  of  treasures. 
Come  to  the  .dwelling  of  the  virtuous  (mortal),  ye 
Asvins.     The  god  SArya  rises  with  his  light. 

2.  The  god  Savitre  has  sent  his  light  upward1, 
shaking  his  banner2  like  a  warrior  who  fights  for 
cows3.     Varuwa   and  ^Mitra   follow   the   law,  when 
they  make  the  Sun  rise  on  heaven. 

3.  Him  whom  (the  gods)  dwelling  in  firm  peace, 
and  never  losing  their  object,  have  created  for  dis- 
persing the  darkness — Him,  the  Sun,  the  all-observer, 
the  seven  young  fallow  mares  carry  forward. 

4.  With    (thy  horses)    most   ready  to  \  run    thou 
goest1  forward,  spreading  out   thy  web   (of  light), 
removing  (from  the  world)  the  black  cloth  (of  dark- 
ness), O  god.     The  rays  of  the  Sun  hive  shaken 2 
the  darkness,  and  have  sunk  it  into  the  waters  like 
a  hide. 

5.  Unsupported,    unattached,    spread   out   down- 
wards-turned— how  is  it  that  he1  does  not  fall  down? 
By  what  power  of  his  does  he  move  ?     Who  has 
seen  (that)  ?     Erected  as  the  pillar  of  Heaven  he 
protects  the  firmament. 


MAtfDALA   IV,    HYMN    13.  357 


NOTES. 

The  same  JRtshi  and  metre. — Verse  4=TB.  II,  4,  5,  4. 

This  hymn  and  the  next  evidently  form  a  couple.  They 
have  the  same  number  of  verses,  and  are  composed  in  the 
same  metre.  They  are  both  addressed  to  Agni  in  his 
matutinal  character,  or  rather  to  the  A^vins,  who  are  in- 
voked to  partake  of  the  matutinal  oblation  (13,  I ;  14, 1.  4). 
The  first  verse  of  13  is  quite  similar  to  that  of  14;  the 
same  may  be  said  of  the  second  verses  of  the  two  hymns ; 
the  concluding  verse  of  both  is  identical. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Cf.  above,  IV,  6,  2. 

Note  2.  Cf.  Zend  drafsha,  'banner.' 

Note  3.  Cf.  IV,  40,  2.  satva  bharisha//  gavishaA. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  Sun  is  addressed. 

Note  2.  It  is  more  natural  to  take  davidhvataA  as  nom. 
plur.  than  as  gen.  sing.  (Ludvvig). 

Verse  5. 
Note  1.  The  Sun. 


358  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MA;VZ?ALA  IV,  HYMN  14. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  14. 

1.  Agni  G&tavedas,  the  god,  has  looked  on  the 
dawns  that  shine  with  all  their  might1.    Come  hither, 
O  NAsatyas 2)  wide-ruling  (gods),  on  your  chariot  tc 
this  our  sacrifice. 

2.  The  god  Savitrz  has  sent  his  shine   upward 
producing   light  for   the  whole  world.     The   Sun, 
shining  with  his  rays,  has  filled  Heaven  and  Earth 
and  the  air. 

3.  The   red   one1,  carrying   hither   (bliss)2,  has 
come  with  her  light,  the  great,  brilliant  one,  shining 
with  her  rays.     Ushas,  the  goddess,  awakening  (all 
beings)  to  welfare,  goes   along  on  her  well-yoked 
chariot. 

4.  May  those  chariots  and  horses,  most  ready  to 
drive,  drive  you  l  hither  at  the  break  of  dawn.     For 
the5e  Somas  are  for  you  l  that  you  may  drink  the 
honey-drink  2.    Rejoice,  O  manly  ones,  at  this  sacri- 
fice. 

5-  =  IV,  13,5- 

NOTES. 

The  same  ^?/shi  and  metre. — No  verse  of  this  hymn 
occurs  in  the  other  Sawhitas.  On  the  parallelism  in  which 
IV,  14  stands  to  IV,  13,  see  the  introductory  note  on 
IV,  13- 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  On  mahobhiA,  see  vol.  xxxii,  p.  196  seq.  (I,  165, 
5,  note  3).  Here  the  word  refers  to  the  powerful  light  of 


MAtfDALA   IV,    HVMN    14.  359 

the  dawn,  not  of  Agni,  cf.  VI,  64,  2.  usha^  devi  r6£am£n£ 
mdhobhiA. 

Note  2.  On  the  mention  of  the  NAsatyas  (A^vins)  in  this 
connection,  compare  the  introductory  note  on  IV,  13. 

Ven»  8. 

Note  1.  The  Dawn  as  before. 

Note  2.  That  an  object  like  *  bliss '  is  to  be  supplied,  is 
shown  by  such  passages  as  I,  48,  9.  usha/i  .  .  .  £vdhant! 
bhflri  asmdbhyam  saiibhagam ;  I,  92,  3.  (the  Dawns)  fsham 
vahantU  sukr/te  sud^nave  ;  1, 113, 15.  (the  Dawn)  Avdhantl 
p6shy£  v4ry4»i. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  text  has  the  dual  of  the  pronoun.  The 
Ajvins  are  addressed. 

Note  2.  It  is  the  peculiar  character  of  the  A,rvins  that 
they  drink  mddhu  ;  see  Hillebrandt,  Vedische  Mythologie, 
vol.  i,  p.  239  seq.  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  p.  208,  note  4  ; 
p.  367,  note  2. 


360  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MAM0ALA  IV,  HYMN  15. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  5,  VARGA  15-16. 

1.  Agni,  the  Horn,  he  who  is  a  strong  horse,  is 
led  around  at  our  sacrifice,  the  god  worshipful  among 
the  gods. 

2.  Agni  goes  thrice l  around  the  sacrifice,  like  a 
charioteer,  conveying  the  enjoyment 2  to  the  gods. 

3.  Agni,  the  lord  of  booty,  the  sage,  has  circum- 
ambulated the  oblations,  bestowing  treasures  on  the 
worshipper. 

4.  This  (is  the  Agni)  who  is  kindled  in  the  front 
for  DevavAta's  son,  the  Srz'%ayaT,  the  brilliant  (god), 
the  deceiver  of  foes. 

5.  May  the  strong  mortal  be  the  master  of  this 
(god),  of  an  Agni  like  this,  with  sharp  teeth  and 
bountiful. 

6\  Him  they  clean  day  by  day  like  a  racer  that 
wins  (booty),  like  (Soma),  the  red  young  child  of 
Heaven 2. 

7.  When  Sahadeva's  son,  the  prince,  thought  of 
;ne  with  two  bay  horses  *,  I  rose  up  like  one  who  is 
called. 

8.  And  immediately  I  accepted  from  Sahadeva^s 
son,  the  prince,  those  adorable  two  bay  horses  which 
he  offered  me. 

9.  May  this  prince  Somaka,  Sahadeva's  son,  live 
long,  for  your  sake,  O  divine  A^vins ! 

10.  Give  long  life,  O  divine  A^vins,  to  this  son 
of  Sahadeva,  the  prince ! 


MAtfDALA   IV,    HYMN    15.  361 


NOTES. 

The  same  /?z'shi.  Metre,  Gayatrt.— Verses  1-3= TB.  Ill, 
6,4,1-,  MS.  IV,  13,  4.  Verse  3= SV.  I,  30 ;  VS.  XI,  45  ; 
TS.IV,i,a,S;  MS.  I,-i,9. 

The  first  three  verses  are  characterised  by  the  constant 
allusions  to  Agni's  being  carried  around,  and,  in  connection 
therewith,  by  the  frequent  repetition  of  the  preposition  pdri. 
Probably  these  verses  formed  an  independent  Tri£a-hymn, 
the  position  of  which  would  be  according  to  the  laws  of 
arrangement  of  the  Sawhitd ;  this  Tri£a  seems,  conse- 
quently, to  belong  to  the  original  collection  of  hymns.  The 
verses  4-10,  on  the  other  hand,  or  at  least  the  verses  7-10, 
would  seem  to  be  a  later  addition ;  the  verses  4-6  can  be 
considered  as  a  TrL£a  belonging  to  the  original  Sawhiti, 
though  in  this  case  it  is  difficult  to  explain  why  the  verses 
7~JO,  which  do  not  contain  any  reference  to  Agni,  have 
been  inserted  here  at  the  end  of  the  series  of  Agni  hymns. 
Another  argument  against  the  separation  of  the  verses  4-6 
from  the  rest  of  the  Stikta  is  the  mention  of  the  prince 
Sr/flgaya  in  verse  4 :  verses  7-10  refer  to  a  prince  Somaka 
Sahadevya,  and  we  know  from  the  Aitareya  Br&hmawa 
(VII,  34,  cf.  Satapatha  Brahmawa  II,  4,  4,  4)  that  this 
prince  also  belonged  to  the  Sr/^aya  tribe. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Cf.  above,  IV,  6,  4. 

Note  2.  I.  e.  the  offering  which  the  gods  enjoy. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  This  Sw/^aya  Daivavfita  is  mentioned  also  in 
VI,  27,  7- 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  first  Pdda  of  this  verse  is  identical  with  the 
first  P4da  of  VIII,  102,  12. 


362  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


"Note  2.  T&e  red  young  child  of  Heaven  seems  to  be  the 
Soma.  The  Soma  frequently  is  called  arushd  ('  red '),  and 
is  said  to  be  cleansed  by  men ;  in  IX,  33,  5  ;  38,  5,  the 
expression  diva//  sisu/i  ('the  young  child  of  Heaven')  is 
used  with  regard  to  him. 

Verse  7. 

Note  l.  I.e.  when  he  thought  of  presenting  me  with  the 
two  horses. 


MAtfDALA  V,  HYMN   I.  363 


MAjV/?ALA  V,  HYMN  1. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  12-13. 

1.  Agni  has  been  wakened  by  the  fuel  of  men,  in 
face  of  the  Dawn  who  approaches  like  a  milch-cow. 
His  flames  stream  forward  to  the  sky  like  quick 
(birds)  that  fly  up  to  a  branch. 

2.  The  Hotrz  has  been  wakened  that  there  may 
be  sacrifice  for  the  gods.     Gracious  Agni  has  stood 
upright  in  the  morning.    When  he  has  been  kindled, 
his  brilliant  stream  of  flames  has  been  Seen.     The 
great  god  has  been  released  from  darkness. 

3.  When  lie  has  wakened  the  string  of  the  crowd 
(of  worshippers) l,  the  bright  Agni  anoints  himself 
with  bright  cows2.     Then  the  Dakshi«a  is  yoked, 
striving  for  gain3.     He  who  stands  upright  has,  by 
the  sacrificial  ladles,  sucked  her  who  lies  extended  4. 

4.  Towards  Agni   the   minds  of  the  pious   turn 
together  as  (all)  eyes  (turn)  to  the  sun.    When  both 
Dawns  of  different  colour1  give  birth  to  him,  the 
white  racer  is  born  at  the  beginning  of  days. 

5.  For  He,  the  noble  one,  has  been  born  at  the 
beginning  of  days,  the  red  one  has  been  laid  down 
in  the  woods  that  have  been  laid  down.     Agni,  the 
Hotrz,  the  best  sacrificer,  has  sat  down,  bestowing 
his  seven  treasures  on  every  house. 

6.  Agni,  the  Hotr/,  the  best  sacrificer,  sat  down 
in  the  mothers  lap,  in  the  sweet-smelling  place,  the 
young    sage    growing    up    in    many    places,    the 
righteous  one,  the  supporter  of  tribes,  and  kindled 
in  their  midst. 


364  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


7.  They   magnify   with    adorations    that    priest 
efficacious  at  sacrifices,  Agni  the  Hotrz,  who  has 
spread  himself  over  heaven  and  earth  according  to 
AVta ;  they  groom  (Agni),  the  own  racer  (of  men), 
with  Ghrz'ta. 

8.  He  who  likes  to  be  groomed,  is  groomed  in 
his  own  (abode),  the  house-friend1,  praised  by  sages, 
our  auspicious  guest,  the  bull  with  a  thousand  horns 
who  has  the  strength  of  such  a  one.     O  Agni !     By 
this  power  thou  surpassest  all  other  (beings). 

9.  O  Agni !   Thou  overtakest  all  other  (beings)  in 
one  moment  (for  the  sake  of  him)  to  whom  Thou 
hast  become  visible  as  the  fairest  one,  thou  who 
shouldst  be  magnified,  the  wonderful,  brilliant  one, 
the  beloved  guest  of  human  clans. 

10.  To  thee,  O  youngest  (god),  the  tribes  bring 
tribute,  O  Agni,  from  near  and  far.     Behold l  the 
grace  of  the  most  glorious  (god) !     Mighty,  O  Agni, 
is  thy  great  and  glorious  shelter. 

1 1 .  Mount  to-day,  O  shining  Agni,  the  shining 
car,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  worshipful  (gods). 
Knowing  the  paths,  the  wide  air l,  bring  hither  the 
gods  that  they  may  eat  the  oblation. 

12.  We  have  pronounced  an  adoring  speech  to 
the  holy  sage,  to  the  manly  bull.     GavishMira  ador- 
ingly has  sent  his  song  of  praise  to  Agni  as  the  gold 
(i.  e.    the   sun)   far-reaching   (is   sent   by   the   gods 
upward)  to  the  sky. 

NOTES. 

The  TJzshis  are  Budha  Atreya  (cf.  verse  I,  dbodhi)  and 
Gavish//;ira  Atreya  (cf.  verse  12).  The  metre  is  Trish/ubh.— 
Verse  i  =  SV.  I,  73  ;  AV.  XIII,  a,  46 ;  VS.  XV,  24;  TS. 


MAtfDALA  V,  HYMN  I.  365 

IV,  4,  4,  i.  Verses  1-2  =  MS.  II,  13,  7.  Verses  1-3  =  SV. 
II,  1096-1098.  Verse  5  =  TS.  IV,  i,  3,  4.  Verse  6  =  MS. 
IV,  n,  i;  TB.  I,  3,  14,  i.  Verse  9=TB.  II,  4,  7,  10. 
Verse  io=MS.  IV,  n,  4;  TB.  II,  4,  7,  9.  Verse  ia  =  MS. 
11,13,7;  TB.  IV,  4,  4,  a;  VS.  XV,  25. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  seems  to  be :  when  Agni  has  set 
into  motion  the  string  (representing  the  prayers,  &c.)  by 
which  the  worshippers  tie  and  instigate  him  and  the  other 
powers  of  the  sacrifice.  Cf.  IV,  i,  9.  prd  tdm  (scil.  agnfm) 
mahy£  raranayd  nayanti ;  IX,  87,  i,  Irvam  nd  tv&  (scil. 
s6mam)  v^fnam  mar^dyantaA  £kkh*  barhf/;  rajanabhi// 
nayanti.  See  also  I,  163,  4.  5. 

Note  2.  I.e.  with  bright  ghr/ta. 

Note  8.  The  Dakshi«4  or  sacrificial  gift  offered  by  the 
Ya^amdna  to  the  ministrant  priests,  is  represented  here 
as  a  car  which  is  yoked  in  the  morning.  Cf.  Bergaigne, 
Rel.  Vedique,  I,  128;  III,  283. 

Note  4.  *  He  who  stands  upright '  is  Agni ;  '  she  who 
lies  extended*  seems  to  be  the  cow,  i.e.  the  glw'ta  which 
Agni  sucks  by  means  of  the  sacrificial  ladles. — See  also 
Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  II,  113,  from  whose  interpreta- 
tion I  differ;. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  I.e.  Night  and  Dawn. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  I  cannot  adopt  the  conjectures  of  Bartholomae 

(Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XV,  197)  on  sv6  damftnftA. 

\ 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  The  human  worshipper  seems  to  be  addressed ; 
the  '  most  glorious  one '  is  very  probably  Agni. 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  Vidvin,  which  may  be  construed  with  the  genitive 
or  with  the  accusative,  stands  here  with  both  cases. 


366  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAA^ALA  V,  HYMN  2. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  14-15. 

1.  The  young  mother  carries  in  secret  the  boy 
confined1;    she  does  not  yield  him  to  the  father. 
People  do  not  see  before  them  his  fading  *  face  laid 
down  with  the  Ardti 3. 

2.  Who  is  that  boy,  O  young  woman,  whom  thou, 
the  Peshl  \  carriest  ?    It  is  the  queen  who  has  borne 
him.     Through  many  autumns  the  fruit  of  the  womb 
has  increased.     I  saw  him  born  when  his  mother 
gave  birth  to  him. 

3.  I  saw  him  the  gold-toothed,  brilliant-coloured 
preparing  his  weapons  far  from  his  dwelling-place  l. 
After  I  have  offered  to  hrm  the  ambrosia  cleared 
(from  all  impure  mixture)  2 — what  may  the  Indra- 
less,  the  hymnless  do  to  me  ? 

4.  I  saw  him,  the  highly  shining  (Agni),  walking 
far  from  his  dwelling-place,  like  (a   bull)  together 
with  the  herd '.     Those   (women)   have   not  held 
him,  for  he  has   been   born.      The  young  women 
become  grey2. 

5.  Who  have  separated  my  young  bull  from  the 
cows  that l  had  no  cow-herd,  not  even  a  stranger  ? 
May  those  who  have  held  him,  let  him  loose.     May 
he,  the  knowing  one,  lead  the  cattle  towards  us. 

6.  Him,  the  king  of  dwellings  (P)1,  the  dwelling- 
place  of  people,  the  ArStis  have  laid  down  2  among 
men.     May  the  .spells  of  Atri  loose  him.     May  the 
reproachers  become  reproachable  (themselves). 

7.  Thou  hast  loosed  the  bound  tSuna^jepa  from 


MAJVDALA  V,  HYMN  2.  367 

the  thousand  sacrificial  posts  ;  for  he  toiled  (wor- 
shipping thee).  Thus,  O  Agni,  loose  from  us  the 
fetters,  O  knowing  Hot/V,  sitting  down  here. 

8 l.  For  thou  hast  gone  away 2  from  me,  because 
thou  wert  angry ;  (this)  the  protector  of  the  laws 
of  the  gods3  has  told  me.  (But)  Indra,  the  knowing 
one,  has  looked  after  thee.  Instructed  by  him, 
O  Agni,  I  have  come  hither. 

9.  Agni  shines  with  mighty  light ;  he  makes  all 
things  visible  by  his  greatness.    He  conquers  godless, 
wicked  wiles.     He  sharpens  his  two  horns  in  order 
to  pierce  the  Rakshas. 

10.  And  may  the  roarings  of  Agni  mount  up  to 
the  sky,  with  sharp  weapons  in  order  to  kill  the 
Rakshas.      In   his  rapture  his  flames  break  down 
(everything);   the  godless  hindrances  do  not  hold 
him  back. 

11.  This  song  of  praise,  O  strong-born   (Agni), 
I,  the  priest,  have  fashioned  for  thee,  as  a  skilful 
workman  (builds)  a  chariot1.     If  thou  acceptest  that 
(praise),  O  god  Agni,  may  we  conquer  thereby  waters 
together  with  the  sun. 

12.  May    the    bull1   with    mighty  neck,   grown 
strong,   with   no   foe   to   resist   him,   get    together 
the  niggard's  wealth.     Thus   the  immortal   (gods) 
have  spoken  to  this  Agni  :  may  he  grant  protection 
to  the  man  who  has  spread  the  Barhis ;   may  he 
grant  protection  to  the  man  who  brings  offerings. 


NOTES. 

The  /?ishi  of  verses  i,  3-8,  10-12  is  Kumira  Atreya,  or 
Vrisn  CAna ;  or  both  are  the  jRishis  of  these  verses.  Of 
the  verses  2  and  Q  Vrua  alone  is  the  JRishi.  The  metre  is 


368  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


TrishAibh  (verse  12,  Sakvart).— Verse  9=AV.  VIII,  3,  24. 
Verses  9,  lOatTS.  I,  2, 14,  7.    Verse  n  =  TB.  II,  4,  7,  4. 

A  part  of  this  hymn  is  very  obscure.     I  do  not  think, 

as  does  Prof.  Geldner  (Festgruss  an  Roth,  192),  that  the 

story  of  the  SA/y&yanakam  (see  S&ya;/a's  commentary,  and 

compare  Pankavimsa.  Brdhma#a  XIII  3,  12),  of  the  Puro- 

hita  Vrisa,  \yho  drives  with  the  king  on  the  royal  chariot 

and  kills  a  boy,  throws  any  real  light  on  the  difficult  points 

of  the  hymn.     Nor  does  it  seem  to  me  that,  as  is  the 

opinion   of.  Prof.   Hillebrandt  (Zeitschrift   der  Deutschen 

Morgenlandischen  Gesellschaft,  XXXIII,  248  seq.),  the  first 

six  verses,  which  Hillebrandt  considers  as  an  independent 

hymn,  contain  a  description  of  how  the  fire  which  they 

try  to  produce  by  the  attrition  of  the  Arams,  does  not 

appear.    In  my  opinion  the  hymn — which  is  really  one 

hymn  as  the  tradition  gives  it — is  a  prayer  of  a  person 

who  suffers,  who  feels  himself  bound  by  the  fetters  of 

distress  (verse  7)  and  persecuted  by  the  power  of  Rakshas 

(verses  9,  10).     Agni,  formerly  resplendent,  has  decayed 

and  has  forsaken  him  :  may  Agni  be  restored  to  his  former 

might  (verse  6),  and  may  we  ourselves  be  released  from 

all  distress  (verse  7,  &c.).    Possibly  the  hymn  is  connected 

with  the  rite  of  Punarddheya,  where  the  sacrificial    fire 

which  has  brought  no  luck  to  the  sacrificer,  is  extinguished, 

and  after  an   interval  a  new  fire  is  established   (H.O., 

Religion  des  Veda,  p.  353).    There  may  of  course  be  other 

special  points,  beyond  the  reach  of  our  conjectures,  which, 

if  known,  would  elucidate  several  of  the  obscure  allusions 

so  frequent  in  the  first  verses  of  the  hymn. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  boy  very  probably  is  Agni. — With  the 
words  simubdham  guh4  bibharti,  cf.  1, 158, 5.  siisamubdham 
ava-ddhu>i. 

Note  2.  Not  without  hesitation  I  translate  mindt  as  if 
it  were  the  middle  mindndm.  Possibly  the  word  means :. 
'which  violates  (the  ordinances)/  i.e.  which  does  not  shine 
and  bring  luck  to  men  as  it  usually  does.  Nd  seems,  as  it 


MAJVi)ALA   V,    HYMN    2.  369 

usually  docs  (cf.  Delbruck,  Altindische  Syntax,  p.  543), 
to  belong  to  the  whole  clause,  and  not  to  minit. 

Note  3.  Bohtlingk-koth  and  Grassmann  conjecture 
aratndu;  Hillebrandt,ar&tdu  ;  Geldner  (Festgruss  an  Roth, 
192),  drdtau.  Geldner  seems  to  be  right  (cf.  verse  6), 
though  it  will  scarcely  be  possible  to  determine  what  con- 
crete being  was  here  thought  of.  Geldner  says,  '  Gemeint 
ist  die  Pu&Hka,  welche  die  Gluth  des  Feuers  entfuhrt  hat ; ' 
but,  as  has  already  been  observed,  I  do  not  think  that  this 
traditional  story  on  the  meaning  of  our  hymn  is  of  any 
real  value. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  of  Pesht  is  unknown.  The  word 
seems  anyhow  to  describe  the  wrong  mother  as  low  or 
contemptible.  Agni  is  degraded  by  sojourning  with  her, 
while  his  proper  nature  is  glorious,  for  he  is  the  queen's 
son. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Agni  has  forsaken  his  proper  dwelling. 

Note  2.  On  vipr/kvat,  cf.  Taitt  SawhitS.  III,  i,  6,  2! 
yuna^-mi  tisraV/  vipr/£a//  sfiryasya  te ;  V^f.  Sa/#hit£  IX,  4. 
sampr/£au  stha/j  sam  md  bhadre'tfa  prmktam  ;  vipr/£au 
stha//  vl  m£  pdpmand  prmktam.  Vi-prtfe  seems  to  mean, 
consequently,  4  to  free  something  from  an  admixture/  and 
amr/tam  vipr/kvat  seems  to  be  ambrosia  in  which  dwells 
the  power  of  getting  free  from  bad  admixtures.  Thus  in 
the  passage  quoted  from  the  Taitt.  Sawhita  the  Sun  is 
referred  to  as  thrice  cleared  from  all  impure  elements.  It 
is  quite  uncertain  whether  the  expression  used  here  refers 
or  not  to  the  myth  of  the  churning  of  the  ocean  (Geldner, 
loc.  cit.),  and  I  do  not  think  that  we  should  translate 
amr/tam  vipr/kvat,  as  Geldner  does,  *  das  was  sich  als 
Nektar  ausscheidet' 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  I  read  with  Bbhtlingk-Roth  sumddyutham. 
Note  2.  The  young  women  seem  to  be  hostile  beings  c*, 
[46]  B  b 


370  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


the  same  kind  as  the  young  woman  mentioned  in  verse  2. 
They  try  to  seize  Agni,  but  he  has  been  born  already; 
his  fiery,  unassailable  nature  has  been  formed.  I  do  not 
pretend  to  know  what  it  means  that  then  those  female 
foes  become  grey  with  age.  *  I  think  they  are  the  Dawns 
who  hold  Agni  in  the  dark  ;  but  when  he  escapes  and 
is  actually  born,  they,  the  Dawns,  become  grey.'  M.  M. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  The  relative  pronoun  ydsh&m  seems  to  refer  both 
;o  the  bull  (maryakdm)  and  to  the  cows  (g6bhiA).  The 
bull  probably  is  Agni  who  has  been  separated  from  the 
cows,  i.e.  the  oblations,  prayers,  &c.  (?)  '  Possibly  the  bull 
Agni,  the  rising  sun,  has  been  separated  from  the  cows,  the 
clouds  or  dawns.'  M.  M. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Vas£m  r^nam.  I  cannot  follow  the  interpre- 
tation of  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  210. 

Note  2.  Or  nf  dadu^, c  they  have  bound  him*?  Cf.  dva 
srz^antu  in  the  third  P£da,  and  nfditam  in  verse  7. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  The  whole  verse  is  nearly  identical  with  X,  32, 6. 

Note  2.  I  consider  afyeA  (cf.  Bartholomae,  Arische 
Forschungen,  II,  72,  76;  Studien  zur  Indogermanischen 
Sprachgeschichte,  I,  21)  as  2nd  sing,  pluperfect  of  the 
root  i. 

Note  3.  Varu//a  ? 

Verse  11. 

Note  1.  With  the  second  P&da  compare  I,  130,  6  ;  V, 
*9,  15- 

Verse  12. 

Note  1.  The  bull  of  course  is  Agni. 


M AM) ALA   V,    HYMN    3.  371 

MAJVZ?ALA  V,  HYMN  3. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  16-17. 

1.  Thou,  O  Agni,  art  Vanma,  when  born;  thou 
becomest  Mitra  when  kindled.     In  thee,  O  son  of 
strength,  the  VijvedevSs  (dwell).     Thou  art  Indra 
for  the  mortal  worshipper. 

2.  Thou  becomest  Aryaman  when  thou  bearest l 
the  secret  name  of  the  maidens,  O  self-dependent 
one.     They  anoint  (thee)  with  cows  *  like  the  well- 
established  Mitra 3,  when  thou  makest  husband  and 
wife  one-minded. 

3.  For  thy  glory  the  Maruts  have  cleansed  them- 
selves *,  who   are   thy  fair  and   brilliant   offspring, 
O  Rudra  2 !     The  footprint  of  Vishnu  which  is  put 
down  in  the  highest  place  :  therewith  thou  protectest 
the  secret  name  of  the  cows. 

4.  By  thy  beauty,  O  god,  the  gods  are  beautiful 
to   behold1.     Assuming   many   (powers   or  goods) 
they  attached  themselves  to  immortality.    Men  have 
set  down  Agni  as  the  Hot*7,  the  U^fs,  honouring 
(him),  the  praise  of  Ayu  2. 

5.  There  is  no  (other)  Hotrt  before  thee,  a  better 
sacrificer1 ;  no  one  surpasses  thee,  O  self-dependent 
one,  by  wisdom.     And  that  house  of  which  thou  art 
the  guest,  he 2,  O  god,  will  overcome  the  mortals  by 
his  sacrifice. 

6.  May  we  overcome  the  mortals,  O  Agni,  pro- 
tected by  thee,  striving  for  wealth,  awaking  (thee) 
with  offerings ;  may  we  (overcome  mortals)  in  the 
contest,  in  the  distribution l  of  days  ;  may  we  (over- 
come them)  by  wealth,  O  son  of  strength  ! 

B  b  2 


372  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


7.  If  a  man  should   turn  upon  us  sin  or  guilt, 
bring  ye  the  evil  on  him  who  pronounces  evil  spells 
(against  us).     Destroy,  O  knowing  one,  such  a  curse, 
O  Agni,  (of  a  man)  who  injures  us  by  falsehood. 

8.  Thee,  O  god,  the  ancient  (mortals)  have  made 
their  messenger  at  the  break  of  this  (dawn),  and 
have  sacrificed  with  their  oblations,  when  thou  goest 
along,  O  Agni,  in  the  abode  of  wealth,  a  god  kindled 
by  the  mortals  and  by  the  Vasus. 

9.  Protect  the  father— drive  away  (evil)  as  the 
knowin^^one — (the  tather)  who  is  considered1  as 
thy  son,  O   son   of  strength  2.     When,  O   sapient 
(Agni),  wilt  thou  look  upon  us  ?     When  wilt  thou, 
who  knowest  7?/ta,  requite  (human  deeds)  ? 

10.  The   father.1  adoring  gives  many  names  to 
thee,  O  Vasu,  if  thou  shouldst  take  pleasure  therein. 
Will  not  Agni,  delighting  in  his  divine  power,  grant 
us  his  favour,  he  who  has  grown  strong  ? 

11.  Thour indeed,  O  Agni,  youngest  one,  bringest 
thy  praiser  across  all  dangers.     Thieves  have  been 
seen  and  deceitful  men;  dishonest  people  have  come 
with  unknown  designs. 

12.  These   our   processions   have   been   directed 
towards  thee.     Yes,  to  thee,  the  Vasu,  this  guilt  has 
been  confessed.      Verily  this  Agni,  grown   strong, 
will  never  surrender  us  to  the  curse  nor  to  him  who 
does  harm  to  us. 

NOTES. 

The^/shi  isVasiuruta  Atreya;  the  metre  is  Trish/ubh.— 
No  verse  of  this  hymn  occurs  in  the  other  SawhitSs. 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  I  think  that  we  must  read  bfbharshi. 


MAJV.DALA   V,    HYMN    3.  373 

Note  2.  I.e.  with  butter. 

Note  3.  On  Mitra  as  the  god  of  alliances,  and  the 
anointing  of  Mitra — possibly  of  an  object  that  represents 
Mitra— see  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  p.  186,  note  i.  Cf. 
also  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  93  seq. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  I.e.  they  have  adorned  themselves.  Cf.  VII, 
39,  3.  ur£v  antarikshe  matgayanta  subhr£/i. 

Note  2.  Rudra  of  course  is  here  a  name  of  Agni. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Sudr/jaA,  which  I  have  translated  as  nom.  plur., 
may  also  be  understood  as  gen.  sing. :  c  by  thy  beauty, 
who  art  beautiful  to  behold,  O  god,  the  gods,  assuming,  &c.' 

Note  2.  Cf.  Narlrawsa. — This  hemistich  is  nearly 
identical  with  IV,  6,  n. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Comp.  above,  III,  17,  5. 
Note  2.  The  construction  is  rather  free. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  Viditheshu  dhnim  :  cf.  above,  I,  31,  6,  note  2 
(p.  26  seq.). 

Verse  9. 

Note  1.  See  Neisser,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XVIII, 
310. 

Note  2.  Bergaigne  (Religion  Wdique,  II,  103)  proposes 
to  read  yodhi  without  accent  and  to  derive  it,  as  Delbrtick 
does,  from  yu  (not  from  yudh);  he  translates  the  first 
hemistich :  '  Protege-nous,  £carte  le  p&re  qui  passe  pour 
ton  fils.'  I  think  that  he  is  right  as  to  the  verb  yu,  but 
that  the  accent  of  y6dhi  is  correct ;  the  words  yodhi  vidv£n 
form  a  parenthesis.  Agni  is  invoked  to  protect  the  father 
of  the  sacrificing  tribe  (comp.  verse  10),  or  the  father  of 


374  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Agni  himself,  i.e.  the  sacrificer  or  the  priest,  who  is  him- 
self considered,  at  the  skme  time,  as  the  son  of  Agni  (see 
Bergaigne,  I,  37  seq. ;  Geldner,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  167). 

Verse  1O. 

Note  1.  '  The  father '  may  either  be  the  father  spoken 
of  in  verse  9  (see  verse  9,  note  a).  Or  the  word  may  refer 
to  Agni :  c  He  who  adores  thee,  gives  many  names  to  thee, 
if  thou,  the  father,  O  Vasu,  &c.' 


MAA'DALA   V,    HYMN   4.  375 

MANDALA   V,   HYMN  4. 
ASHTAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  18-19. 

1.  Thee,  O  Agni,  the  treasure-lord  of  treasures, 
I   gladden   at   the   sacrifices,    O   king!      May  we, 
striving  for  gain,  conquer  gain  through  thee;  may 
we  overcome  the  hostilities  of  mortals. 

2.  Agni,  the  bearer  of  oblations,  our  ever-young 
father,  is  mighty,  brilliant,  beautiful  to  behold  among 
us.     Shine  (on  us)  food  with  a  good  household1. 
Turn  all  glory  towards  us 2. 

3.  Establish  Agni  as  the  Hotrt,  the  sage  of  the 
clans,  the  lord  of  Tiuman  clans,  the  bright  purifier, 
whose  back  is  covered  with  ghee,  the  omniscient. 
May  he  obtain  the  best  goods  (for  us)  among  the 
gods. 

4.  Enjoy  thyself,  O  Agni,  joined  with  !<&,  uniting 
thyself  with  the  rays  of  the  sun.     Enjoy  our  fuel, 
O  G&tavedas,  and  bring  the  gods  hither  that  they 
may  eat  our  offerings. 

5.  Welcome,  as  our  household-god  and  the  guest 
in  our  dwelling,  come  to  this  our  sacrifice  as  the 
knowing   one.      Dispelling,   O   Agni,   all    (hostile) 
attempts,  bring  to  us  the  possessions  of  those  who 
are  at  enmity  with  us. 

6.  Drive    away   the    Dasyu    with    thy  weapon, 
creating  strength  for  thy  own  body.     When  thou 
bringest  the  gods  across  (to  us),  O  son  of  strength, 
then,  O  manliest  Agni,  protect  us  in  (our  striving 
for)  gain. 

7.  May  we  worship  thee,  O  Agni,  with  hymns, 
with  offerings,  O  purifier  with  glorious  light.     Stir  for 
us  wealth  with  all  goods ;  bestow  on  us  all  riches ! 


376  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


8.  Enjoy,    O    Agni,   our  sacrifice,   our  offering, 
O  son  of  strength  who  dwellest  in  three  abodes. 
May  we  be  well-doers  before  the  gods.     Protect  us 
with  thy  thrice-protecting  shelter. 

9.  Bring  us  across  all   difficulties  and  dangers, 
O  G&tavedas,  as  with  a  boat  across  a  river.     Agni, 
being  praised  with   adoration  as   (thou   hast  been 
praised)  by  Atri,  be  a  protector  of  our  bodies. 

10.  When  I,  the  mortal,  call  thee,  the  immortal, 
thinking  of  thee  with  humble  mind  \  bestow  glory 
on   us,  O  G&tavedas ;   may   I   attain  immortality, 
O  Agni,  with  my  offspring. 

11.  The  well-doer  to  whom  thou,  O  Agni  G&ta- 
vedas,  createst  pleasant  freedom,  will  happily  attain 
wealth  with  horses  and  sons,  with  valiant  men  and 
cows. 

NOTES. 

The  same  /?*shi  and  metre.— Verse  i=TS.  I,  4,  46,  2. 
Verse  2=TS.  Ill,  4,  11,  i  ;  MS.  IV,  12,  6 ;  14,  15.  Verse 
5=AV.  VII,  73,  9  ;  TB.  II,  4,  i,  i ;  MS.  IV,  11,  i.  Verae 
9=TB.  II,  4,  i,  5;  TA.  X,  a,  i ;  MS.  IV,  10,  i.  Verses 
10,  ii=TS.  1,4,46,  I- 

Verse  2. 

Note  L  According  to  the  traditional  text,  su-g4rhapaty£A 
must  be  an  epithet  of  fshaA.  But  the  conjecture  of 
Bohtlingk-Roth,  su-g4rhapatydA,  has  great  probability: 
'  as  the  good  protector  of  our  household,  shine  food  on  us.' 
Cf.  AV.  XII,  2,  45=TB.  I,  2,  i,  20. 

Note  2.  The  second  hemistich  is  nearly  identical  with 
III,  54,  22. 

Verse  10. 
Hote  1.  See  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  221. 


MAtfDALA   V,    HYMN    5.  377 


MAM9ALA  V,  HYMN  5. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  20-21. 

APR!  HYMN. 

1.  Sacrifice  sharp  ghri'ta  to  the  well-kindled  light, 
to  Agni  G&tavedas. 

2.  May  the   unbeguiled    Narlsa^sa    make    this 
sacrifice  ready ;  for  he  is  a  sage  with  honey  in  his 
hand. 

31.  Agni,  magnified  by  us,  bring  hither  to  our 
help  the  bright,  beloved  Indra,  with  easy-going 
chariots. 

4.  Soft  like  wool 1  spread  thyself  (O  Barhis).    The 
hymns  have  been  sung  to  thee.    Be  to  us  for  success, 
O  beautiful  (Barhis) ! 

5.  O  divine,  easily  passable   doors    open  your- 
selves for  our  protection.     Fill  the  sacrifice  (with 
bliss)  further  and  further ! 

6.  We  approach  (with  prayers)  Night  and  Morn- 
ing, whose  face  is  beautiful,  the  increasers  of  vital 
strength,  the  two  young  mothers  of  J?ita. 

7.  On  the  wind's  flight,  magnified,  ye  two  divine 
Hotris  of  man,  come  hither  to  this  our  sacrifice. 

8  l.  I /4,  Sarasvatt,  and  Mahl,  the  three  comfort- 
giving  goddesses,  they  who  do  not  fail,  shall  sit 
down  on  the  sacrificial  grass. 

9.  Come  hither  as  a  friend,  Tvashfr*,  and  mighty 
in  welfare,  and  also  by  thyself,  protect  us  in  every 
sacrifice. 

TO.  Where  thou  knowest,  O  tree  (i.e.  sacrificial 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


post),  the  secret  names  of  the  gods,  to  that  place 
make  the  offerings  go. 

u.  Sv&hd  to  Agni  and  Varutfa!     Svdh&  to  Indra 
and  the  Maruts !   Sv4hA  to  the  gods  for  our  offering ! 


NOTES. 

The  same  Kishi.   Metre,  GAyatrf.— Verse  i=VS.  Ill,  a. 
Verse  9=TS.  Ill,  i,  n,  2.  Verse  io=TB.  Ill,  7,  2,  5. 

Verse  3. 
Note  1.  The  first  hemistich  is  identical  with  I,  142,  4. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  On  tfr#a-mrad£/;,  see  Lantnan,  Noun-Inflection, 
p.  5<5o. 

Verse  8. 
Note  1.  This  verse  is  identical  with  I,  13,  9. 


MAJVDALA  V,   HYMN  6.  379 

MAJVZ>ALA  V,  HYMN  6. 
ASH  FAR  A  III,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  22-23. 

1.  I  think  of  that  Agni  who  is  a  Vasu,  to  'whom 
the  milch-cows  go  home,  the  swift  horses  (go)  home, 
(our)  own  racers  (go)  home.     Bring  food   to   thy 
praisers ! 

2.  He  is  Agni  who  is  praised  as  the  Vasu,  he  to 
whom  the  milch-cows  come  together,  and  the  quickly 
running  horses,  and  the  well-born  liberal  patrons. 
Bring  food  to  thy  praisers ! 

3.  For  Agni,  dwelling  among  all  tribes,  gives  a 
racer  to  the  clan.     Agni  (gives  a  racer)  that  is  truly 
helpful  for  (winning)  wealth l :  he  (the  racer)  being 
well  cherished,  will  attain  precious  gain.    Bring  food 
to  thy  praisers ! 

4.  May  we  kindle  thee1,  Agni,  O  god,  the  brilliant, 
never  ageing,  in  order  that  yon  highly  miraculous 
fuel  of  thine 2  may  shine  in  the  sky.     Bring  food  to 
thy  praisers ! 

5.  To  thee  \  O  Agni,  our  oblation  is  offered  with 
a  Rik,  O  lord  of  bright  splendour,  highly  brilliant, 
wonderful  lord   of  the   clan,   carrier .  of  oblations ! 
Bring  food  to  thy  praisers ! 

6.  Those  Agnis  make  everything  precious  prosper 
in  the  Agnis  ;  they  drive  forward  (precious  wealth) ; 
they  incite  it ;  they  speed  it  hither  in  the  due  way l. 
Bring  food  to  thy  praisers ! 

7.  Those  flames  of  thine,  O  Agni,  the  racers,  have 
boasted  mightily — they  who  with  the  flight  of  their 


380  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


hoofs  have  made  tremble l  the  stables  of  the  cows. 
Bring  food  to  thy  praisers ! 

8.  Bring  fresh  food  with  fine  dwellings,  O  Agni, 
to  us,  thy  praisers !     May  we  be  of  those  who  have 
praised  (thee),  who  have  thee  as  their  messenger, 
house  by  house.     Bring  food  to  thy  praisers ! 

9.  Thou  warmest  in  thy  mouth,  O  highly  brilliant 
one,  the  two  (sacrificial)  ladles  full  of  butter.     And 
mayst  thou  fill  us  (with  gifts)  at  our  hymns,  O  lord 
of  strength  !     Bring  food  to  thy  praisers ! 

10.  Thus1   they   have   driven,    they   have   led2, 
Agni  in  the  due  way  by  prayers  and  sacrifices.    May 
he  bestow  on  us  plenty  of  valiant  men,  and  that 
plenty  of  swift  horses  (wished  for) 3.     Bring  food  to 
thy  praisers ! 


NOTES. 

The  same  liishi.  The  metre  is  Pankti. — Verse  i  =  SV? 
I,  425.  Verses  1-3  =  VS.  XV,  41,  42;  MS.  II,  13,  7. 
Verses  i,  3,  2  =  SV.  II,  1087-1089.  Verse  3  =  TB.  Ill,  n, 
6,  4.  Verse  4=SV.  I,  419  5  AV.  XVIII,  4,  88;  MS.  II, 
13,  7.  Verses  4,  5,  9  =  SV.  II,  37^-374;  TS.  IV,  4,  4,  6. 
Verse  9= VS.  XV,  43 ;  TS.  II,  3,  12,  7. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  At  first  sight  the  conjecture  of  Bohtlingk-Roth 
and  Grassmann,  rayfm,  is  very  tempting,  cf.  IX,  12,  9. 
rayhn  .  .  .  su-Abhiivam ;  X,  122,  3.  rayf«4  .  .  .  su-AbhiivA. 
I  believe,  nevertheless,  that  on  closer  examination  the 
traditional  text  will  prove  correct.  Sd  pritdA  evidently 
refers  to  the  racer  (v&gin)  cf.  I,  66,  4=69,  5.  vd^f  nd  pri't&i 
(cf.  also  "X,  1 01,  7.  prt/rftd  Irvdn) :  then  it  follows  that 
su-Abhiivam  also  refers  to  the  racer,  and  r&y£  (cf.  1, 100, 16; 
III,  53,  16)  will  be  quite  right. 


MAJVDALA  V,  HYMN   6.  38  I 


Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Te  stands  for  the  accusative  ;  see  Pischel,  Zeit- 
schrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenland.  Gesellschaft,  XXXV, 
715  ;  Delbruck,  Altindische  Syntax,  p.  205. 

Note  2.  This  refers  to  the  sun.  By  kindling  the  sacred 
fire  men  make  the  sun  rise.  See  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda, 
p.  no. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  The  pronoun  '  to  thee '  stands  twice,  te  in  the 
first  P£da  (where  it  is  repeated  from  the  first  P&da  of 
verse  4,  &  te  agne),  and  tiibhyam  (or  rather  tiibhya)  in  the 
fourth  Pada,  unless  we  construe  te  havi/i. 

Verse  6. 
Note  1.  See  Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  II,  127. 

Verse  7. 
Note  1.  See  Gaedicke,  Der  Accusativ,  p.  57. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  On  the  nasalization  of  eva&,  cf.  H.  O.,  Prolego- 
mena, p.  469  seq. 

Note  2.  Pischel  (Vedische  Studien,  II,  127)  explains 
zg\\h  as  a^ush,  the  contrary  of  sa^iish.  Bartholomae 
(Studien  zur  Indogennanischen  Sprachgeschichte,  II,  159, 
note  2  ;  cf.  Indogermanischc  Forschungen,  III,  108,  note  i) 
conjectures  a^ur  (  =  a^man)  yamu/* :  'sic  habcn  ihn  jetzt 
auf  seiner  Bahn  festgehaltcn.'  I  believe,  as  Saya;/a  does, 
that  this  a^uryamu/*  contains  two  independent  verbs,  a^u// 
and  yamu^,  which  are  quite  correct  forms  of  the  roots  dig 
and  yam  (see  Delbruck,  Altindisches  Verbum,  p.  65).  As 
to  ag,  cf.  VI,  2,  8.  a^ydse  agne  va^f  na ;  V,  30,  14.  atya// 
na  \digi  raghii/i  a^yamana/z ;  as  to  yam  II,  5,  I.  rak^ma 
vd^-fnaA  (i.e.  agneA)  yamam.  But  should  not  the  accent 
be  yamu/*  ? 

Note  3.  The  fourth  Pdda  is  identical  with  VIII,  6,  24, 


382  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MANDALA  V,  HYMN  7. 
ASH7AKA  III,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  24-25. 

1.  O  friends,  (bring)  together  your  united  food 
and  praise  to  Agni,  the  strongest  (god)  of  (human) 
dwellings,  the  offspring  of  Vigour,  the  mighty  one — 

2.  At  whose   onslaught ],  wherever   it  be,   men 
rejoice  in  the  seat  of  men,  whom  the  worthy  ones 
kindle,  whom  (human)  creatures  produce. 

3.  When  we  get  together  the  food  and  the  offer- 
ings of  men,  he  has  grasped,  with  the  strength  of 
his  splendour,  the  rein  of  /frta. 

4.  He  indeed  produces  light  even  by  night  to 
him  who  is  afar,  when  he,  the  ever-young  purifier, 
destroys  the  lords  of  the  forest. 

5.  He  at  whose  officiating  (men)  pour  down  the 
offering  of  their  sweat  on  the  paths — to  Him  who  is 
noble  by  his  own  nature,  the  worlds  have  risen  as 
to  ridges  (of  hills) — 

6.  He  whom  the  mortal  has  acquired,  the  much- 
desired  (god),  for  the  refreshment  of  every  one,  the 
sweetener  of  nourishment,  the   homestead  for  the 
Ayu — 

7.  He  indeed,  the  beast,  mows  off  deserts  and 
habitable  land   like  a  mower,  th.e   golden-bearded 
with    brilliant    teeth,    the    jRibhu    of   undecaying 
strength. 

8.  The  bright  one  for  whom  (the  ghrzta)  streams 
(quickly)  like  an  axe  \  as  at  (the  sacrifice  of)  Atri. 
Him  the  well-bearing  mother  has  born,  as  soon  as2 
she  had  enjoyed  love 3. 

9.  He  who  satisfies  thee  for  refreshment,  O  Agni 


MAtfDALA  V,  HYMN  7.  383 

who  drinkest  butter :  mayst  thou  bestow  splendour, 
renown,  and  (wise)  mind  on  such  mortals l. 

10.  Thus  I  have  seized  upon  the  spirit  of  Adhrif  (?) 
as  upon  a  head  of  cattle  given  by  thee l.  May  then 
Atri,  O  Agni,  overcome  the  Dasyus  who  do  not 
give  (to  the  Brahmans) ;  may  Isha  overcome  the 
men  (who  do  not  give). 


NOTES. 

The  Rishi  is  Isha  Atreya  (cf.  verse  10) ;  the  metre  is 
AnushAibh  (verse  10,  Pahkti). — Verse  i=VS.  XV,  29; 
TS.  II,  6,  n,  4 ;  IV,  4,  4,  3  5  MS.  IV,  u,  i.  Verses  2,  3 
=TS.  II,  i,  n,  3 ;  MS.  IV,  12,  4. 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  Ydsya  sdm-rztau :  see  I,  127,  3. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  With  the  expression  svddhiti//-iva  rfyate  (Lan- 
man,  Noun-Inflection,  p.  375),  compare  V,  48,  4.  ritim 
paraj6A-iva.  Of  course  we  must  ask:  what  is  the  thing 
that  streams  so  brightly  and  quickly  as  an  axe  moves  ? 
The  thing  in  question  is  stated  to  stream  (riyate)  for  Agni 
now  as  it  did  at  Atri's  sacrifice.  The  expression  'as  at 
Atri's  sacrifice '  seems  to  show  that  something  like  prayers 
or  libations  is  alluded  to.  The  verb  riyate,  on  the  other 
hand,  seems  to  point  either  to  rivers,  or  to  streams  of  Soma 
or  of  Ghri'ta.  Thus,  considering  that  Ghr/ta  is  mentioned 
much  more  frequently  in  connection  with  Agni  than  Soma, 
we  are  led  to  the  conclusion  that  the  poet  speaks  here  of 
streams  of  Ghrita.  Should  we  not  for  s\\k\h  read  sufci, 
which  would  be  here  as  in  IV,  i,  6;  VI,  10,  2 ;  IX,  67,  12, 
an  epithet  of  Ghrita  ?  '  He  for  whom  the  bright  (Ghrfta) 
streams  quickly  like  an  axe/  The  origin  of  the  reading 


384  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


s\ik\k  may  easily  be  accounted  for ;  the  word  was  thought 
to  refer  to  Agni. — Another  interpretation  of  this  hemistich 
has  been  given  by  Benfey,  Vedica  und  Linguistica,  p.  177. 

Note  2.  Kr£;*£ :  cf.  I,  58,  3,  note  i  (p.  47). 

Note  3.  'Sobald  sie  den  Liebesgenuss  erlangt  hatte.' 
Pischel,  Ved.  Studien,  I,  71. 

Verso  9. 

Note  1.  The  first  hemistich  speaks  of  the  worshipper  in 
the  singular,  the  second  in  the  plural. 

Verse  10. 

Note  1.  This  hemistich  is  quite  obscure.  With  manyiim 
&  dade,  cf,  for  instance,  X,  48,  2.  dasyubhya/*  pari  nmn#am 
&  dade.  Adhn^a//  may  be  the  genitive  of  a  proper  name, 
as  I  have  translated  it ;  but  this  is  quite  doubtful.  Was 
the  hymn  intended  for  a  charm  in  which  the  sacrificer 
seized  a  head  of  cattle  which  represented  the  spirit  of  an 
enemy,  and  thus  deprived  that  enemy  of  his  courage  ? 


MAAWALA  V,    HYMN    8.  385 

MAJVZ>ALA  V,  HYMN  8. 
ASHFAKA  III,  ADHYAYA  8,  VARGA  26. 

> 

1.  Thee,  O  Agni,  the  men  who  loVe  /frta  have 
kindled,  the  ancient  ones  thee  the  ancient,  for  the 
sake  of  bliss,  O  (god)  who  art  produced  by  strength  ; 
the  highly-brilliant,  worshipful,  in  whom  all  refresh- 
ment dwells,  the  household  goc},   the    lord  of  the 
house,  the  chosen. 

2.  Thee,  O  Agni,  the  clans  have  set  down,  the 
ancient  guest,  the  flame-haired  lord  of  the  house, 
with  mighty  light,  with  many  shapes,  the  winner  of 
prizes,  giving  good  shelter  and  good   help,  who  is 
busy  among  the  decayed  (wood)  \ 

3.  Thee,  O  Agni,  the  human  clans  magnify,  who 
knowest  (the  art  of  sacrificial)  libations,  who  sepa- 
ratest  (what  was  mixed)  \  the  highest  bestower  of 
treasures,  who,  (though)  dwelling  in  secret,  O  blessed 
one,   (yet)  art  visible   to   all,   mightily  roaring,  an 
excellent  sacrificer,  shining  with  ghee. 

4.  Thee,  O  Agni,  the  supporter,  we  always  h%ve 
praised  with  our  songs  and  have  sat  down  near  thee 
with  adoration.     Thus  being  kindled,  O  Angiras,  be 
pleased  with  us,  as  a  god  through  the  mortal's  bril- 
liant (offering)  \  with  thy  glorious  splendours. 

5.  Thou,    O    Agni,    manifold-shaped,    bestowest 
vigour  on  every  house  in  thy  ancient  way,  O  much- 
praised  one!     Thou  rulest  with  might  over  much 
food.      This    impetuousness   of 'thine,    when    thou 
rushest  forward  impetuously,  is  not  to  be  defied. 

6.  Thee,  O  Agni,  when  kindled,  O  youngest  one, 
the  gods  have  made  their  messenger  and  bearer  of 

[46]  c  c 


386  •  VEDIC    HYMNS 


oblations.  Thee  who  extendcst  over  wide  spaces, 
who  dwellest  in  ghee,  into  whom  offerings  are  poured, 
they  have  made  their  eye,  impetuous,  stirring 
thoughts. 

7.  Thee,  O  Agni,  on  whom  offerings  of  ghee  are 
poured,  (men)  desirous  of  thy  favour  have  kindled 
from  of  old  with  good  fuel.  Thus,  grown  strong, 
increased  by  the  plants,  thou  spreadest  thyself  over 
the  terrestrial  spaces. 


NOTES. 

The  same  jfr'shi.  Metre,  Gagatl — Verse  3  =  TS.  Ill,  3, 
ji,  2.  Verses  6,  7  =  TB.  I,  2,  i,  12. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  Padapd/^a  gives  ^arat-vfsham.  I  prefer 
this  explanation  to  ^ara-dvfsham  ('  who  hates  decay '). 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Agni  is,  in  the  later  ritual,  worshipped  as 
'separator*  (vi'vi£i),  if  the  sacrificed  fires  have  become 
mixed  with  other  fires.  See  Taittirfya  Br£hma//a  III,  7, 
3,  5  ;  Satapatha  Brdhmawa  XII,  4,  4,  2  (where  this  very 
verse  is  quoted),  &c. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  For  yajas&,  Bohtlingk-Roth  conjecture  y£ras£, 
which  seems  to  me  a  conjectura  nimis  facilis.  I  think 
that  the  adjective  ya^asd  is  right,  and  that  a  noun,  meaning 
'offering'  or  the  like,  should  be  supplied.  Cf.  above,  IV, 
i,  1 6,  note  4. 


MAJVtfALA    V,     HYMN    9.  387 


MAA^/?ALA  V,  HYMN  9. 
ASH7AKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  1. 

1.  Thee,  O  Agni,  the  god,  mortals  bringing  offer- 
ings magnify.     I  deem  thce  the  (7£tavedas.     Carry 
then  the  offerings  (to  the  gods)  in  thy  due  way. 

2.  Agni  is  the  Hotrz  of  the  dwelling  where  they 
offer  gifts  and  spread  the  sacrificial  grass,  he  with 
whom  sacrifices,  with  whom  glorious  gains  assemble. 

3.  And  he  whom  the  kindling-stick  has  born,  the 
young   one,   like   a   young   (calf),   the   supporter   of 
human  clans,  Agni  the  best  sacrificer — 

4.  And  thou  showest  thyself  hard  to  seize  like 
a  son  of ...  \  thou  who  art  a  burner  of  many  woods, 
O  Agni,  like  an  animal  (that  consumes  all  grass) 
on  a  meadow 2. 

5  l.  And  he  whose  smoky2  flames  come  together, 
when  Trita  in  heaven  blows  upon  him  like  a  smelter, 
sharpens  (him)  as  in  smelting  (him)3. . . 

6.  May  I   through    thy  protection,  O  Agni,  and 
through   the  praises  of  Mitra — may  we l,  like  dis- 
pellers  of  malice,  overcome  the  dangers  of  mortals. 

7.  Bring  this  wealth  to  us,  O  powerful  Agni,  to 
(these  our)  men.     May  he  l  give  us  dwelling ;  may 
he  l  give  us  prosperity  ;  may  he  *  help  us  in  winning 
booty.     And  help  us  to  grow  strong  in  fights ! 

NOTES. 

The  AYshi   is  Ca)ra  Atieya  i'cf.  V,  10,  3);   tlie  metre  is 
Anush/ubh  (verses  .;  an  I  7.  Panktil— Verse  f  =  TB.  11,4. 


388  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  4. 

Note  1.  PutraA  nd  hv&ry£«£m.  The  meaning  of  hvarya 
is  conjectural.  Cf.  on  hvara,  to  which  it  very  probably  is 
related,  I,  141,  7,  note  i  ;  II,  2,  4,  note  i.  Does  hvarya 
mean  'serpent/  or  a  kind  of  horse  (VI,  2,  8.  atya^  na 
hvarya^  sisuk)  ? 

Note  2.  The  last  Pada  is  identical  with  VI,  2,  9.  Con- 
sidering the  occurrence  of  the  word  hvaryd  here  and  in 
VI,  2,  8  (see  note  i)  we  cannot  believe  that  this  is  merely 
a  casual  coincidence. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  On  this  verse,  compare  Neisser,  Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage,  XX,  40 ;  Macdonell,  Journal  Roy.  As.  Soc.,  1 893, 
p.  446. 

Note  2.  Dhumfna/6  may  be  gen.  sing. :  '  he  whose,  the 
smoky  (god's),  flames.' 

Note  3.  Ludwig  and  Neisser  (Bezz.  Beitr.,  loc.  cit.) 
regard  dhmatari  (Padap.  dhmatari)  as  a  nom.  sing,  mascu- 
line. I  think  that  Geldner  (Vedische  Studien,  I,  146,  note  i) 
and  Bartholomae  (Indogermanische  Forschungen,  I,  496, 
note  2)  are  right  in  explaining  it  as  a  locative  infinitive. 
Compare  also  Johansson,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXX,  41.5; 
Joh.  Schmidt,  Pluralbildungen  der  Indogennanischen 
Neutra,  p.  247.  Macdonell  translates,  'as  in  a  smelting 
furnace/ 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  poet,  who  has  begun  his  sentence  in  the  first 
person  singular  ('  may  I '),  goes  on  in  the  plural. 

Verse  7. 
Note  1.  '  He,'  i.  e.  Agni,  or  '  i't,'  i.  e.  the  wealth  ? 


MAJWALA   V,    HYMN    IO.  389 

MANDALA  V,  HYMN  10. 
ASHTAKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  2. 

1.  Agni,  bring  us  the  mightiest  splendour,  O  liberal 
one 1 1    With  wealth  and  plenty  cleave  a  path  for  us 
to  booty. 

2.  Thou,  O  wonderful  Agni,  (protect)  us,  through 
thy  power  of  mind,  through  the  bounteousness  of 
thy   strength.     Upon   thee   mysterious   power  has 
entered.     (Thou  art)  indeed l  like  worshipful  Mitra. 

3.  Thou,  O  Agni,  increase  for  our  sake  the  do- 
minion and  the  prosperity  of  those  liberal  givers, 
(of  those)  men  who  have  accomplished  liberalities 
(towards  us)  for  our  songs  of  praise. 

4.  They  who  adorn  prayers  for  thee,  O  bright 
Agni,  the  givers  of  horses1:  those  men  are  powerful 
in  their  power,  whose  glory  awakes  by  itself  (shin- 
ing) more  mightily  than  even  the  sky 2. 

5.  Those  shining  flames  of  thine,  Agni,  go  fiercely 
along,  like   lightnings  (flashing)  around  the  earth, 
like  a  thundering  chariot  bent  on  victory. 

6.  Now  then,  Agni,  (come)  for  our  protection,  and 
for  the  reward  of  the  urgent  (worshipper)!     May 
our  liberal  patrons  pass  across l  all  regions 2 ! 

7.  Thou,  O  Agni,  Angiras,  who  hast  been  praised 
and  who  art  being  praised,  bring  us,  O  Hot/7,  wealth 
which  overpowers  (even)  skilful  men,  to  thy  praisers, 
and  thou  shalt  be  praised  by  us.     And  help  us  to 
grow  strong  in  fights l. 


39O  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  same  JRishi.  Metre,  Anush/ubh  (verses  4,  7,  Pankti). 
— Verse  i- SV.  I,  81.  The  hymn  .seems  to  stand  parallel 
with  V,  9. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  On  adhrigo,  compare  above,  III,  31,  4,  note  i 

(P.  284). 

Vorse  2. 

Not&^l.  Kra;/£  :  sec  I,  58,  3,  note  i  (p.  47) ;  von  Bradke, 
Dyaus  Asura,  p.  35  ;  Pischcl,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  71. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Sumbhanti  a^va-radhasa// ;  see  X,  21,  2. 

Note  2.  On  the  ablative  dependent  on  a  positive, 
compare  Speijer,  Sanskrit  Syntax,  p.  78,  and  see  also 
Delbruck,  Grundriss  der  vergleichahden  Grammatik 
(Brugmann),  III,  i,  316;  Pischel,  Gottinger  Gelehrte 
Anzeigen,  1884,  509. 

Verse  o. 

Note  1.  On  the  use  of  this  infinitive,  see  Delbruck,  Alt- 
indische  Syntax,  p.  416. 

Note  2.  The  last  Pada  is  identical  with  IV,  37,  7. 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  The  last  words  are  identical  with  those  of  V,  9, 
16,  17. 


MAOTMLA    V,    HYMN    II. 


MANDALA  V,  HYMN  11. 
ASH7V\KA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  3. 

1.  The   guardian   of  people,    the   watchful    one, 
Agni,  the  highly  dexterous,  has  been  born,  for  the 
sake  of  new  welfare.     With  ghre'ta  on  his  face,  with 
his    mighty,  heaven-touching  (light)  he,  the  bright 
one,  brilliantly  shines  for  the  Bharatas. 

2.  Agni,  the  beacon  of  sacrifice,  the  first  Purohita1 
men  have  kindled  in  the  threefold  abode  *.    (Driving) 
on  the  same  chariot  with  Indra  and  with  the  gods, 
he,   the  highly  wise   Hot^/,  has    sat   down   on   the 
Barhis  for  sicrificing. 

3.  Though  not  cleansed,  thou  art  born  bright  from 
thy  two  mothers l.     Thou  hast  arisen  as  the  joy- 
giving  sage   belonging  to  Vivasvant 2.     They  have 
strengthened  thee  by  ghr/ta,  O  Agni,  into  whom 
oblations   are    poured.     Smoke,   reaching   the    sky, 
has  become  thy  beacon. 

4.  May  Agni  straightway  come  to  our  sacrifice. 
Men  carry  Agni  here  and  there,  house  by  house. 
Agni   has   become   the   messenger,   the   carrier   of 
oblations.    Choosing  Agni  they  choose  a  thoughtful 
(god). 

5.  For  thee,  O  Agni,  is  this  sweetest  speech,  for 
thee  this  prayer ;  may  this  one  do  thy  heart  good 1 1 
The   prayers  fill  thee  with  power  and  strengthen 
thee,  like  great  rivers  the  Sindhu. 

6.  Thee,  O  Agni,  who  wert  hidden,  dwelling  here 
and  there   in  every  wood,  the  Angiras  have  dis- 
covered \    Thus  thou  art  born,  produced  by  attrition, 
a  mighty  force.     Thee,  O  Angiras,  they  call  the 
son  of  strength. 


392  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  /fc'shi  is  Sutambhara  Atreya,  the  metre  Cagatl. — 
Verses  i,  6,  a  =  SV.  II,  257-259;  TS.  IV,  4,  4,  2-3. 
Verses  i,  6,  5= MS.  II,  13,  7.  Verses  i,  6  =  VS.  XV, 
27-28.  Verse  3=TB.  II,  4,  3*  3- 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  This  P£da  is  identical  with  the  first  P£da  of  X, 
122,  4. 

Note  2.  The  three  sacrificial  fires  are  alluded  to. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  The  two  kindling-sticks. 

Note  2.  VivasvataA  is  genitive,  not  ablative,  as  Pischel, 
Vedische  Studien,  I,  241,  believes.  Agni  opens  his  earthly 
career  by  doing  service  at  the  sacrifice  of  Vivasvant,  i.  e. 
originally,  in  my  opinion,  the  first  man.  Comp.  H.  O., 
Religion  des  Veda,  p.  132. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  On  the  curious  'spelling  manish£  iydm  in  the 
Sawhitd  text,  instead  of  manisheydm,  see  the  Rig-veda 
PrStLyakhya  163  ;  H.  O.,  Prolegomena,  p.  386. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  ancestors  of  the  priestly  tribes,  being  the 
first  priests  themselves,  discover  Agni. 


MAJWALA    V,    HYMN    12.  393 

MAJVMLA  V,  HYMN  12. 
ASH7AKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  4. 

1.  To  the  mighty,  sacrificial   Agni,  to  the  bull 
of  TvYta1,  the  Asura,  I  bring  this  prayer  and  this 
song,  which  is  turned  towards  him,  to   (him)  the 
bull,  as  well-clarified   gh^zta    (is   poured)    into   his 
mouth  at  the  sacrifice. 

2.  O  knower  of  Rite,  know  the  Rite  \     Bore  for 
many  streams  of  Rite.     I  (do)  not  (serve)  a  Ydtu  l 
by  violence  nor  by  falsehood ;  I  serve  the  Rite^oi 
the  red  bull 2. 

3.  How,  O   Agni,  performing  the  Rite  through 
Rite,  mayst  thou  become  a  witness  of  our  newest1 
hymn  ?     -The  god,  the   protector   of  the   seasons, 
knows  of  my  seasons 2.     I   (do)  not  (know  another) 
lord  but  him  who  attains  (for  us)  this  wealth. 

4.  Who,  O  Agni,  are  thy  fetterers  to  (fetter)  the 
impostor 1  ?     What  brilliant  guardians  were  success- 
ful ?     Who,  O  Agni,  drink  the  drink  of  falsehood  ? 
Who  are  the  protectors  of  untrue  speech  ? 

5.  These  friends  of  thine,  O  Agni,  turning  them- 
selves from  (thee)1,  they  who  had  been  kind,  have 
become    unkind.     They   have   harmed   themselves 
by  their  own  speeches,  uttering  wrong  words  to  the 
righteous. 

6.  He  who  magnifies  thy  sacrifice,  O  Agni,  by 
adoration,  and  serves ]   the  Rite  of  the  red  bull : 
may  a  large,  good  dwelling  come  to  him,  to  the 
offspring  of  the  advancing  Nahusha. 


394  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  same  AVshi  ;  the  metre  is  Trish/ubh.  —  No  verse  of 
this  hymn  occurs  in  the  other  Sa;«hitas. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  The  genitive  r/tasya  seems  to  depend  on  w/sh;/e, 
not  on  manma.  On  the  connection  of  Agni  with  the  /Cz'ta, 
see  Bergaigne,  III,  229  seq.  ;  H.O.,  Religion  dcs  Veda,  201. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  A  bad  demon. 
Note  2.  Of  Agni. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  I  think  that  navya//  stands  for  navyasa//. 
Thus  Ludwig  translates:  '  des  neuen  liedcs.'  It  sccrns 
evident  that  it  is  not  the  nominative  of  navy?,  'praise- 
worthy1 (Bdhtlingk-Roth,  Grassmann). 

Note  2.  Probably  we  ought  to  read  r/taptf  r/tanam. 
Cf.  IV,  23,  4.  devaA  bhuvat  naveda/i  me  r/tanam,  and  see 
III,  20,  4,  note  i  (above,  p.  282).  The  translation  will  be: 
1  The  god,  the  protector  of  7?zta,  knows  of  my  (deeds  of) 


Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Or  ripava/*  ?  '.Who,  O  Agni,  are  the  impostors 
who  fetter  thee  ?  ' 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  On  v/shuwa/*,  compare  V,  34,  6  :  asunvata/J 
vfshu;/a//  sunvata/z  vridhaA. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  The  second  verse  (ritam  sap£mi  arushasya 
vrishnaA)  shows  with  evidence  that  for  sa  pati  we  ought  to 
read  sdpdti  (see  Roth,  Kuhn's  Zeitschrift,  XXVI,  49,  and 
compare  on  the  expression  r/tam  sap,  Geldner,  Vedische 
Studien,  II,  135). 


MAJWALA    V,    HYMN   I  3.  395 


MANDALA  V,  HYMN  13. 
ASHTAKA  IV,  ADIIVAYA  1,  VARGA  5. 

1.  Praising  we  call  '  thee  ;  praising  let  us  kindle  l 
thee,  Agni,  praising,  for  thy  help. 

2.  Desirous    of    riches,    we    devise    to-day    an 
effective  song  of  praise,  of  Agni  the  heaven-touching 
god  \ 

3.  May  Agni  take  pleasure  in  our  prayers,  he  who 
is  the  Hotrt  among  men.     May  he  sacrifice1  to  the 
divine  host. 

4.  Thou,  O  Agni,  art  widely  extended,  the  gladly 
accepted,  desirable  Hotrt  \  through  thee  they  spread 
out  the  sacrifice. 

5.  The  priests   make    thee   grow,    O    Agni,    the 
greatest  acquirer  of  wealth,  the  highly  praised  one. 
Bestow  thou  on  us  abundance  of  heroes. 

6.  Agni !    Thou  encompassest   the   gods  as  the 
felly  (encompasses)  the  spokes  (of  a  wheel).     Thou 
strivest 1  for  brilliant  wealth. 


NOTES. 

The  same  J?ish\.  The  metre  is  G&yatri. — Verse  2  =  MS. 
IV,  10,  2  (cf.  TS.  V,  5,  6,  i).  Verses  2-4=  SV.  II,  755-757- 
Verse  4=TB.  11,4,  1,6 ;  MS.  IV,  10,  2.  Verse  5  =  TS.  I,  4, 
46,  3;  MS.  IV,  11,  4.  Verse  6  =  TS.  II,  5,  9,  3.  As  the 
Sama-veda  forms  a  Tri£a  of  the  verses  2-4,  not  1-3  or 
4-6,  we  have  here  an  instance  of  those  liberties  which  the 
arrangers  of  the  Sama-veda  not  unfrequently  took  with 
regard  to  the  Rig-veda  text  (see  H.  O.,  Zeitschrift  der 
Deutschen  Morgenlandischen  Gesellschaft,  XXXVIII,  469 


396  VEDIC    HVMNS. 


seq.)  ;  we  have  no  reason,  in  such  a  case,  to  resort  to  such 
an  expedient  as  changing  the  traditional  order  of  verses  in 
the  Rig-veda  text. 

Verse  1. 
Note  1.  We  have  first  the  indicative,  then  the  optative. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Divispr/sa/i  no  doubt  is  genitive  sing,  referring 
to  Agni,  not  nominative  pi.  referring  to  the  worshippers. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Ludwig  is  right  in  observing  here  :  *  eigentlich  er 
spreche  die  y^yas  als  einladung  fur  die  gotter.' 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  On  rzV/^ase,  comp.  Bartholomae,  Indogerma- 
nische  Forschungen,  II,  281  ;  Ncisser,  Bezzenberger's  Bei- 
trage,  XX,  59.  I  take  the  form  here  as  2nd  singular. 


MAtfDALA   V,    HYMN    14.  397 


MAMPALA  V,  HYMN  14. 
ASHTAKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  6. 

1.  Awaken  l  Agni  by  thy  song  of  praise,  kindling 
(him)  the  immortal  one.    May  he  place  our  offerings 
among  the  gods. 

2.  Him,  the  immortal  god,  the  mortals  magnify  at 
their  sacrifices,  the  best  sacrificer  among  the  tribe 
of  men. 

3.  Him  indeed  they  all  magnify,  the  god,  with  the 
(sacrificial)  ladle  that  overflows  with  ghrz'ta,  Agni,  in 
order  that  he  may  bear  the  oblation. 

4.  Agni  when  born  has  shone,  killing  the  Dasyus, 
(killing)  darkness  by  light.     He  has  found  the  cows, 
the  waters,  the  sun  !. 

5.  Worship  Agni,  the  sage  who  should  be  magnified, 
whose  back  is  covered  with  ghrzta.     May  he  come 
and  hear  my  call l. 

6.  They  have  made  Agni  grow  by  ghrzta,  him 
who  dwells  among  all  tribes,  and  by  longing,  eloquent 
praises. 

NOTES. 

The  same-/?*shi  and  metre. — Verse  i=TS.  IV,  i,  11,4; 
MS.  IV,  10,  i ;  VS.  XXII,  15.  Verse  3=TS.  IV,  3, 13,  8  ; 
MS.  IV,  10,  i.  Verse  4=MS.  IV,  10,  2. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  We  have  no  reason  and,  unless  we  write  bodhayd, 
no  rigtyt  for  taking  bodhaya  as  an  equivalent  of  bodhaydni 
(Ludwtg). 


VEDTC    HYMNS. 


Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Agni  is  considered  here,  as  is  done  frequently, 
as  the  performer  of  deeds  which  properly  belong  to  Indra 
(see  H.  O.,  Religion  des  Veda,  98  seq.).  Indra  is  the 
conqueror  of  the  cows  and  of  the  waters  ;  as  to  the  sun,  it 
may  be  said  of  both  gods  with  the  same  right  that  they 
have  acquired  it  for  mankind  (Religion  des  Veda,  no  seq. ; 
T  50  seq.). 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Although  me  can  be  accusative  (Pischel, 
Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenlandischen  Gesellschaft, 
XXXV,  714  seq.),  I  have  no  doubt  that  it  is  here  genitive, 
and  depends  on  havam.  Cf.  II,  24,  15.  ve*shi  me  havam  ; 
X,  61,  4.  vitam  me  yagnam. 


MAtfDALA    V,    HYMN    15.  399 

MAJV7MLA  V,  HYMN  15. 
ASHTAKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  7. 

1.  I  bring  a  prayer  to  the  worshipper,  the  renowned 
sage,  the  glorious,  ancient  one.     Agni  is  the  highly 
gracious  Asura,  taking  his  seat  in  ghrz'ta,  the  holder 
of  wealth,  supporting  goods. 

2.  By  jRrta.  they  have  supported  the  supporting 
/?zta,  near  the  powerful  (performer)1  of  sacrifice,  in 
highest  heaven,  the  men  who  sit 2  on  the  supporting 
support    of    the    sky,    and    who   with    born    (men) 
attained  to  the  unborn. 

3.  Dispelling  anguish T   they  spread  out  for  the 
ancient  one2  his  bodies3,  mighty  vital  power,  difficult 
to  overcome.     May  he,  the  new-born,  traverse  the 
spaces.     They  have  stood  round  him  as  round  an 
angry  lion. 

4.  When  thou  earnest,  spreading  out,  man  after 
man   like  a  mother,  for  their  nourishment  and  for 
their  sight,  when   thou  growest  old  *  assuming  life 
after  life,  thou  goest  around  by  thyself  in  manifold 
shapes. 

5.  May  gain   protect  now  the  boundaries  of  thy 
strength,  the   wide,  firmly   supporting    milkstream * 
of  wealth,  O  god  !      Putting  down  thy  foot  in  secret 
like  a  thief2,  thou  hast  enlightened  and  freed  Atri 
for  the  sake  of  wealth  mightily 3. 


400  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  Rishi  is  Dhanwa  Ahgirasa  (cf.  dharii;/a//  vasvaA 
agnf//,  verse  i ;  ritam  dharu«am,  divd//  dharman  dharviwe, 
verse  2;  d6gham  dharu^am,  verse  5) ;  the  metre,  Trish/ubh. 
— No  verse  of  this  hymn  occurs  in  the  other  Sawhitas. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  It  may  be  asked  whether  jaka,  beside  its  mean- 
ing 'the  powerful  (helper),'  may  also  mean  'the  power.' 
This  would  suit  very  well,  V,  30,  10.  sam  t£h  (scil.  g&i) 
indra//  asnjfat  asya  jakaf/f ;  VI,  19,  4.  tarn  vaA  fndram 
£atfnam  asya  sSkaM  iha  ntindm  Vci^ayantaA  huvema.  The 
translation  then  would  be:  'by  the  power  of  sacrifice/ 
Bohtlingk-Roth  conjecture  .$£ke. 

Note  2.  I  believe  that  sediishaA  stands  for  the  nominative, 
cf.  dev£A  dbibhyusha//,  I,  11,5;  S.  B.  E.  XXXII,  p.  28. 
This  sedushaA  led  on  to  a  second  accusative  standing  for 
the  nominative,  nrtn. — The  men  sitting  on  the  support  of 
the  sky  seem  to  be  the  forefathers  who  have  established  the 
universal  laws,  the  Ahgiras. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  I  consider  awhoyiivaA  as  nom.  plur.  masc.,  but  it 
may  also  be  gen.  sing,  masc.,  or  ace.  plur.  fern.,  as  an 
epithet  either  of  Agni  or  of  his  tanva//. 

Note  2.  The  ancient  one  (purvya)  seems  to  be  Agni 
(cf.  verse  i). 

Note  3.  Cf.  VI,  46,  12.  yatra  jurdsaA  tanvaA  vitanvat^. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  I  think,  like  Ludwig,  that  £arase  should  be  ac- 
cented. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  These  are  accusatives. — Cf.  on  this  passage, 
Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  I,  39  seq. 

Note  2.  Cf.  H.  O.,  Prolegomena,  p.  73. 

Note  3.  Cf.  VI,  i,  2.  mahdA  rAy£  £it£yanta^.  —  See 
Geldner,  Vcd.  Studien,  I,  268. 


MAJVDALA  V,  HYMN    1 6.  4OI 

MAA^ALA  V,  HYMN  16. 
ASH7AKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  8. 

1.  Sing1  (a  song  that  gives)  mighty  vital  power, 
to  the  light,  to  god  Agni,  whom  the  mortals  have 
placed  in  front 2  like  Mitra  by  their  praises 3. 

2.  For  he,  Agni,  the  Hotri  of  men,  day  by  day, 
in  the  arms  of  Daksha,  discloses  the  offering  in  the 
due  way,  as  Bhaga  l  (discloses)  a  treasure. 

3.  (We  abide  [?])  in  his  praise,  the  liberal  (god's), 
in  his  friendship,  the  mightily  brilliant  one's,  in  whom, 
the    loudly   roaring    Aryan,  all    (beings)    have    put 
together  their  strength. 

4.  For   verily,  O    Agni,   (thou    belongest  [?])    to 
them1  through   thy  bounteousness 2  in  (bestowing) 
abundance  of  heroes.    Him  indeed,  the  vigorous  one, 
his  glory  the  two  worlds  could  not  encompass  3. 

5.  Now  then,  Agni,  come  hither  and,  being  praised, 
bring  treasure l  to  us  who,  we  ourselves  and  our 
liberal  givers,  may  acquire  welfare  together.     And 
help  us  to  grow  strong  in  fights. 

NOTES. 

The  .tf/shi  is  Pflru  Atreya  (cf.  17,  i) ;  the  metre  Anush- 
/ubh  (verse  5,  Pahkti).  This  hymn  and  V,  17  are  parallel 
hymns;  the  concluding  words  of  both  are  identical  (see 
also  V,  9,  7  ;  10,  7). —Verse  i  =  SV.  I,  88. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Ar£4  may  be  first  or  second  person. 
[46]  D  d 


402  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Note  2.    Dadhir£  purdA:   they  have  made  him  their 
Purohita. 
Note  3.  Comp.  above,  V,  9,  6. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  Bhaga,  the  divine  Bestower  or  Dispenser  of 
riches,  cf.  Herbert  Baynes.  The  Biography  of  Bhaga 
(Actes  du  huiti&me  Congr£s  intern,  des  Orientalistes,  Sect.  II, 
fasc.  T,  pp.  83  seq.). 

Verse  4. 
Note  L  To  them,  i.  e.  the  Maghavans.    Compare  below, 

18,3-4. 

Note  2.  Mawhan£  seems  to  be  instrumental.  Comp.  10. 
a;  18,  3. 

Note  8.  Agni  is  himself  yahva ;  so  nd  cannot  be  the 
comparative  particle,  but  it  must  be  the  negation.  Simi- 
larly it  is  said  in  II,  16,  3  that  Heaven  and  Earth  cannot 
encompass  the  indriya  of  Indra ;  cf.  also  X,  27,  7. 

Verse  5. 

Jfote  1.  Vciryam  seems  to  depend  on  A  bhara.  With  the 
whole  phrase  compare  the  first  P4da  of  V,  17,  5. 


MAN0ALA  V,    HYMN    17.  403 

MAJV/?ALA  V,  HYMN  17. 
ASH7AKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  9. 

1.  May   the   mortal   truly  by  sacrifices,  O  god, 
(magnify)    the    stronger   one    for    help ;    may   the 
Pflru,   when    good    service    has    been    performed, 
magnify  Agni  (and  thereby  draw  him)  hither  for 
his  aid. 

2.  For    thou   art    manifestly  considered  as  his 
(i.e.  Agni's)  disposer,  highly  brilliant  by  thyself1: 
(magnify  then  Agni  who  is)  a  firmament  of  bright 
splendour,  lovely  beyond 2  thought 8. 

3.  (It   is)    yonder   (sun  ?)    who   verily  has   been 
yoked    by    his    (i.  e.    Agni's)    light 1    through    the 
impetuous  speech  * — (by  the  light  of  Agni)  whose 
flames  mightily  shine  as  if  (they  were  made  to  shine) 
by  the  sperm  of  heaven  3. 

4.  Through  his,  the  wise  one's,  insight  there  is 
wealth  on  his,  the  wonderful  (Agni's),  chariot.     And 
Agni  is  praised,  he  who  is  to  be  invoked  among  all 
peoples. 

5.  Now  indeed  our  liberal  lords  have  manifestly 
attained1  treasure.     Offspring  of  vigour!     Protect 
us  for  the  sake  of  victory !     Help  us  to  welfare  ! 
And  assist  us  to  grow  strong  in  fights ! 


NOTES. 

The  same  ^ishi  and  metre. — No  verse  occurs  in   the 
other  Sawhitds. 

D  d  2 


404  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  2. 

Note  1.  I  have  translated  the  text  in  its  traditional 
form,  which  I  think  is  correct.  On  the  vocative  vidharman, 
comp.  Delbriick,  AltindisChe  Syntax,  p.  106.  One  could 
think,  however,  of  reading  vfdharman  as  a  locative,  and 
sviya-rastare,  and  of  considering  manyase  as  a  first  person, 
like  ar£ase,  &c. :  '  For  in  his  extension,  brilliant  by  itself, 
I  manifestly  comprehend  that  firmament/  &c. 

Note  2.  Cf.  VIII,  72,  3.  anta^  i££//anti  tam^ane  rudram 
para^  manishaya.  c  Ueber  alle  Vorstellung  hinaus.'  Ludwig. 

Note  3.  If  we  read  svayaj-astara/*,  vfdharman,  and  explain 
manyase  as  second  person,  the  following  translation  of  this 
difficult  verse  may  be  attempted:  'Thou  art  manifestly, 
indeed,  considered  as  very  brilliant  by  thyself  in  its  (the 
firmament's)  extension :  that  firmament  of  bright  splendour 
(I  praise),  lovely  beyond  thought/  It  is  not  very  probable, 
however,  that  asya  should  refer  to  anything  else  but  Agni. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Sayawa,  ^vhom  Ludwig  follows,  very  probably  is 
right  in  interpreting  asau  as  the  sun. — On  the  Sandhi, 
compare  Roth,  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenland. 
Gesellschaft,  XLVIII,  679. 

Note  2.  Through  the  sacred  spell,  by  which  the  sun  is 
made  to  rise  through  the  kindling  of  the  fire. — Cf.  VIII,  17, 
15.  tug£  .  .  .  gr/'bha'. 

Note  3.  Doe?  this  mean  that  Agni's  flames  shine  like 
lightning  which  receives  its  light  from  the  waters  of  the 
cloud,  the  sperm  of  heaven?  Cf.  IX,  74,  i,  where  it  is 
said  of  the  Soma  mixed  with  water :  diva//  retasa  sa£ate. 

Verse  6. 

Note  1.  I  think  that  sa^anta  should  be  accented,  because 
it  is  connected  with  hf. 


MAJVDALA   V,    HYMN    1 8.  405 

MANDALA  V,  HYMN  18. 
ASH7AKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  10. 

i.  May  Agrii,  beloved  of  many,  the  guest  of  the 
house 1,  be  praised  in  the  morning,  the  immortal  Who 
delights 2  in  all  offerings  among  the  mortals. 

2 '.  To  Dvita  who  by  the  liberal  power  of  his 
dexterousness  carries  away  injury2,  this  praiser  of 
thine,  O  immortal,  prepares  Soma  in  the  due  way. 

3.  I  call  for  your  sake  Him  who  flames  through 
long  life,  with  the  speech  that  belongs  to  the  liberal 
patrons l  whose  chariot  moves  uninjured,  O  giver 
of  horses  2 ; 

4.  And  in  whom  (dwells)  brilliant  thought,  who 
guard  the  hymns  of  praise  in  their  mouth,  (whose) 
sacrificial  grass  is  spread  in  the  realm  of  the  sun : 
they  have  invested  themselves  with  glory. 

5.  On  the   liberal   patrons  who  have  given  me 
fifty  horses  for  my  song  of  praise  *,  bestow  brilliant, 
mighty,  high  glory,  O  Agni ;  on  those  men  (bestow 
glory)  with  (valiant)  men,  O  immortal ! 

NOTES. 

The  Rishi  is  Mr/ktav4has  Dvita  Atreya  (see  verse  a) ; 
the  metre  is  the  same. — Verse  i  =  SV.  I,  85.  Verse  5= 
TB,  II,  7,  5,  a. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  VisM  . . .  dtithM :  cf.  above,  V,  3,  5. 
Note  2.  On  ran  with  the  accusative,  compare  Gaedicke, 
p.  76. 


406  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Verse  2. 

Note  I.  Compare  on  this  verse  Macdonell,  Journal  Roy. 
As.  Soc.,  1893,  p.  463  seq. 

Note  2.  Dvita,  who  seems  to  be  identified  with  Agni,  is, 
in  the  same  way  as  Trita  (see  Bloomfield,  Proceedings 
Amer.  Or.  Soc.,  March,  1894,  p.  cxix  seqq.),  supposed  to 
take  away  human  sin  and  all  sorts  of  mischief  and  misfortune 
(cf.  VIII,  47,  16.  Trit£ya  £a  Dvit£ya  £a  lishaA  dushvapnyam 
Vaha).  Thus  he  is  invoked  here  as  carrying  away  mr/ktA, 
i.e.  injury. 

Verse  3. 

Vote  1.  The  speech  of  the  priest  belongs  to  the  sacrificer 
who  has  engaged  him. 

Note  2.  This  seems  to  be  Agni,  with  an  evident  allusion 
to  the  human  giver  of  horses  (see  verse  5). 

Verse  5. 

Note  L  Sadhctstuti  seems  to  be  instrumental.  Cf.  Lan- 
man,  p.  381. 


MAJVZ)ALA  V,    HYMN    1  9.  407 


V,  HYMN  19. 
ASH7AKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  J,  VARGA  11. 

1.  They  are  born  for  retirement1.     Out  of  the 
cover  he  2  has  shone  forth,  being  a  cover  himself. 
In  the  lap  of  the  mother  he  looks  about  3. 

2.  Causing  him  to   discern  (the   pious  and   the 
impious  ?),  they  have  sacrificed.      With  unwinking 
eyes  they  protect  his   manly  power*     They  have 
penetrated  into  the  firm  stronghold  l. 

3.  The   people   of    .Svaitreya  *„  his    clans,   have 
thriven    brilliantly.     B^Tiaduktha    with    a    golden 
ornament  at  his  neck,  is  eager  for  the  race  as  if 
by  this  honey-drink  2. 

4.  Like  the  dear  milk  of  love1  —  (a  thing)    un- 
related witli  two  (things)  related  2  —  like  the  gharma 
vessel   with    booty   in   its    belly  —  undeceived,    the 
deceiver  of  all3. 

5.  Sporting,    O   beam    of  light,    appear   to   us, 
joined   with   the   ash,  with  the  wind.     May  those 
well  sharpened  ...  of  his,  standing  on  .  .  .  ,  be  sharp 
like 

NOTES. 

The  J?*shi  is  Vavri  Atreya  (cf.  verse  i.  pra  vavrdA  vavrfA 
£iketa).  The  metre  is  G£yatrt  in  verses  I,  2,  Anush/ubh 
in  yerses  3,  4,  Vir&frtipA  in  verse  5.  —  No  verse  occurs  in 
the  other  SawhitAs. 

This  Stikta  seems  to  be  anything  rather  than  an  ordinary 
Agni  hymn.  It  may  be  a  collection  of  verses  belonging 
to  an  Akhydna,  or  of  verses  serving  another  purpose  which 
we  can  scarcely  hope  to  discover.  In  several  parts  of  this 


408  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


Sftkta  I  must  content  myself  with  translating  the  words 
without  being  able  to  elucidate  the  poet's  meaning. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  I  translate  the  noun  avasth£  in  accordance  with 
the  Vedic  meaning  of  the  verb  ava-sth&.  Possibly  it  means 
the  secret  parts,  cf.  avastha,  A  V.  VII,  90, 3  (B.-R.).  Ludwig 
translates :  '  Ein  zustand  erzeugt  einen  andern,'  and  para- 
phrases, 'Nur  zustande  und  formen,  gestalten  lernen  wir 
kennen,  das  wesen  des  gottes  bleibt  uns  verborgen.'  This 
seems  too  modern.  Prof.  Max  Miiller  proposes:  'The 
remnants  (afterbirth)  have  been  brought  forth.  Skin  has 
shene  forth  from  skin.' — On  the  question  who  .are  the 
beings  '  born  for  retirement/  I  do  not  venture  any  conjecture. 

Note  2,  Is  Agni  meant  ? 

Note  3.  Cf.  X,  5,  i.  (AgnfA)  asmat  hridM  bhtfri^anma  vi 
£ash/e. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  seems  to  be  that  the  worshippers 
(possibly  the  first  worshippers,  the  Ahgiras),  by  discovering 
Agni  and  by  worshipping  him,  have  conquered  the  hostile 
strongholds. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  .Svaitreya  is  mentioned  as  a  victorious  hero  also 
*n  I,  33,  14- 

Note  2.  Does  this  phrase  allude  to  the  rite  of  offering, 
at  the  V&^apeya  sacrifice,  to  the  horses  that  were  going  to 
run  the  sacred  race,  a  naivdra  £aru  ?  In  the  Mantras  con- 
nected with  this  rite  the  words  occur:  '  Drink  of  this  honey- 
drink'  (asyd  mddhvaA  pibata).  See  Rig-veda  VII,  38,  8  ; 
Taittiriya  Sawhitd  I,  7,  8,  a ;  Weber,  Ueber  den  VA^apeya, 
P-3°' 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  retas  ? 

Note  2.  Does  this  refer  to  an  offering  or  the  like,  com- 
posed of  two  substances  related  among  each  other  (such  as 


MAJV7JALA  V,    HYMN    19.  409 

milk  and  butter),  and  a  third  substance  unrelated  (such 
as  rice)  ?     Of  course  all  this  is  absolutely  uncertain. 
Note  3.  Is  this  Agni  ? 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  The  meaning  of  dhrz'sh^,  vakshf,  vaksha*esth£ 
is  unknown. — On  the  first  hemistich  of  this  verse,  compare 
Pischel,  Vedische  Studien,  II,  54. 


4IO  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA  V,  HYMN  20. 
ASHTAKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  12. 

i l.  Whatever  good,  O  Agni,  best  acquirer  of  gain, 
thou  thinkest  (fit),  praise  thou  2  that  (good),  which 
is  celebrated  in  songs,  among  the  gods  as  our 
share. 

2.  They,  Agni,  who  do  not  set  into  motion  for 
thee    (prayers    or   offerings),  when    grown    full   of 
mighty  strength  *,  turn  away  to  encounter  the  hatred 
and   the  tricks  of  him  who  follows  another  (i.e. 
a  wrong)  law 2. 

3.  We  choose  thee  as  our  Hotrz,  Agni,  the  giver 
of  skill ;  offering  delight  (to  thee)  we  call  with  our 
prayer  (thee),  the  foremost  at  the  sacrifices. 

4.  So  that  we,  O  strong  one,  (may  be  ready)  for 
thy  favour,  for  wealth  and  /?/ta,  O  highly  wise  one  : 
thus  may  we  day  by  day  rejoice1  with  cows  and 
rejoice  with  heroes. 

NOTES. 

The  j?tshi  is  Prayasvanta  Atreya  (cf.  verse  3.  prayasvan- 
taA  havAmahe),  the  metre  Anush/ubh,  verse  4  Pahkti. — 
Verse  i=VS.  XIX,  64. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  Professor  Max  Miiller  proposes  to  read  v^£as£- 
tamam,  as  in  IX,  98,  i.  Pischel  (Vedische  Studien,  I,  sco) 
translates  this  verse :  '  O  Agni,  das  ruhmenswcrte  Gut,  das 
du  fur  geeignet  haltst,  das  preise  du  zugleich  mit  unsern 
Liedern  (no  glrbh/r  yilgam)  den  Gottern  an  (diis  vendita).' 
He  explains  :  '  Agni  soil  den  Gottern  Gut  bringen  mid  sic 


MAJTOALA    V,    HYMN    2O.  411 

veranlassen,  es  den  Menschen  fur  die  Lieder  zu  schenken.' 
I  cannot  follow  Pischel's  theory  about  the  identity  of  the 
roots  pan  and  pa#  (comp.  about  pan  the  quotations  col- 
lected by  Bartholomae,  Indogermanische  Forschungen, 

III,  180);  and  the  paraphrase  '  diis  vendita '  seems  inad- 
missible to  me.     I  differ  from  Pischel,  besides,  in  the  inter- 
pretation of  yii^am  ;  cf.  rayfm  . .  .  yu^am,  IV,  37,  5 ;  ray£ 
yu£4,  VII,  43,  5;  95,4. 

Note  2.  Neisser,  Bezzenberger's  Beitrage,  XX,  55,  explains 
panaya  as  standing  for  panayama,  and  compares  V,  56, 

»(?). 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  vrtdh  with  the  genitive,  compare  Delbriick, 
Altindische  Syntax,  p.  158  ;  Macdonell,  Journal  Roy.  As. 
Soc.,  1893,  p.  433.  Grassmann's  conjecture  vrfddha(v)  is 
a  failure. 

Note  2,1  With  the  second  hemistich  compare  VS. 
XXXVIII,  20  (5atapatha  Br£hma*a  XIV,  ?,  i,  9);  TAr. 

IV,  ii,4(cf.V,9,  7). 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Sy£ma  stands,  as  the  accent  shows,  in  an  inde- 
pendent clause.  Prof.  Max  Muller  proposes  to  change 
the  accent :  *  So  that  we  ...  may  for  thy  favour,  for  wealth 
and  /Ji'ta  day  by  day  rejoice  with  cows.' 


412  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


V,  HYMN  21. 
ASH7AKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  13. 

1.  Let  us  lay  thee  down,  as  Manus  did.     Let  us 
kindle  thee,  as  Manus  did.    O  Agni  Angiras,  sacrifice 
to  the  gods  for  the  worshippers  of  the  gods  as  (thou 
didst)  for  Manus. 

2.  For  thou,  O  Agni,  art  kindled,  highly  pleased, 
among   human    people.      To    thee    the    (sacrificial) 
ladles  proceed  in  due  order,  O  well-born  one  who 
drinkest  butter. 

3.  Thee   all    the   gods    unanimously  have    made 
their  messenger.     Serving  thee,  O  sage,  they  mag- 
nify at  the  sacrifices  (thee)  the  god. 

4.  Let  the  mortal   magnify  for  your  sake  Agni, 
the  god,  with  worship  as  is  due  to  the  gods.     Being 
kindled,   O  brilliant  one,  shine !     Sit  down   in   the 
abode  1  of  7?*"ta ;  sit  down  in  the  abode  '  of  herbs  2. 


NOTES. 

The  jRishi  is  Sasa  Atreya  (cf.  verse  4) ;  the  metre  is  the 
same. — Verse  i  =  TB.  Ill,  n,  6,  3. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Literally  '  in  the  womb.' 

Note  2.  On  sasa,  see  III,  5,  6,  note  a.     Is  the  abode 
(or  womb)  of  the  herbs  the  Barhis?  'Is  it  satyasya?'  M.M. 


MAtfflALA   V,   HYMN    22.  413 

MA.TOALA  V,  HYMN  22. 
ASH7AKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  14. 

i.  Lo,  Vlrvasciman!  Like  Atri  sing  to  him  who 
purifies  with  his  flames,  to  the  Hotrz  who  should 
be  magnified  at  the  sacrifices,  most  delightful  in 
the  clan. 

2 l.  Lay  down  Agni  G&tavedas,  the  god,  the 
priest.  May  the  sacrifice  which  best  encompasses 
the  gods,  proceed  to-day  in  due  order. 

3.  We,  the  mortals,  approaching  thee,  the  atten- 
tive-minded god,  for  thy  help,  have  thought  of  thy 
desirable  aid. 

4.  Agni,  be  intent  on  this — on  this  our  word  \ 
O  strong  one.    As  such,  O  strong-jawed2  lord  of 
the    house,   the  Atris    strengthen    thee    by    their 
praises ;  the  Atris  beautify  thee  by  their  prayers. 

NOTES. 

The  Rishi  is  Virvas&man  (see  verse  i) ;  the  metre  is  the 
same. — No  verse  of  this  hymn  occurs  in  the  other  Saw/hitfis. 

Verse  2. 
Note  1.  With  this  verse  compare  below,  V,  26,  7.  8. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  The  verb  Jkit  stands  here  first  with  the  genitive 
asyd,  then  with  the  accusative  iddm  va£a//. 
Note  2.  Compare  vol.  xxxii,  p.  301  (II,  34,  3,  note  3). 


414  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA  V,  HYMN  23. 
ASHTAKA  IV,  ADHYAYA^  1,  VARGA  15. 

1.  Agni,  bring  hither,  through  the  power  of  thy 
splendour,  powerful  wealth  which    may  manifestly 
prevail  over  all  tribes  in  the  (contests  for)  booty. 

2.  O  powerful  Agni !     Bring  hither  that  wealth 
powerful  in  battles.     For  thou  art  the  true,  won- 
derful giver  of  booty  rich  in  cows. 

3.  For  all  men  who  have  spread  out  the  sacrificial 
grass,  unanimously  ask  thee,  the  beloved  Hot/?*  in 
the  seats  (of  sacrifice),  for  many  boons. 

4.  For  he  who  dwells  among  all  tribes,  has  in- 
vested himself  with  power  against  assault l.     Agni ! 
In  these  dwelling-places  shine  to  us  richly,  O  bright 
one,  shine  brilliantly,  O  purifier! 


NOTES. 

The  Rishi  is  Dyumna  Virva£arsha#i  Atreya  (cf.  verse  i); 
the  metre  is  the  same. — Verses  1-2  =  TS.  I,  3,  14,  6-7. 

Verse  4. 

Note  1.  Is  abhimdti  (abhfmit!  ?)  a  dative  ?  Should  we 
read  abhimiti-sahd//  (cf.  X,  83,  4)  as  a  compound  :  *  he  has 
been  established  as  the  conqueror  of  assaults/ 


MAJVDALA   V,    HYMN    24.  415 

MAM9ALA  V,  HYMN  24. 
ASH7AKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  16. 

1.  Agni,  be   thou   our  nearest  (friend)  and  our 
kind,  protecting  guardian. 

2.  Agni  is  Vasu,  renowned  as  Vasu  (or,  renowned 
by  goods).     Obtain,  (and)  bestow  (on  us),  most  bril- 
liant wealth  \ 

3.  Listen  to  us  then ;   hear  our  call ;  deliver  us 
from  every  harmful  man. 

4.  We   entreat   thee    now,   O   brightest,    shining 
(Agni),  for  thy  grace,  for  our  friends. 

NOTES. 

The  JZtshis  are  the  Gaup£yanas  or  Laupdyanas,  Bandhu 
(verse  i),  Subandhu  (verse  2),  Srutabandhu  (verse  3), 
Viprabandhu  (verse  4).  The  metre  is  Dvipada  Vira^-. — 
Verses  i,  2,  4,  3  =  VS.  Ill,  25-26.  Verses  i,  4,  2,  3  =--  MS. 
I,  5>  3-  Verses  i,  2,  4  =  SV.  II,  457-459  i  VS.  XV,  48  ; 
XXV,  47.  Verses  i,  4.  a  =  TS.  I,  5.  <*,  *~3  I  IV,  4,  4,  8. 
Verse  i  =  SV.  I,  448. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  The  accusative  dyumdttamam  rayfm  seems  to 
depend  both  on  &kkh&  nakshi  and  on  da/4.  I  cannot  find 
any  reason  for  preferring  the  reading  of  SV.  and  TS. 
dyumdttama//  (Ludwig). 


416  VEDIC    HYMNS. 


MAM9ALA  V,  HYMN  25. 
ASHTAKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  17-18. 

1.  Address  thy  song1  for  your  sake  to  the  god 
Agni,  for  his  help.     He  is  our  Vasu.     May  the  son 
of  the  dawns(?)2  give  us  (wealth).    May  the  righteous 
one  help  us  across  our  enemies. 

2.  He  is  the  true  one,  whom  the  men  of  old, 
whom  the  gods  have  kindled,  the  Hotrt  with  the 
delightful  tongue,  rich  in  splendour  with   glorious 
shine. 

3.  As  such,  with  thy  widest  thought  and  with  thy 
best  favour,  shine  wealth  on  us,  excellent  Agni,  for 
our  beautiful  praises '. 

4.  Agni   reigns   among   the   gods,   Agni   among 
mortals,  entering  among  them.     Agni  is  the  carrier 
of  our  offerings.     Serve  ye  Agni  with  prayers  ! 

5.  Agni    gives   to   the   worshipper   a   son    most 
mightily  renowned,  a  knower  of  mighty  spells,  most 
excellent,  unconquered,  who  brings  renown  to  his 
lord '. 

6.  Agni  gives  a  good  lord  who  is  victorious  in 
battles  with  his  men ;  Agni  (gives)  a  steed,  swiftly 
running,  victorious  (in  races),  unconquered. 

7.  Sing  mightily  to  Agni  the  (song)  which  may 
best  bring  him  (to  us),  O  (god)  rich  in  splendour l ! 
From  thee  (proceeds)  wealth  (mighty)  like  a  buffalo- 
cow  2 ;  from  thee  proceed  gains, 

8.  Thy  brilliant  flames  resound  mightily  like  the 
pressing-stone  (of  the  Soma)1,     And   thy  roaring 
arose  like  thunder  by  itself  from  heaven 2. 


MAMDALA   V,    HYMN    25.  417 

9.  Thus  we  have  paid  homage,  desirous  of  goods, 
to  powerful  Agni.  May  he,  the  highly  wise  one, 
help  us, *as  with  a  ship,  across  all  enemies. 


NOTES. 

The  ^?/shis  are  the  Vastiyava^  AtreyAA  (cf.  verse  9) ; 
the  metre  is  AnushAibh.  Verse  5= MS.  IV,  n,  i.  Verse  6 
=  MS.  IV,  n,  i.  Verse  7  =  SV.  I,  86;  VS.  XXVI,  12; 
TS.  I,  i,  14,  4.  The  Stikta  consists  of  hymns  of  three 
verses  each. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  On  g£si,  comp.  Neisser,  Bezzenberger's  Bei- 
trage,  XX,  70,  note  i  ;  Bartholomae,  Indogermanische 
Forschungen,  II,  278,  283. 

Note  2.  Rish&n£m:  comp.  above,  I,  127,  10,  note  5. 

Verse  3. 
Note  1.  On  suvrsktf,  comp.  above,  II,  4,  i,  note  i. 

Verse  5. 
Note  1.  I.e.  to  his  father  ?    Or  to  his  patrons  ? 

Verse  7. 

Note  1.  This  vocative  very  probably  refers  to  Agni. 
Note  2.  Or  '  like  a  king's  consort '  ?  It  may  be  doubted 
whether  the  difference  of  accent  (mdhishi  and  mahish?) 
holds  good  for  the  Rig-veda. — Comp.  on  mdhishiva,  Roth, 
Zeitschr.  der  Deutschen  Morgenland.  Gesellschaft,  XLVIII, 
680. 

Verse  8. 

Note  1.  Br/hat  is  not  the  name  of  the  Saman ;  cf.  X, 
64,  15  (100,  8).  gr£va  yatra  madhu-siit  u£yate  brihat. 
Comp.  Hillebrandt,  Vedische  Mythologie,  I,  p.  153. — The 
singular  u£yate  is  explained  by  the  connection  with  gr£v£. 

Note  2.  With  the  last   P^da  comp.  the  conclusion  of 
V,  52,  6  (vol.  xxxii,  p.  312). 
•[46]  £  e 


41 8  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


MAJVZ?ALA  V,  HYMN  26. 
ASH7AKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  19-20. 

1.  Agni,  purifier!    With  thy  splendour,  with  thy 
delightful  tongue,  O  god,  bring  hither  the  gods  and 
perform  the  sacrifice. 

2.  Thee  therefore  we  approach,  who  swimmest  in 
ghrz'ta x,  O  (god)  with  brilliant  light,  thee  of  sun-like 
aspect.     Bring  hither  the  gods  that  they  may  feast. 

3.  Let  us  kindle  thee,  O  sage,  the  brilliant  offerer 
of  feasts  (to  the  gods),  O  Agni,  the  mighty  (god)  at 
the  sacrifice. 

4.  Agni,  come  hither  with  all  the  gods  to  the  gift 
of  the  offering.     We  choose  thee  as  our  Hotrt. 

5.  Bring  to  the  sacrificer  who  presses  (Soma),  Agni, 
abundance  of  heroes.     Sit  down  on  the  sacrificial 
grass  together  with  the  gods. 

6.  Being  kindled,  Agni,  conqueror  of  thousandfold 
(wealth),  thou  makest  the  ordinances  (of  the  world) 
thrive,  the  praiseworthy  messenger  of  the  gods. 

7l.  Lay  down  Agni  £&tavedas,  the  carrier  of  offer- 
ings, the  youngest,  the  god,  the  priest. 

8.  May  the  sacrifice  which  best  encompasses  the 
gods,   proceed   to-day  in   due   order.     Spread   the 
sacrificial  grass  that  (the  gods)  may  sit  down  on  it. 

9.  May  the  Maruts,  the  Ajvins,  Mitra  and  Varuwa 
sit  down  on  this  (sacrificial  grass),  the  gods  with  all 
their  folk. 


MAJWALA  V,    HYMN  26.  419 


NOTES. 

The  same  Rishis.  Metre,  Giyatri.  Verses  1-3  =  SV.  1 1, 
871-873.  Verse  i  =  TS.  I,  3,  14,  8;  5,  5,  3 ;  IV,  6,  i,  2 ; 
MS.  I, '5,  i ;  II,  .10,  i ;  IV,  10,  i ;  VS.  XVII,  8.  Verse  3 
=TS.  I,  i,  n,  a;  VS.  II,  4;  comp.  MS.  I,  i,  X2.  Verse  7  = 
MS.  IV,  n,  i. 

As  V,  26,  this  Sftkta  also  consists  of  Tri&a,  hymns. 

Verse  2. 

Note  L  Comp.  above,  IV,  2,  3,  note  i. 

Verse  7. 
Note  1.  With  verses  7  and  8,  compare  above,  V,  22,  2. 


£62 


42O  VEDIC    JT'MNS. 


MAA^Z?ALA  V,  HYMN  27. 

IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  21. 


1.  The  good  lord  has  presented  me  with  two  oxen 
together  with  a  car,  the  most  brilliant  Asura  among 
the  liberal  givers1.     Tryaruwa,  the  son  of  Triwz- 
shan,  O  Agni  Vai^vSnara  2,  has  distinguished  him- 
self by  (his  gift  of)  ten  thousand  (cows  ?)  8. 

2.  To  him  who  gives  me  one  hundred1  and  twenty 
cows   and   two  fallow  steeds,  harnessed  and  well- 
yoked,  to  Tryaruwa  grant  thy  protection,  Agni  Vai^- 
v&nara,  who  art  highly  praised  and  grown  strong. 

3.  Thus,   O  Agni,   desiring  thy  favour1,  Trasa- 
dasyu2    (sings)    for   the    ninth    time3    to    thee   the 
youngest  (god)  —  Tryaru^a  who  responds  to  my,  the 
Strong-born's,  many  hymns  with  (the  gift  of)  a  yoked 
(chariot)  4  — 

4  l.  Who  may  thus  announce  me  2  to  A^vamedha 
the  liberal  (prince)  :  may  he  give  to  him  who  with 
his  verse  strives  for  gain  ;  may  he  give  to  him  who 
lives  in  the  Jltta.  for  (acquiring)  wisdom  3  — 

5.  A-rvamedha  whose  gifts,  a  hundred  speckled 
bulls,  delight  me  like  Soma  juices  with   threefold 
admixture  l. 

6.  Indra-Agni  !  Bestow  on  Asvamedha,  the  giver 
of  a  hundred  (bulls),  abundance  of  heroes  and  mighty 
royal  power,  like  the  never-ageing  Sun  in  heaven. 


MANDALA  V,  HYMN  27.  421 


NOTES. 

The  jRishis  are  Tryaru;/a  Traivr/sh«a,  Trasadasyu  Pauru- 
kutsya,  and  A^vamedha  Bharata,  or,  according  to  others, 
Atri  alone.  The  metre  is  TrishAibh  in  verses  1-3, 
Anush/ubh  in  verses  4-6. 

The  position  of  this  Stikta  shows  that  it  is  a  later 
addition  to  the  original  collection. 

Verse  1. 

Note  1.  With  Delbriick,  Grassmann,  von  Bradke  (Dyaus 
Asura,  p.  67)  I  read  magh6nam  instead  of  magh6na^.  Cf. 
Ill,  3,  4.  dsura/;  vipa//-£ft£m. 

Note  2.  On  the  invocation  of  Agni  in  Danastutis,  comp. 
H.  O.,  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen  Morgenlandischen  Gesell- 
schaft,  XXXIX,  87. 

Note  3.  Geldner  (Ved.  Studien,  I,  268)  is  right  in  ob- 
serving: *  Hier  ist  unter  sahasr£;/i  eine  bestimmte  Geld- 
oder  Wertsumme  zu  verstehen,'  and  in  adding  that  it  is 
not  necessary  that  such  a  sum  consisted  in  cows. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  On  .?at£,  '  one  hundred/  compare  Delbriick> 
Altindische  Syntax,  p.  83. 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Cf.  X,  148,  3.  sumatim  /takina//. 

Note  2.  That  is,  very  probably,  a  descendant  of  Trasa- 
dasyu. 

Note  3.  I  do  not  adopt  Sdyar/a's  explanation  navama/K 
=  navatam£#i,  though  I  do  not  know  what  the  number 
4  nine '  means  here.  Ludwig  is  absolutely  right  in  ob- 
serving '  dass  man  eben  hier,  wo  es  sich  urn  speciellc 
concrete,  uns  aber  sonst  her  nicht  bekannte  verhaltnisse 
und  ereignisse  handelt,  eben  sich  bescheiden  muss,  nicht? 


422  VEDIC   HYMNS. 

zu  wissen.' — Prof.  Max  M tiller  believes  that  navish/^Aya 
makes  navamam  for  navatamam  excusable  :  *  to  the  newest 
god  the  newest  song.' 

Note  4.  S&ya#a  supplies  to  yuktcna,  not  rathena,  but 
manas£. 

Verse  4. 

Hote  1.  I  do  not  think  that  Ludwig  is  right  in  believing 
that  with  verse  4  a  new,  independent  section  begins. — 
Comp.  on  this  verse,  vol.  xxxii,  p.  304  (II,  34,  7,  note  3). 

Hote  2.  Me  may  be  accusative,  as  it  frequently  is. 
Should  it  be  a  dative,  we  should  have  to  translate :  *  Who 
may  tell  A  jvamedha  for  my  sake.' 

Note  3.  Medh£m  can  scarcely  depend  on  dddat ;  wisdom 
is  not  a  gift  which  liberal  princes  may  bestow  on  singers. 

Verse  5. 

Note  1.  Of  milk,  curds,  and  barley.  See  Hillebrandt, 
Vedische  Mythologie,  I,  p.  209. 


MAM) ALA   V,    HYMN    28.  423 

MAAT/?ALA  V,  HYMN  28. 
ASHTAKA  IV,  ADHYAYA  1,  VARGA  22. 

1.  Agni  kindled  has  sent  his  light  to  the  sky; 
turned  towards  the  dawn  he  shines  far  and  wide. 
(The  sacrificial  ladle)  goes  forward  with  adoration, 
rich  in  all  treasures,  magnifying  the  gods  with  sacri- 
ficial food. 

2.  Being  kindled  thou  reignest  over  immortality  ; 
thou  attendest  for  welfare  the  man  who  prepares  the 
sacrificial  food.     He  whom  thou  furtherest,  acquires 
all  wealth    and   puts  in  front  hospitality  (towards 
thee),  O  Agni  *. 

3.  Agni,  show  thy  prowess  for  the  sake  of  great 
bliss.     May  thy  splendours  be  highest.     Make  our 
householdership  easy  to  conduct  *.     Set  thy  foot  on 
the  greatness  of  those  who  show  enmity  to  us. 

4.  I  adore  thy  beauty,  Agni,  who  hast  been  kindled, 
who  art  highly  exalted.     A  bull,  brilliant  art  thou. 
Thou  art  kindled  at  the  sacrifices. 

5.  Being  kindled,  Agni  into  whom  offerings  are 
poured,  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  best  sacrtficer,  for  thou 
art  the  carrier  of  oblations. 

6.  Sacrifice    into  (Agni) ;    exalt  Agni,   while    the 
sacrifice  is  going  on.     Choose  him  for  your  carrier 
of  oblations. 


424  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


NOTES. 

The  JZishi  is  Vwvav^rA  Atreyl  (cf.  verse  i)  ;  the  metre 
is  TrishAibh  in  verses  i  and  3,  G"agati  in  verse  2,  Anush/ubh 
in  verse  4,  G£yatri  in  verses  5  and  6.  Verse  3=AV.  VII, 
73, 10  ;  VS.  XXXIII,  12  ;  TS.  II,  4,  i,  i ;  5,  a>  4  ;  MS.  IV, 
u,  i.  Verse  5=TS.  II,  5,  8,  6.  Verses  5-6=TB.  Ill, 
5,  2,  3. 

The  Stikta  is  a  later  addition  to  the  original  Sawhitd. 

Verse  2. 

Note  1.  Should  not  dhatte  be  accented  ?  '  He  whom  thou 
furtherest  and  (who)  puts  in  front  hospitality  (towards 
thee),  O  Agni,  acquires  all  wealth.1 

Verse  3. 

Note  1.  Cf.  X,  85,  23.  sdm  ^Ispatydm  suydmam  astu 
dev£^.  The  additions  to  the  single  Ma/^alas  seem,  as 
a  rule,  to  be  of  later  origin  than  the  hymns  of  the  tenth 
Man  Jala,  (see  H.O.,  Prolegomena,  p.  265);  so  it  may  be 
conjectured  that  the  author  of  our  verse  imitated  that 
passage  of  the  great  marriage  hymn. 


APPENDICES. 


I.    INDEX  OF  WORDS. 

II.    LIST  OF  THE  MORE  IMPORTANT  PASSAGES  QUOTED 
IN  THE  NOTES. 


THE  following  is  not  (like  the  Index  to  vol.  xxxii)  a  complete  Index 
verborum  to  the  hymns  translated  in  this  volume,  but  only  an  Index  of  all 
the  words  which  can  be  of  any  importance.  It  contains  all  rare,  difficult, 
and  doubtful  words,  all  words  of  any  mythological  importance,  and 
especially  all  words  about  which  something  is  said  in  the  Notes. 

Three  figures  refer  to  Mam/ala,  hymn,  and  verse,  a  small  figure  to  a 
note.  If  a  word  occurs  in  a  note  only,  the  passage  is  put  in  parentheses. 

M.W. 


I.    INDEX   OF  WORDS. 


a,  demonstr.  pronoun :  ay#,  II,  6,  a1, 
Attija,  one  of  the  Adityas,  II,%  4*. 
awjfi,  Soma  shoot,  IV,  i,  19. 
a*»ha£-yu,  dispelling  anguish,  V,  15, 

3l. 

amhatf,  distress,  I,  94,  2. 

£mhas,  evil,  distress,  anguish,  I,  36, 
'45  58,  8;  9;  III,  15,  3  ;  IV, 
*,  8;  9J  3,  M;  11,6;  12,  6. 

aktu,  night,  I,  36, 16  ;  68,  i ;  94,  5  ; 

II,  10,  3;  III,  7,6;  IV,  ID,  5; 
a*ti  aktu/6  (conj.  6ti  aklffn),  I, 

M3t  3a- 
aktu,  ointment :   aktfi-bhi£  a^yate, 

HI,  '7,  i1. 
akri,  a  racer,  I,  143,  7*;   189,  7s; 

III,  i,  la1;  IV,  6,  3*. 
akshdn,  e>  e :  jatdm  ££ksha;ra£  aksha*- 

bhU»,  I,  128,  3. 

akshf,  eye :  divM  akshi  fti,  1,72,  lo1. 

dkshita,  imperishable,  I,  58,  5. 

a'kshiyamiaa,  inexhaustible,  III, 
26,  9. 

ag6tl,  want  of  cows,  III,  16,  5. 

agopl,  without  a  keeper,  II,  4,  7. 

Agnf,  fire,  and  god  of  fire,  I,  i ,  i ,  &c. ; 
III,  2,  92;  agnfm-agnim,  I,  12, 
2 ;  agnfna  agnf£  sam  idhyate, 
I,  12,  6;  agne  agnfbhi/?,  I,  2^, 
10 ;  agnfm  (£  vaha  ^gne),  1,  44, 
8l  ;  vxytiib  ft  agne  agn£ya£  te 
any€,  I,  59,  i  ;  indram  agnfm, 
III,  12,  3  ;  purtshyasa^  agn£- 
yaA,  III,  22,  4;  dgne  vfjvebhi^ 
agnf-bhi/?,  HI,  24,  4  ;  £gne 
fndra/>  >a,  III,  25,  4;  agn£ya£ 
agnishu,  V,  6,  6. 

agni-^ihvi,  fire  -  tongued  :  agni- 
^,  1,44,  14. 


agnfdh,  the  Agnidh  (priest):  agnft 

(conj.  agnft),  II,  i,  2*. 
agni-jrf,  possessing  the  beauty  of 

Agni,III,  26,  s1. 
dgra,  summit:  ripd-6  igram,  III,  5, 

51;  £gre,  at  first,  I,  31,  5;  in 

front  of,  I,  127,  10. 
agriya',  foremost:  agriydm,  1, 13, 10. 
agru,  virgin:   agr6va^,  I,  140,  81 ; 

III,  29, 132- 

aghd,  evil,  I,  97,  i*-8 ;  128,  5  ;  V,  3, 

7  ;  harmful  foe,  I,  189,  5. 
agha-ydt,  harmful,  IV,  2,  6 ;  24,  3. 
agha-yu,  harmful,  I,  27,  3l ;  147,  4 ; 

IV,  2,  9. 

agh£-/amsa,  attacking  with  evil 
spells,  IV,  4,  3;  V,  3,7. 

dghnya,  cow,  IV,  i,  6. 

anga":  y^t  angd,  whatever,  I,  i,  6. 

Ahgiras,  N.  of  Agni,  I,  i,  6 ;  31,  i ; 
17;  74,  5;  IV,  a,  15;  3,  155 
9,  75  V,  8,  4;  10,  7;,  n,  6; 
21,  i ;  ^y&h/tam  angirasam, 
I,  127,  2  ;  &igira£-tama£,  the 
highest  Angiras,  I,  31,  2;  75, 
2  ; — pi.  the  Ahgiras  (jRishis),  I, 
71,  2f;  IV,  3,  iil;  V,  n,  6*;— 
ahgirasv£t,  I,  31,  17;  45»  3? 

78,3- 

a/frftta,  unseen,  IV,  3,  i. 

&fritti,  folly,  IV,  2,  1 1 ;  thoughtless- 
ness: &itti-bhi£,  IV,  12,  4. 

a££/javaka,  a  certain  priest,  (I,  142, 

4a). 
&idra,  flawless,  I,  58,  8;  II,  3,  8; 

111,15,5- 

&idra-flti,    whose   blessings   are 
flawless,  I,  145,  3. 
a*lyuta,  unshakeable,  II,  3,  3. 


428 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


,  to  drive :  fit  a^ate,  he  raises  up, 

1,  95,  7;   fit  a\sran,  they  have 
driven  out,  IV,  i,  13 ;  a  a^ti, 
may  he  lead,  V,  2,  5;  sa"m  a^iti, 
may  he  get  together,  V,  2,  12 ; 
a^ur  yamu£,  V,  6,  ioa. 

d,  goat,  I,  67,  s1. 

undecaying,  never  ageing,  I, 
58,  2;  4;  127,  5J  9J  M3,  3J 
144,4;  146,2;  II,  8,  41;  III, 

2,  2;  6,  4;  8,  2;  18,  2;  23,  i ; 
V,  4,  2- 

a^asra,  unwearied,  1, 189,  4 ;  III,  i, 
21 ;  26,7. 

%ata,  unborn,  V,  15,  2. 

a^ami,  unrelated,  I V,  4,  5 ;  V,  19,  4. 

a^ird,  agile,  I,  140,  4;  III,  9,  8. 

a^ury*,  undecaying,  1, 146,4;  II,  3, 
5;  8,  2;  111,7,4;  7J  a£urya"m 
^(conj.  a^urylfr),  I,  67,  i* 

%«ata-keta,  with  unknown  design, 
V,  3,  ii. 

a^rna,  course,  III,  2,  12. 

dg-man,  race,  I,  65,  6. 

a^ra,  plain :  br/hatl&  a^rin,  I V,  i,  17. 

a%,  to  anoint,  I,  95,  6,  &c.; — sam- 
ana^6,  he  has  shaped,  1, 188,  9; 
sdm  a^ataA,  II,  3,  71;  trfdha 
sam-aktam,  thrice-anointed,  II, 
3,  10 ;  aktfi-bhi£  a^yate,  III, 
17,  i1;  ahkte,  he  anoints  him- 
self, V,  i,  3  ;  anakti,  IV,  6,  3*. 

a%f,  ointment :    a%f-bhi/6,   I,   36, 

I31* 

atandra,  unwearied,   I    72,  7 ;  95, 

2';  IV,  4,  12. 
atasi,  brushwood,  I,  58,  2 ;  4  ;  II,  4, 

7;  111,7,  3aJ  IV,  4,  4J  7,  10. 
atithi,  guest,  I,  44,  4;  58, 6  ;  73,  i*; 

II,  2,  8  ;  4,  i ;  III,  2,  2  ;  3,  8  ; 

26,2;  IV,  i,  201;  2,  7;  V,  i, 

8;  9;  3,  5;  4,  5;  8,2;  18,  i. 
attirta,  unconquered,  V,  25,  5. 
atr/'pa",  insatiable,  IV,  5,  14. 
*tka,  vesture,  I.  95,  7. 
atya,  racer:    atya£   ni   pr/sh/£am 

rotate,   I,  58,   21;— I,  65,  6; 

149,  3?  II,  4,  4;  III,  2,  3;  7; 

7,  9 ;  atyam  n£  sdptim,  III,  22, 

i1;  IV,2,3;  V,25,6. 
Atri,  V,  2,  6  ;  7,  10  ;— pi.  the  Atris, 

V    22,  4  ;—atri-va*t,  I,  45,  3> ; 
.    .  V'  4,  9J  7,8';  22,  i. 
atri,  devourer,  II,  8,  s1. 
atrm,  ghoul,  I,  36,  I41;  20;  94,  9. 
aiha,  and,  I,  26,  9. 


atharf,    elephant  (?) :    atharya^   ni 

d^ntam,  IV,  6,  8a. 
ad,  to  eat:  2(dat,  I,  127,6'. 
adit,  having  no  teeth,  I,  189,  5. 
idabdha,  undeceivable,  I,  76,  2  ;  95, 

9;    128,  r;    143,  8;    II,  9,6; 

III,i,6;  IV,  4,  3?  V,  19,  4. 
a"dabdhavrata-pramati,  protector  of 

infallible  laws,  II,  9,  i1. 
ad£s:  asafi,  yonder  (sun),  V,  17,  3l. 
ddabhya,  undeceivable,   I,   31,   10 ; 

lll,n,5;  26,4;  V,  5,  2. 
Aditi,  I,  94,16;  95,  ii;  98,  3;  II, 

i,  ii ;    III,  4,  ii ;  IV,  12,  4; 

ma^iK  Aditi/6, 1,72,9 ; — a  name  of 

Agni,  1, 94,  is1 ;— Freedom, IV, 

i,  201 ; — aclitim  urushya,  IV,  2, 

n';-m.,IV,  3,8". 
adr/pita,  undismayed,  1, 143,  8;  not 

proud,  IV,  3,  3. 
adr/pta,  never  foolish,  I,  69,  3. 
ideva, godless,  III,  i,  16  ;  V,  2, 9 ;  10. 
adeva-yu,  not  caring  for  the  gods,  I, 

150,  2. 
ddbhuta,  mysterious,  wonderful,  I, 

77,  3*5    94,  n;  «3;    i4«i  3J 

10  ;  II,  7,  6  ;  V,  10,  2  ;  33,  2  ; 

—secret,  IV,  2,  12. 
adman,  food,  I,  58,  2. 
adri,rock,  I,  70,  41 ;  71,  a  ;  73,  6  ; 

149,  i;  IV,  1,14;  15;  2,  is8; 

3,  ii ;— press-stone,  III,  i,  i. 
adrfih,  guileless,  II,  i,  14*;  111,9, 

4  ;  22,  4. 

adrogha*,  guileless,  III,  14,  6. 
£dvayat,  truthful,  III,  29,  5. 
advayavin,  in  whom  is  no  falsehood, 

III,  2,  15. 
ddha,   then:    £dha    ksharanti    (for 

adh££  ksharanti  ?),  I,  72,  10'. 
£dhi,  prep,  with  abl.,  on  behalf  of: 

r/tgt£dhi,  I,  36,  n1. 
a*dhi-iti,  remembrance,  II,  4,  8. 
adhi-mdnthana,  the  support  on  which 

the    rubbing    (for    producing 

the    fire)    is   performed,    III, 

29,  i2. 

adhivasa",  upper  garment,  I,  140,  9. 
ddhrigu,  liberal,  III,  21, 41 ;  V,  10,  i. 
Adhrfe?  V,  7,10^ 
*dhvan,  way,  I,   31,   16;    71,   9J 

adhvana*  deva-yitnin,  I,  72,  7  • 
adhvar^,  worship,  rite,  sacrifice,  I, 

1,4*5  8;  12, 7,&c. :  adhvardm 

ya^a,  I,  26,  1 5  pati£  adhvarK- 
I,  44,  9^  ra^-antam  adh- 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


429 


io 

adhvarasya,  I,  i  28, 4* ;  - 

iva  (conj.  adhvarf-iva),  III,  6, 
ios;   adhvarasya  pra-netff,  III, 
23,  i. 
adhvara-jrf,  beautifier  of  sacrifices, 

I.  44,  3f- 
adhvariy,  to  be  as  an  Adhvaryu: 

adhvari-yasi,  II,  i,  a. 
adhvari-y£r,  performing  the  sacrificial 

service,  IV,  9,  5. 
adhvaryti,  the  Adhvaryu  priest,  I, 

94,«;  ",  5,«!  HI,  5,4;  IV, 

6,4 ;  adhvaryfi-bhiApaftia-bhi*, 

111,7,7- 

anagna,  not  naked,  HI,  i,  6. 
£nagni-tr£,not  standing  under  Agni's 

protection,  I,  189,  3. 
anadat,  not  eating,  HI,  1,6. 
ananti,  infinite,  IV,  i, 


anupa-kshila,  undecaying,  III,  13, 7. 
anush/6fi,  by  one's  present  power,  I, 

anusn/^uyiK,  by  one's  present  power, 

anu-salva", follower  of  truth,  I II,  26,  i . 
anu-svadhim,   according    to   one's 

wont  or  nature,  II,  3,  11  ;  III, 

6,9.  , 

dnflna,  without  flaw,  I,  146,  i';  II, 

10,  6;  III,  i,  5  ;  IV,  2, 19;  5,1. 
inrigu,  sinlul,  IV,  3,  13, 
anritd,  sinful,  IV,  5,  5. 
annta,  falsehood,  V,  12,  4. 
anehas,  unmenaced,  111,  9,  i. 
anta^-vidvaois,  knowing,  I,  72,  7, 
Sntama,  nearest  (friend),  I,  27,  5 ; 

111,  io,  B  ;V,  14,1. 
jntara,  closest,  I,  31,  13;   nearer, 

III,  18,  2;— in  the  midst,  I, 


anapa-vnjpyi,  interminable,  1, 146, 3.  ,44,  12. 

anamivS,  free  from  plagues,  III,  16,      antariksha,  air,  I,  73,  8  ;  III,  6,  8 ; 
35  «>4-  8,8;  22,  2;  IV,  14,2;  V,  i,  IE. 


3 ;  «> 4. 

anarv£n,  untouched,  I,  94,  21 ;  un- 
attainable, II,  6,  5. 

anavadya*|  blameless,  I,  31,  9;  71, 

8;  73,3- 

anavabhri-ridhas,  with  giftsthat  can- 
not be  taken  away,  III,  26, 6. 

jnasvat,  together  with  a  car,  V,  27,  i. 

inikn'ta,  whom  it  is  not  possible  to 
drive  to  a  place,  I,  141,  71. 

aniga,  sinless,  IV,  12,  4. 

anSgiA-tva1,  sinlessness,  I,  94,  15. 

iniyata,  unsupported,  IV,  13,  5. 

aniyudha1,  unarmed,  IV,  5,  14. 

anina\  feeble,  I,  150,  a. 

anindri,  Indra-less,  V,  2,  3. 

ini-baddha,  unattached,  IV,  13,  5. 

ani-badhi,  unbounded,  III,  i,  n1. 

inibhrnrii/a-tavishi,  of  undecaying 
strength,  V,  7,  7, 

ani-mini,  immeasurable,  1,  27,  n. 

inimishat,  never  slumbering,  1, 1 4 3, 8. 

dni-misham,  with  unwinking  eyes, 
V,  19,  2. 

tai-mesham, unremittingly,  1,31,  la. 

aniri,  sapless,  IV,  5,  14. 

ani-vnla,  unrestrained,  III,  29,  6. 

anishangi,  without  a  quiver,  I,  31, 

inika,  face,  II,  9, 6  ;  III,  i,  15  ;  19, 

4l;-iv,  5,  9';  15;  10,  3;  »i 

i ;  12,  2  ;  V,  a,  i. 
inu,  prep,  with  ablat.,  1, 141,  3*. 
anukthd,  hymnless,  V,  2,  3. 


anti,  nigh,  I,  79,  u  ;  94,  9- 
andh5,blind,I,  147,  31;  148,5'. 
indhas,  darkness,  I,  94,  7. 
^ndhas,  sap,  IV,  i,  19. 
inna,  food  :  slhiri  dnnii,  1,  127,  4"  ; 

IV,  7,  10  ;    tri-vrit  annam,  I, 
140,3";  inna,instr.,IV,7,iil. 

^nniyat,  desirous  of  food,  IV,  a,  7. 
anyiid-anyad,  the  one  and  the  other, 

I,  95,  I- 
anyS-vrata,  following  another  law, 

V,  ao,  2. 

ip,  pi.,  water,  Waters,  1,  36,  8  ;  95, 
3l;96,i-,2;lV,3lu>&c.;  gais- 


13  J  3,  3  I  Vm  nPal>  .  »43, 
i«;  111,  9,  i;  apffm  upA-sthe, 
I,  144,  2  ;  apam  sadha-sthe,  I, 

149,  4J  II,  4,  *  \ty"bt  aP?m. 

Ill,    i,   5;    mftri*  aplb,  HI, 

9,  2  ;  ap-s6  jritim,  III,  9,  4  ; 

apKm  duroffe*,  III,  25,  5;  avin- 

dat  apifr,  V,  14,  41- 
ipatya,  offspring,  I,  68,  7. 
ipara-gita,   unconquered,    III,    12, 


apari-vn'U,  uncovered,  II,  10,  j. 
apaiya1,  bereft  of  sight,  I,  148,  5*. 
*pas,work,I,  68,5;  69,  81;  70,8; 

",3,6;  "1,3,3;  "»7;  iv, 

2,  14  :  see  ap&sc 

apis,  active,  I,  31,  8  ;  71,  3  J  95»  4  \ 
HI,  >i  5J  7J   8,  5;-  work: 


430 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


apa*si  (conj.  upa*si),  III,  i,  3*; 
ii4;    ap££  (conj.   a*pa£),   III, 

6,7». 

apasyu,  ever  active,  I,  79,  i. 
apffd,  footless,  IV,  i,  n. 
apara\  boundless,  III,  i,  14. 
api-dhf,  covering,  I,  127,  7s. 
api-jarvard,  approach  of  darkness, 

HI,  9,  7'. 

api-sthita*,  standing  on,  I,  145,  4*. 
dpQrvya,  wonderful,  III,  13,  5. 
a*pr/aat,  not  giving,  V,  7,  10. 
ap-tfir,  crossing  the  waters,  III,  27, 

ii8. 
ap-tffrya,  crossing  the  waters,  III, 

12,  8'. 

Apnavana,  IV,  7,  i. 
a*pnasvnt,   rich :   apnasvatishu  urva*- 

rasu,  I,  127,  6. 

a*pya,  living  in  the  water,  I,  145,  5. 
£pra-ayu(s),  unremitting,  I,  127,  5*. 
dprati-skuta,  unrepressed,  HI,  2,  14. 
apra-dr/pita,  unconfused,  I,  145,  2. 
apra-mmhya*,  not  to  be  despised, 

IV,  a,  5. 

a*pra-yu>W£at,  never  failing,  unre- 
mitting, I,  143,  8;  II,  9,  a; 
111,5,6;  20,2. 

£pra-v!ta,  virgin,  IV,  7,  91. 

apsu-sdd,  dwelling   in   the  waters, 

111,3,5- 

abhi-khy8,  looking  at,  I,  148,  5*. 
abhi-#£u,  on  one's  knees,  I,  72,  5. 
abhi'-dyu,    striving    for    heaven,    I, 

127,7;  m,27,  i. 
abhi-pitva,  the  time  of  rest,  I,  189, 

72,3- 
abhi-mati,  plotter,  III,  24,  i ;  assault, 

V,  23,  41. 

abhimati-scih,  victorious  over  hostile 

plots,  II,  4,  9. 

abhi-yu^,  attack,  III,  11,  6;  V,4,  5. 
abhf-jasti,  curse,  I,  71,  10;  V;  3,  7 ; 

12. 
abhuasti-la'tana,  dispcller  of  curses, 

III,  3,  6. 
abhijasti-paVan,    protector    against 

imprecations,  I,  76,  3. 
abhi-jrf,  leading  to,  or  striving  for, 

gloriousness,  I,  98,  i1 ;  144,  6. 
abhfsh/i,  victory,  V,  17,  5. 
abhish/i-krit,  helpful,  IV,  u,  4. 
abhi-hrfit,  injury,  1, 1 28, 5 ;  anything 

leading  astray,  I,  189,  6l. 
abhi'kc  with  ablat.,  I,  71,  8*. 
abhra*,  cloud,  I,  79,  2. 


abhratri,  brotherless :  abhrata*ra£, 
IV,  5,  52- 

dbhva,  wondrous,  I,  140,  5 ;  mons- 
trous might,  II,  4,  5. 

am,  to  plague :  abhf  a*manta,  I, 
189,  3l. 

dma,  vehenience,  I,  66,  7  ;  fear : 
dine  dhat,  I,  67,  3. 

amdti,  impetuous  splendour,  I,  73,  28. 

dmati,  lack  of  thoughts,  senseless- 
ness, 111,8,  a1;  16,  5  ;  IV,  11,  6. 

dmartya,  immortal,  I,  44,  i ;  1 1 ;  58, 
3;  III,  2,  n  ;  10,9;  n,  a;  24, 
a;  27,5;  7J  IV,  i,  i?  8,  i;  9, 
2  ;  V,  4,  10. 

imardhat,  never  failing,  III,  25,  4. 

a*ma-vat,  violent,  impetuous,  I,  36, 
20  ;  IV,  4,  i. 

amftra,  enemy,  III,  18,  2  ;  IV,  4, 4  ; 
12,  2. 

amitra-da*mbhana,  deceiver  of  foes, 

IV,  15,  4- 

amitra-yudh,  attacking  the  enemies, 

III,  29,  15. 

a*minat,  innocent,  IV,  5,  6. 
amiva-ftftana,  driving  away  sickness : 

amiva-Htanam,  I,  12,  7. 
a*miva,  plague,  I,  189,  3  ;  III,  15,  i. 
dmfira,  not  foolish,  unerring,  wise, 

I,  68,  81;  72,  2:  141,  12;  III, 

19,  i;  25,  3J  IV,  4,  "J  6,  a; 

ii,  5- 
aW/kta,  uninjured,  inviolable,  III, 

6,4;  11,6;  IV,  3,  la1, 
amnta,  immortal  (Agni),  I,  26,  9' ; 

44,5*?  58,  i;  70,  4',&c.;— pi. 

the  immortal  gods,   I,  59,   i, 

&c. ; — immortality,   I,   13,  5*; 

68,  41;  72,  i1;  6;  III,  i,  14; 

23,  i2;  25,  2;  V,  3,  4;  28,  2; 

amntasya  nabhim.  Ill,  17,  4; — 

ambrosia,  1,  71,  9';  III,  26,  7; 

V,  2,  3a. 

amr/'ta-tva*,  immortality,  I,   31,  7 ; 

72,  9;  9^,6;  V,  4,  10. 
aW/tyu,  immortal,  III,  a,  9. 
a>as,  ore,  IV,  2,  17'. 
aya,  thus,  III,  12,  2. 
ayfts,  never-tiring  (flame).  III.  18, 

a';  IV,  6,  10. 
ara*,  spoke  of  a  wheel,  I,  141,  9  ;  V, 

13,6. 

arakshds,  benevolent,  II,  10,  5. 
4ra»a,  stranger,  V,  a,  5. 
ara**i,  kindling-stick,  I,  137,4';  HI, 

«9,  2  ;  V,  9,  3. 


INDEX   OF   WORDS. 


431 


aratf,  steward (?),  I,  58,  7';  59,  2; 
128,  6;  8;  II,  a,  a;  3;  4,  *  J 

III,  17,  4;  IV,  i,  i ;  a,  i;  V, 
2,  i*. 

dram,  enough,  I,  66,  5  ;  d&at  dram, 
he  satisfies,  I,  70,  5 ;  readily, 
II,  5,  72;  8;  puru  vl  dram 
(conj.  puruvaYam),  I,  142,  ios. 

aram-krit,  doing  service,  II,  i,  71. 

drarivams,  niggardly,  I,  147,  4;  150, 
2  ;  III,  1 8,  2. 

drati,  malign  power,  II,  7,  2  ;  III, 
18,  i  ;  24,  i;  IV,  4,4;  ddtau 
(conj.  for  aratau),  V,  2,  is;  pi., 
V,  2,  6. 

arati-ydt,  niggard,  I,  99,  \\ 

arati-vdn,  malicious,  I,  147,  4. 

dravan,  niggard  :  dra*v#a£,  I,  36, 15  ; 
16. 

arf,  poor:  aryd£,  I,  70,  i1,2;  71,  3aJ 
150,  i1 ; — he  who  does  not  give, 
niggard,  I,  73,  51,2;  II,  8,  2; 

IV,  4,  6;  V,2,  12. 

arf,  the  Arya :  aryd£,   IV,  2,  12s; 

i85. 

drish/a,  uninjured,  V,  18,  3. 
drishyat,    unharmed :    drishyanta^, 

ll,8,6 

ani»d,  red,  I,  73,  7;  II,  i,  6. 
aru#i,  the  red  (cow,  or  Dawn),  I, 

140,    13;    IV,   i,  i68;    2,    16; 

14,  3l. 

drupita  ?  IV,  5,  f\ 
arushd,  red,  ruddy,  I,  36,  9;  141,  8; 

II,  2,  8  ;  III,  i,  4;  7,  5;  15, 

3J  29,6;  IV,  15,  62;  V,  1,5; 

arushg,  the  two  ruddy  horses, 

I,  94,  10 ;  II,  10,  a1 5  IV,  a,  3; 

arush#sa£,  I,  146,  22;  IV,  6,  9  ; 

arushdsya  v/-ish»a£,V,  12,  a2;  6; 

— drushim  (conj.  drushta?),  1,71, 

i2;  drushfa,  I,  72,  10*. 
arushd-stfipa,  whose  summit  is  red, 

III,29,3. 

drfikshita,  soft,  IV,  n,  i. 
arepds,  stainless,  IV,  10,  6. 
arkd,  song,' I,  141,13;  III,  a6,  71 ; 

8;  IV,  3,  15;  10,  3;  V,  5,  4. 
art,  to  sing,  praise:  antan,  III,  14, 

4;  dr&mi,  IV,  4,  8;  ZnrMb, 

V,  6,  8 ;  dr*anta£,  V,  1 3,  i ;  drjto, 
V,  16,  i1;  aa,  i;  25,  7;— abhf 
kara*m    ar/tan,    they  sang   tri- 
umphantly,   IV,  j,    14*  ; — prd 
arfanti,   III,  la,  5;  prd  ante, 
I  sing,  III,  13,  i1. 


arff,  flame,  I,  36,  3  ;  20,  &c. 
ar*fs,  flame,  IV,  7,  9  ?  V,  17,3, 
dnia,  flood  :  divd£  drnam,  III,  a  a,  3. 
anzavd,  waving,  III,  a  a,  a2. 
dr/tas,  wave,  IV,  3,  xa. 
drtha,  aim,  I,  144,  3*5  III,  11,3'; 

IV,  6,  10. 

drbha,  small,  I,  146,  5. 
arbhakd,  little  :  arbhak£bhya£,  I,  37, 


ittf  in  naYmi/ii?  (I,  149,  V). 
aryd,  Aryan,  IV,  i,  7;  (a,  ia3;  i88;) 

V,  16,  3. 
Aryamdn,  I,  36,  4;  36,  4;  44>  13; 

79,  35  MI,  9J  II,  i,  4>  IV,  2, 

4  ;  3,  5  ?  V,  3,  a. 
arvd;7£  :  arvO(#£am  ydkshva,  sacrifice 

and  bring  hither,  I,  45,  10. 
drvat,  horse,  I,  27,  9;  73,  9;  145, 

31;  II,  a,  10  ;  IV,  13,  6;  V,  6, 

i;  a. 
drvan,  horse,  I,  149,  3;  IV,  7,  u; 

11,4. 

arhd»a*,  deservedly,  I,  137,  6. 
drhat,  worthy,  I,  94,  i;  II,  3,  i;  3; 

V,  7,  2. 
av,  to  protect,  bless,  help  :  dva£,  I, 

27,  7  ;  avishaA,  III,  13,  6,  &c. 
dva:  agnc^  dvena  for  agng  rdve^a, 

I,  128,  51. 

avadyd,  disgrace,  IV,  4,  15. 
avdni,  course,  I,  140,  5  ;—  river,  V, 

i',  5- 

avamd,  lowest  (god),  IV,  i,  5. 
dvara,  later  (or,  nearer),  1,  141,  5  ;  — 

lower,  II,  9,  3. 

dvaslna,  not  clothed,  III,  i,  6. 
avdstat,  below,  III,  22,  3. 
ava-sth*K,  retirement,  V,  19,  i1. 
avasyu,  desiring  help,  II,  6,  6. 
avitri,  helper,  I,  36,  a;  44,  10;  III, 

19,  5- 

dvi-mat,  rich  in  sheep,  IV,  2,  s1. 
avishydt,  wishing  to  drink,  I,  58,  2. 
avishyu,  greedy,  I,  189,  5. 
avirata\  want  of  heroes,  III,  16,  3* 
avr/kd,  without  dangery  I,  31,  13;  — 

keeping  off  the  wolf,  IV,  4,  ia. 
a/,  to  eat  :  prd  ajana,  III,  ai,  i. 
asatru,  without  a  foe,  V,  a,  ia. 
ajdni,  thunderbolt,  I,  143,  5. 
ajds,  cursing,  IV,  4,  15. 
Iriva,  unkind,  V,  ia,  5. 
ajirshdn,  headless,  IV,  i,  11. 
djman,  stone  (flint),  II,  i,  i;   III. 

29,  6. 


432 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


.inna-vrag-a,  dwelling  in  the  rock- 
stable,  IV,  i,  13. 

djramish/£a,  ne^r  tiring,  IV,  4, 12. 
ajrita,  not  resting  on  (?),  IV,  7,  62. 
asva-daVan,  giver  of  horses,  V,  18,  32. 
djva-pejas,  the  ornament  of  which 

are  horses,  II,  i,  16. 
a/vam-ish/i,  winner  of  horses,  11,6, 22. 
Arva-medha,  N.  p.,  V,  27,  4-6. 
djva-radhas,  giver  of  horses,  V,  10, 4*. 
a/va,  mare,  III,  i,  4;  7,  22. 
aw'n,  rich  in  horses,  IV,  2,  s1;  V, 

4,  n. 

Ajvmau,  du.,  the  two  Ajvins,  I,  44, 
2;  8;  14;  III,  20,  i;  5;  29, 
61  ;  IV,  2,  4;  13,  i;  15,  9;  10; 
V,  26,  9. 

ajvya,  of  the  horses,  I,  74,  7. 
asha/£a,  invincible,  III,  15,  4. 
ash/ama,  eighth  (rein  or  priest  of 

Agni),  II,  5,  21. 
ashfa-pad?,   eight-footed   (i.e.  cow 

with  calf),  II,  7,  52. 
as,  to  be  :  prd  astu,  may  it  be  fore- 
most, I,  13,  9;— satd£  4a  bhd- 
vata/6  £a,  I,  96,  7  ;  tvdm  t£n 
sam  £a  prdti  fa  asi,  thou  art 
united  with  them  and  equal  to 
them,  II,  i,  15. 

as,  to  throw:  ava-dsya,  I,  140,  10. 
dsat,  nothingness,  IV,  5, 14;— untrue, 

V,  12,  4. 

asana,  weapon,  I,  148,  4. 
asaman4,  striving  apart,  I,  140, 4. 
dsam-dita,  unfettered',  IV,  4,  2. 
dsam-mr/shfa,  not  cleansed,  V,  1 1, 3. 
asaj£dt,  not  sticking  together,  I,  13, 

6;  142,6. 

asasat,  never  sleeping,  I,  143,  3. 
asita,  black,  IV,  13,  4. 
dsu,  vital  spirit,  I,  140,  8. 
asura,  the  Asura,  miraculous  lord, 
II,  i,  6;    III,  3,  4l;    29,  14'; 
IV,  2,52J  V,i2,  i;  15,1;  27,1. 
asurya,  mysterious  power,  V,  10,  2. 
dsta,  stall,  I,  66,  9 ; — home :  dstam 

ydnti,  V,  6,  i. 

dsta-titi,  homestead,  V,  7,  6. 
dstr/,  archer,  I,  66,  7;  70,  n;  71, 

51;  148,4;  IV,  4,  i. 
astrita,  indestructible,  I,  140,  8. 
dspandamana,    without    trembling, 

IV,  3,  10. 

asmad,  pers.  pronoun:  asmffkam 
astu,  may  he  be  ours,  1, 13,  10 ; 
prd  va£  imahe,  we  entreat  for 


you,  I,  36,  i1 ;  va£  untranslated, 

1, 66, 91 ;  s&r  na£,  thus  (give)  us, 

II,  6,  51 ;  are*  asmdt,  IV,  1 1, 61. 
asma-druh,   he   who   deceives  us: 

asma-dhruk,  I,  36,  16. 
asmadryak,  turned  towards  us,  V,  * 

4,  a. 
asma-yu,   inclined    towards   us,   I, 

142,  10. 

asridh,  not  failing,  I,  13,  9 ;  V,  5,  8. 
dsredhat,  unerring,  III,  14,  5. 
asremdn?  Ill,  29,  i3l. 
dsvapna^,  never  sleeping:  dsvapna- 

gaJ>,  IV,  4,  12. 
dhan,  day,  I,  71,  2  ;  dirgh^t  dhi,  I, 

140,  13 ;  dhna^,  by  day,  IV,  10, 

5 ;  dgre  dhnam,  V,  i,  4  ;  5. 
dhi,  snake,  I,  79,  i. 
ahtirya*,  not  to  be  led  astray :  ahGr- 

yd£  (conj.  for  ahtfrya^),  I,  69, 41. 
dhraya,  fearless,  I,  74,  8;  glorious, 

III,  2,  4. 
dhraya#a,  fearless,  IV,  4,  14. 

ake,  near,  II,  r,  10. 
^-kshita,  habitable,  V,  7,  7. 

s,  sin,  IV,  3,  5;  12,  4;  V,  3,  7; 


i birth:    tisrd*  a-^nM,  III, 

1 7,3*. 
S(t,  then,  I,  148,  41. 
a-tdni,    an  expander :   ya^fldm  a- 

tdniA,  II,  i,  10. 
atithyd,  hospitality,  I,  76,  3  5  IV,  4, 

10  ;  V,  28,  2. 
atmdn,  vital  breath  :  atm^-iva  /eva/;, 

I,  73»  2. 

a-dadi,  seizer:  Sidat  a-dadf^,  I,  127, 
62. 

Adityd,  IV,  i,  2 ;  pi.,  the  Adityas, 
I,  45,  I  ;  94,  3  f  188,  4  ;  II,  i, 
13;  3>4i;  III-,  8,  8;  20,5. 

3-deva,  godly,  II,  4,  i  ;  devam  ai- 
de vam,  IV,  i,  i3. 

a-dhavi,  purification,  I,  141,  3s. 

a-dhnsh,  attack,  II,  i,  9. 

adhrd,  weak:  adhrdsya,  I,  31,  14*. 

anushdk,  in  due  order,  I,  13,  51;  58, 
3;  72,7;  11,6,  8;  III,  n,  i; 
IV,  4,  10 ;  7,  2;  5;  ",3;  V, 
6,  61;  10;  9,1;  16,2;  18,2; 
21,  2  ;  22,  2  ;  26,  8. 

ap :  pa>i  Spa,  he  has  won,  I,  76,  i. 

Apay^,  N.  of  a  river,  III,  23,  4. 

£pf,  companion,  I,  26,  3;  31,  16  ; 
IV,  3,  n- 


INDEX  OF   WORDS. 


433 


a-pri4J6ya,  whose  leave  should  be 
asked,  I,  60,  2. 

Kpya,  companionship!  I,  36,  12  ;  III, 
2,6. 

am*,  raw,  IV,  3,  9". 

fl(-ya^ish/£a,  best  performer  of  sacri- 
fices, II,  9,  6. 

flyasa,  of  iron,  I,  58,  8. 

ayu,  the  living,  I,  31,  a";  n  ;  66, 
i;  140,  8;  147,  i1;— lively: 
ayuvaA  dheniva*,  II,  5,  5  ;— 
Ayu,  N.  p.,  I,  5,6,  2";  II,  2,  8; 
4,2;  IV,  2,  I21;  iSV;  V,  7, 
6;  jfimsam  ay6A,  IV,  6,  u>; 
V,  3,  4> ;  PL,  the  Ayus,  I,  58, 
3";  6°,  3;  IV,  7,  4;_ n.,  life, 
111,3,7- 

flyudha,  weapon,  V,  2,  3. 

fly  us,  life :  vfjvam  iKyuA,  I,  73,  5 ; 
%yub  apflm,  III,  i,  5';  dirgh^m 
sfyuA  pra-yakshe,  III,  7,  i  ; 
trial  ffyOwshi,  III,  17,  31,  &c. 

a-r6dhana,  ascent,  IV,  7,  B  ;  8,  2  ;  4. 

i[rtana?  I,  127,  61. 

frtvi^ya,  duty  of  a  priest,  I,  94,  6. 

flrya,   the  Aryan,    I,   59,   2  ;    vuaA 

fri*.  1,77,3s;  96,  3- 

avfc-rtfka,  (I,  44,  j1)- 

avi'4-tya,  visible,  I,  95,  5. 

Ev.s,  manifest :  avi'A  bhiva,  I,  31, 
31:  avtt  babhtftha,  V,  i,  9 ; 
avi*  krifiute,  V,  2,  9. 

aViis,  hope :  a-^sa,  IV,  5i  n1. 

fiLra,  region,  V,  10,  6. 

ajini,  old  (?),  i,  27,  131- 

Sufi,  swift  racer,  I,  60,  5 ;  IV,  7,  n. 

jbu-lrvya,  plenty  of  swift  horses,  V, 
6,  10. 

Sju-y if,  quickly,  IV,  4,. a. 

a-jujukshaX  flaming,  II,  i,  i. 

a/usha/ia",  aspiring  after,  IV,  i,  13. 

a.ru-h£man,  quick  inciter,  II,  i,  5'. 

as  :  upa  asate,  they  approach  rever- 
entially, I,  36,  7  J  "I,  a,  6;- 
sam-asate,  they  lie  down  round 
300^,111,9,7- 

fits,  mouth:  asK,  I,  76,  4» ;  140,  a; 
II,  i,  I41  ;  in  the  presence  of, 

IV,  5,  10 ;  manifestly,  V,  17,  2  ; 
5;  93,  i. 

as4n,  mouth,  I,  75,  i;  III,  26,  7; 

V,  6,  9;  18,4. 

&s2j  face:    yisya  asaySf,  in  whose 

presence,  1,  127,  8. 
felt,  adv.,  near,  I,  27,  3. 
arsutf,  drink,  II,  i,  14. 


isura,  of  the  Asura  :  garbhaA  asuraA, 

III,  29,  n. 

askra,  united,  III,  6|43. 
isya,  mouth,  II,  i,  13;  V,  12,  i. 
fit-hut  a,  see  hu. 
a-hflrya,  to  be  led  astray  :  a-hCfryaA 

(conj.  ahQryaA),  I,  69,  4\ 

i:  ayate,  he  proceeds,  I,  127,  3"; 
yantaA,  corrupt  for  vyintaA  ?  I, 
1  40,  1  3a  ;  ranfm  yate,  striving 
for  gain,  V,  27,  4  ;—  idhi  ihi, 
think  thou  (of  us),  I,  71,  lo1;— 
sib  nu  Tyate  (Samhiti  :  si  nvf- 
yate),  conj.  sinu  (=si  inu) 
lyate,  I,  145,  i^-intaA  tyase, 
thou  passest  between,  1  1,  6,  7  ;  — 
apa  aiycA,  V,  2,  8  ;—  upa  it  imasi, 
we  approach,  I,  i,  7  ;  —  pari-eta1, 
will  overtake,  1,  27,  8  ;—  pra-yati 
y*gn&,  adlivar^,  while  the  sacri- 
fice is  going  on,  III,  29,  16  ; 
Vf  28,  6  ;  ]>ra-yai  dev^bhyaA, 
that  the  gods  may  come  forth, 
I,  i4a,6;  6tipra,I,  144,1*;— 
n£  prati-itaye,  not  to  be  with- 
stood, I,  36,  10  ;—  s£m  yanti, 
come  together,  1,  31,  10;  see 
sam-y&t. 

\d}  nourishing  power,  sacred  food: 
i/3  kritani,  1,  128,  7  ;  i/i&  pad£, 
I,  128,  i  :  II,  10,  i1  ;  h6taram 

i^,  III,  4,  3- 
I/a,  '  Nourishment,1  N.  of  a  goddess, 

I,  13,  91;  31,"";  142,9;  «•«! 
8;  II,  i,  n1;  3,  8;  III,  i, 
23';  4,  B;  7,  5!  «7,  io';  V, 
4,  4;a5,  8;  frayjiApade,  III 
»3,  4  J  29,  4!  ifl,  instr.,  Ill, 
24,2;  f/ayaAputri&lin,29,  3§. 
f/a-vat,  rich  in  nourishment,  IV, 


who  from  here  distributes 

his  blessings,  I,  146,  2. 
fti,  thus  :  iti  kratva,  with  this  inten- 

tion, IV,  i,  !». 
Uthff,  truly,  I,  36,  7!  141,1;  V,i7i 

i;     ittha    dhiyiT,     with     right 

thought,  III,  27,  6. 
itthi-dhi,  thus  minded,  IV,  n,  3. 
idam,  this  :  asmai  (after  the  plural 

ye1),  I,  67,  B1;  asmai  (verb  to 

be  su 


[46] 


Ff 


upplied),   I    70,  4'  ; 
idim,    when    here    (all    this 
ened),    I.    79.    •";    y"i 
,  as  I  am  here,  IV,  5,  n1; 


434 


VEUIC  HYMNS. 


there,  II,  5,  5;  esham  (conj.     ish/f,  incitement (?),  IV,  6,  7*. 
esWm),  IV,  2, 4'.  _        _ 


id£  £it-idf£  Mi,  now-now,  IV,  10,  5. 
idhm*,fuel,  I,  94,  4*,  III,i8,3. 
in:  in6shi,  thou  drivest  away,  IV, 

10,  7  ;  —  pra*  ainot,  he  has  driven 

forward,  I,  66,  10. 
ini,  strong,  I,  149,  i. 
fndu,  Soma,  V,  18,  2. 
Indra,  I,  13,  12;  142,  4;  5;  12; 

13;  II,  i,  3;  3,  3;  8,  6;  III, 

4,6;    ii  ;  22,   i  ;    25,  4  ;    IV, 

2,  17;  V,2,8;  3,1;  5,3;  n  ; 

1  1,  2  jj'ndram  agnim,  III,  12,  3. 
tndrigni,  ^u.,  HI,  12,  i;  2;  4-9; 

V,  27,  $. 
IndravfshtfG,  du.,  Indra  and  Vish«u, 

IV,  2,  4. 
inv,  to  stir  up,  to  further:  fnvati, 

I,  128,  5  ;  mvata£,  I,  141,  4  ; 

mvasi,  I,  94,  10  ;  141,  10  ;  V, 

28,  2  ;  fnvanta/?,  III,  4,  5  ;  in- 

vire,  V,  6,  6. 
fbha,  elephant,  IV,  4,  i1. 
fbhya,  rich,  I,  65,  7. 
iva  :  svena-iva,  read  sv£na  eva"  ?  I, 

M5i  2*. 
ish,  to  long,  seek  :   i££££nta,  I,  68, 

8  ;  MMnta/6,  I,  72,  2  ;  ishu/>. 

111,1,2. 

ish,  to  incite:  ishe,  infin.,  I,  71,  88  ; 
ish£yanta  ma*nma,  they  have 
stirred  up  our  prayers,  I,  77, 


3,  2;  4,  3;  12,  i. 

fsh,  food,  I,  12,  ji  ;  27,  7;  36,  ii, 
&c.  ;  V,  6,  i-io;  ibha'm  netSf, 

III,  23,  2». 

ish£,  food-giving,  I,  189,  8s. 

Ish*,  N.  p.,  V,  7,  ro. 

ishany:    isha»yanti,  they   speed  it 

hither,  V,  6,  61. 
ishay,  to  seek  nourishment  :   ishi- 

yanta,  II,  2,  n1. 
ishira",  vigorous,  quick,  I,  128,  5  ; 

HI,  a,  i3  ;  5,4- 
ishudhy£t,  supplicant  :  ishudhyate,  I, 

128,  6\ 
ishuy,  to  fly  like  an  arrow,  to  shoot 

arrows  (?)  :    ishfiyate,    I,    128, 

4*. 

ishu-ydt,  desiring  food(?),  I,  i28,42. 
ishMni?  I,  i27,6l. 
bh/f,  wish,  search,  I,  143,  8a;  145, 

i;  148,  3?  IV,  4,  7. 
isb/i,  sacrifice,  II,  i^1. 


:  prd  imahe  va/&,  we  entreat  for 
you,  I,  36,  i1;— 2(  imahe,  we 
implore,  III,  26,  5. 

W,  to  magnify:  Me,  I,  i,  i1;  44, 
4;  III,  i,  15;  27,  2  ;  12;  IV, 
3,  3 ;  91 ;  i7ate,  I,  36,  i  ; 
128,  8;  III,  6,  3;  10,  2  ;  13, 
2;  27,  14;  V,  i,  7;  8,  3  ;  9, 
i;  14,  2  ;  3;  21,  3;  Wata,  I, 
96,  31;  i//e,  V,  12,6;  1/ita,  V, 
17,  i;  21,  4;  t'/ana,  II,  6,  6; 
28,  i  ;  i/itd,  I,  13,  41;  142,4'; 
H,  3,  3;  V,  5,  35  7. 

i/^nya,  to  be  magnified,  I,  79,  5 ; 
146,  5;  III,  27,  13;  V,  i,  9; 

14,  5* 

u/ya,  worthy  of  being  magnified: 
faya£,  I,  i,  2;  12,  32;  75,  4,' 
188,  3;  II,  1,4;  111,2,  2;  5, 
6;  95  9,  8;  17,  45  27,  4;  «9, 
257;  IV,  7,  152;  V,  22,  i. 

ir :  fratam,  may  they  arise,  IV,  8, 
7  ;  iray&dhyai,  he  shall  rise  up, 
IV,  2,  i1;— a-irire,  they  have 
raised,  set  to  work,  I,  143,  4; 
III,  n,  9;  29,  15;— nf  erire, 
they  have  roused,  I,  128,  8; 
II,  2,  3;  IV,  i,  i. 

ivat,  like  this,  IV,  4,  6  ;  15,  5. 

Sj,  to  rule  :  fjata,  I,  36, 16 ;  1 1,  7,  2  ; 
va*svaA  ije,  I,  71,  9;  yftvat  &e, 
as  far  as  I  have  power,  III,  1 8,  3. 

uan£,  master,  lord,  I,  73,  95  79,  4J 
141,  3. 

ish:  ishate,  they  flee,  I,  141,  8  ;— % 
fshate,  he  advances,  I,  149,  i2. 

ukth£,  hymn,  litany,  I,  27,  12  ;  71, 

2;  140,13;  11,8,5;  IH,  5,2; 

13,6;  20,  i;   IV,  3,  4;   16;   6, 

ii ;  n,  3;  V,  4,7;  6,  9;  18,4. 
ukthdvahas,  (I,  127,  81), 
uktha-ja"s,  chanting  litanies,  IV,  2, 16. 
ukthfn,  rich  in  hymns,  III,  12,  5. 
ukthya,  praiseworthy,  I,  79, 12  ;  III, 

2,13;  15;  10,6;  26,  2;  V,26,6. 
uksh,  to  sprinkle :  atikshan,  III,  9, 

9  ;  satyim  uksban,  IV,  i,  10. 
uksh,  to  grow.    See  vaksh. 
ukshan,  bull,  I,  146,  2;   II,  7,  3 ; 

111,7,6;  7f;  V,  27,  5- 
ugra,  strong,  mighty,  1, 127, 1 1 ;  III, 

26,5;  IV,  2,  i88. 
Ugra-deva :  ugrd-devam,  I,  36,  il1. 


INDEX   OF   WORPS. 


435 


u*itha,  hymn,  I,  73,  10;  143,  6; 
IV,  a,  20;  V,  12,  3. 

uttana:  uttana,  lying  extended  on 
her  back,  II,  10,  j1 ;  III,  29, 
32  ;  V,  i,  3*; — nyin  uttin<U>, 
spread  out  downwards-turned, 

IV,  13,  5- 
uttanA-haMa,  with  outstretched  hand. 

111,14,5'. 

ut-v£t :    ut'vitaA  ni-v£ta£,  to    the 

heights  and  to  the  depths,  III, 

2,  10. 

utsa, spring,  III,  26,  9. 
udanysi,  of  water,  II,  7,  3. 
udyata-sru£,  the  sacrificer  who  raises 

the  spoon,  I,  31,  5. 
and,  to  moisten :    havya"m  undln, 

11,3,  2. 
upa-Kbhr/t,  the  bringing :  fir^m  upa- 

Sbhr/ti,  I,  128,  2. 
upa-iti,  approaching,  supplication,  I, 

76,  i1;   III,  18,  r. 
upa-kshetr/,  follower,  III,  T,  16. 
upabdi,  noise  produced  by  going,  I, 

74,7'. 

upa-m&,  high  up,  I,  31,  is1. 
upama7,  likeness,  (I,  ^r,  is1), 
upa-mkda,  enjoyment,  III,  5,  5. 
upa-mft,  supporting,  I,  59,  iy ;  pillar, 

IV,  5,  i. 
upara,   lower,    I,    79,    3*;     128,  3; 

uparasu,  in  our  neighbourhood, 

I,  127,   52;    uparasya,  nearer, 
IV,  2,  i88 ;  uparan,  getting  be- 
hind,^ I,  4,  91. 

upa-vaktr/,  the  U.  priest,  IV,  9,  5*. 
upas,  lap :    upAsi    (conj.  for  apasi), 

(IIl,i,  3";   n4^. 
upa>s^tl,  sittnj^  down  (reverentialh), 

II,  6,  i\ 

Tjpa  ^ut5,  I,  36,  TO'  ;   j  /  . 


UjM-stlia,   lap,    1.    ^'.j   ^  ;    5; 

u]>a-.sthe,  i,  ji,  9  ;  1^6,  r  ;  III, 
5,  8 ;  26,  «>  ;  itptlsii  upi-bthc,  I, 
14^  2  ;  inaiu£  u pi- ^t he,  III,  8, 

i;  29,  M;  v,  i,  6;  19,  i. 

upa-sthrtyaii)  ^arati,  he  goes  to  greet 

them,  I,  145,  48, 
tipaka,  neighbouring,  1,  142,  7;  III, 

4,6. 
upSke",  near  at  hand,  I,  27,  6;  IV, 

10,  5;  ii,  i. 
opeti,  see  upa-iti. 
ubh:  ubdhim,  closed,  IV,  i,  15;— 

sdm-ubdhami  coftfined,  V,  a,  i1. 

F 


ubhi,  both  :  ubhK  for  ubhe,  I,  140, 

31;  ubh4  fti  tok6  fti  ta*naye,  I, 

i47»  i8. 
ubhiya,    both,    I,    26,   9!  ;    31,   7; 

ubhdyan,  both  (kinds  of  men, 

the  pious  and  the  impious),  I, 

189,  72:  of  both  kinds  (wealth), 

II,  9,  5'. 
ur6,  wide:  uru  kshtyjiya  ^akrire,  I, 

36,  8  ;  urvf,  the  wide  (Earth),  I, 

146,   a;    II,  4,  7;   uru,  wide 

space,  III,  r,  n1. 
uru-gaya\  wide-ruling,  II,  i,  3  ;  III, 

6,  4*  ;  IV,  3,  7  ;  M,  *• 
uru-^r&yas,    extending    over    wide 

spaces,  V,  8,  6. 
uru-vya'&fr,  far-reaching,  V,  i,  la. 

a,  widely-renowned:  uru- 

I,  31,  14. 
urushy,  to  guard,  deliver  :  urushya, 

1,58,8;  9;  IV,  a,  6;  to  keep 

off:  ^ditim  urushya,  IV,  a,  ns; 

urushydt,  he  has  escaped  into 

wide  space,  III,  5,  8. 
urvaYa*,  field,  I,  137,  6. 
Urviri:  urvajiA,  IV,  a,  18*. 
urviya,  far  and  wide,  I,  141,  5  ;  II, 

3,5;  III,  i,  18;  V,  28,  i. 
ulk£,  firebrand,  IV,  4,  a. 
uj,  see  vaj. 

ujldhak,  eagerly  burning,  III,  6,  73. 
Uj(g>,  (Agni)  the  Uji^  (or  willing 

one),  111,3,7;  «;  Hi  a1;  *7, 

ios;  —  pi.,  the  Ujijjs,  mythical 

priests,  I,  60,  a1;  4;  138,  i2  ; 

189,  7;  II,  4,  s8;   III,  a,  4s; 

9;  '5,  3a;  IV,  i,  15';  V,3,  4. 
u4i,  to  burn  down:  ushiran,  II,  4, 

7  ;--nf  oshatat,  burn  down,  IV, 

4>  4- 

Ur.lt,  to  shine-.     See  vas. 
ifeha^-budh,    awakening   with    the 

dawn,  I,  44,  i;  9;  65,  9;  127, 

10;  III,a,  14;  IV,  6,  8. 
ui>ha"i,  dawn:  usr&&,  gen.  sing.,  I, 

71,  22. 
ibh.'is,  dawn,  1,  71,  i  ;  94,  5  ;  ush£sa£ 

niveda^,    I,    79,    is;     vdstoA 


f2 


/»,  I,  79,  6;  doshg  ushasi, 
II,  8,  3  ;  I  V,  a,  8  ;  priti  doshgm 
ushasam,  IV,  12,  a;  ushisa^ 
vi-rok6,  III,  5,  a;ush*sa*  vf- 
ush/au,  III,  15,  a;  IV,  i,  5; 
14,  4;—  Dawn,  the  goddess,  I, 
44,  i1;  a;  8;  14;  III,  17.  31  ; 
ao,  i;  IV,  a,  15;  3,  n  ,  V,  i, 


436 


VEDIC    HVMNS. 


x;  28,  i ;  ush&  £&££,  lover  of 
the  Dawn,  I,  69,  i1;  9;  devf 
usha7>,  III,  20,  5;  IV,  r,  17; 
14,  3  ;  dosh&n  ushasam,  Night 
and  Morning,  V,  5,  6 ;— du., 
nakta  *a  ushdsi,  I,  73,  7; 
ushasau,  the  two  Dawns,  Night 
and  Dawn,  I,  188,  62;  III,  4, 
61 ;  14,  3  ;  V,  i,  4  ;— ush*sa£, 
the  Dawns,  I,  44,  ro ;  II,  2,  a  ; 
7;  8;  III,  5,  i;  IV,  i,  i33;  2, 
19;  5,  13;  14,  i;  ush&>  vi- 
bhatfr,  III,  6,  7  ;  ushasa*  fishuA, 
III,  7,  10  ;  ushasam  agram,  IV, 
13,  i. 

ushisanakta,  Dawn  and  Night,  II, 
3,6. 

usii,  bright,  I,  69,  9. 

usriK,  milch-cow,  IV,  i,  13  ;  see  also 
ushar. 

usriya,  ruddy  cow,  III,  i,  12*;  IV, 
5,8';  9. 

utf,  blessing,  protection,  1, 36, 1 3,  &c. 
Ofdhan,  udder,  1,69,3';  146,2;  III, 

29,  14;  IV,  i,  19;  3,  10;  pitu* 

udha£,  III,  i,  91 ;  sasmin  udhan, 

IV,7,72;  10,8'. 
tfma,  helpful,  III,  6,  81. 
Or^ :  ma" hi  Qr^yanti>6,  giving  mighty 

vigour,  III,  7,  4- 
urg,  vigour:  Qr^sUn  pate,  I,  26,  i; 

ffr^napat,  1,58,  8;  II,  6,  2  ; 

III,  27,  12;    V,  7,  i;    17,  5  J 

torgbb  putra*m,  I,  96,  3;    tirg% 

pinvasva,  III,  3,  7. 
iifraa-mradas,  soft  like  wool,  V,  5,  41. 
Ctrnu:  vf  Graot,  he  has  revealed,  I, 

68,  i  •  vf  auraot,  he  has  opened. 

I,  68,  TO. 
tirdhva,  straight,  standing  erect,  I, 

36,  13;  14;  95,  5,  &c. 
firmi,  wave,  I,  27, 6  ;  44,  1 2  ;  95, 10. 
Urmya,  night,  II,  4,  3. 
tirva",  stable,  stall,  prison,  I,  72,  8  ; 

III,  i,  14;  IV,  2,  17;  12,  5. 
Oh :  Ohe",  he  is  considered,  V,  3,  9'. 

r/,  to  go,  &c. :  r/»vati,  he  procures, 
1, 128,  6 ;  he  hastens,  1, 144,  5  ; 
arta  tmini  divi/>,  arose,  V,  25, 
8* ; — abhf  aru/&,  they  ran  up  to, 
III,  i,  4;— ut-aritha,  thou  hast 
sprung,  II,  9,  3 ;  6t  iyarti  va^am, 
he  raises  his  voice,  III,  8,  5* ; 
tit  arta,  it  rose  up,  IV,  i,  17 ; 


ut  aram,  IV,  15,  7  ;— pra"  ar6£, 
they  have  risen,  III,  7,  i;  pr£ 
iyarmi,  I  stretch  forth,  III,  19, 
2  ;  pri  arta,  it  came  forth,  IV, 
1,12 ; — vi  r/»vati,he  discloses,  I, 
58,  3  ;  vf  rwivan,  they  opened, 
I,  69,  10  ;  vf  r/'tfvati,  he  opens,  I, 
128, 6;  V.  1 6,  2;— sam-aYata,  he 
has  come  together,  I,  145,  4*; 
sim  r/wvati, it  accomplishes,  III, 
a,  i ;  he  sets  himself  in  motion, 

III,  n,  22;  s£m-r/'ta£,  erected, 

IV,  13,5. 

rikvan,  singer,  III,  13,  5. 

rigmfya,  praiseworthy,  III,  2,  4. 

ri£,  see  ar>t. 

rtt,  hymn,  (sacrificial)  verse,  I,  36, 
ii ;  II,  3,7;  V,  6,  5;  27,4- 

rig,  ring,  to  press  on,  strive  forward : 
r/w^asana,  I,  58,  3  ;  96,  3  ; 
ringbn,  I,  95,  7  ;  r/«#ate,  1,  141, 
6;  143,  7;  II,  i,  8;  2,  5  ; 
^/w^ase,  I  press  on,  IV,  8,  i ; — 
abhf  ngyate,  I,  140,  2;  —  ft 
r/Vfcase,  V,  13,  61;— n(  r/^ate, 
he  throws  down,  I,  143,  5  ;  nf 
ringe,  I  catch  hold,  III,  4,  7. 

n£ika,  (I,  44,  31). 

r/^u,  rightly,  II,  3,  7 ;  right  deeds, 

IV,  i,  17. 

rigu-bftk,  going  straight  forward,  IV, 

6,9. 

n&u-mushka',  puissant,  IV,  2,2;  6,  9. 
r/^u-y^t,  righteous,  V,  12,  5. 
n*&,  debt,  IV,  3,  n2. 
r/ta,  the  ttta,  Right,  I,i,8;  75,  51; 

79,  3 ;  HI,  i;  n;  in,  4,  7; 

6,   6;    IV,   i,   13';   2,   31;   14s; 

**;  ip1;  3,  43;  9-12;  s,  "; 

V,  i,  7;  12,  i1;  61;  15,  2;  20, 
4  :  r/Ht  adhi,  on  behalf  of  Jttta, 
I,  36,  n1;  r/tasya  vratK,  I,  65, 
3;  r/tasya  y6ni,  I,  65,  4;  III, 
i,   ii ;    IV,  i,  12;    V,  21,  4; 
dharam   r/'tasya,  I,  67,  71 ;  V, 
12,  2  ;  r/'tiK  s^panta^,  I,  67,  8; 
68,  4  ;   r/ta"sya  preshaT;  r/tas>a 
dhitf/&,  I,  68,  51 ;  dddhan  r/tdm, 
I,  7J>  31J  r/tisya  dhendva>6,  I, 
73,  6  ;  r/tdsva  path^(,  I,  128,  2  ; 
yahvViti  r/tas>a,  matdra,  I.  142, 
7  5  V,  5,  6  ;  r/tasya  dhG>&-sadam, 
I,   143,    7  ;    n'ta*sya   dohdnaA, 
streams  of   U/ta,   I,   144,   2' ; 
rathtt  r/tasya,  III,  2,  8;   IV, 
10,  2;    r/tdsya  sKman,  I,  147, 


INDEX   OF   WORDS. 


437 


i4;  Htim  yate",  I,  188,  2  ;  pfirr 
VL£  r/tasya  sam-dr/ja£,  III,  5, 
a;  r/tasya  sidasi,  III,  7,  2; 
gop&6  r/tdsya,  III,  10,  2  ;  r/- 
tisva  pathy&&  £nu,  III,  12,  7; 
r/tasya  >6ge  vantishaA,  eager  to 
set  to  work  the  £/ta,  III,  27, 
n1;  r/te*na  r/tim  nf-yatam,  IV, 
3,  91,2;  r/tasya  pade*,  IV,  5,9; 
r/tasya  dhaman,  IV,  7,  7*;  r/- 
ta"sya  rajmim,  V,  7,  3  ;  r/'tena, 
in  the  right  way,  III,  4,  5  ;  5, 
3  ;—  adj.,  righteous,  IV,  3,  81. 
r/ta->tit,  intent  upon  Rita.  (Right), 

I,  145,  5;  IV,  3,  4;  V,  3,  9. 
r/td-^ata,  born  in  or  from  the  Rita,  : 

r/ti-gftaA  I,  36,  19;    144,  7; 

189,  6  ;  III,  6,  10  ;  20,  2. 
r/'ta-£#£,  knowing  the  right  way,  I, 

72,8. 
rita-pa7,  protecting  the  U/ta,  (III, 

20,4';  V,  12,  32). 

r/td-pra^atajborn  from  .R/'ta,  1,  65,10. 
r/ti-pravita,  penetrated  by  jR/'ta,  I, 

7<>,7. 
r/'tay,  to  perform  the  Rita.  :  r/t£yan 

r/t6na,  V,  12,  3. 
r/'ta-y£t,  righteous,  II,  i,  2;  IV,  8, 

3  J  V,  27,  4. 

r/ta-yu,  loving  -R/'ta,  V,  8,  i. 
r/ta-van,  righteous,  I,  77,  i  ;  2  ;  5  ; 

III,  a,  13;   6,  10;   13,  2;  14, 

2;  20,4;  IV,  i,  2;  2,  i  ;-6,  5; 

7,,3  ;  7  J  '0,  7  ;  V,  i,  6  ;  25,  i. 
r/ta-vridh,  increaser  of  /6'ta,  I,  13, 

6;  44,145  '42,  65  111,2,1. 
ritu,  season,  I,  95,  3';  V,  12,  3*. 
r/tu-tha,  observing  the  right  time, 

II,  3,  7- 

r/tu-pil,  guardian  of  the   seasons, 

III,  20,  41;  V,i2,3*. 

r/'tv(y,  ministrant,  priest,   I,   i,   i; 

44,  n;  45,7J  60,  3;  II,  5,  y1; 

III,  10,  a;  V,  22,  2;  26,7. 
r/tvfya,  at  the  appointed  season,  I, 

143,  i;  II,  i,  2;  III,  29,  10. 
r/'dh,  to  accomplish  :   r/dhyitma,  I, 

31,8;  IV,  IQ,  i1. 
ridhak,  in  one's  peculiar  way,  III, 


,iot;  III,  5,^;  V,7,7. 
r/shi,  a  lltehi,  I,  i,  a  ;  31,  i  :  66.  4  ; 

III,  ai,  3  ;  sahasram  rfshibhub, 

I,  189,  8. 
r/shi-kr^t,  making  (one)  a  Jttshi,  I, 

31,  16*. 


rish6,  pL,  dawns  (?),  I,  137,  10';  V, 

25,  i2. 
r/shva,tall,  I,  146,  2  ;  III,  5,  5;  7  ; 

10  ;  IV,  2,  2. 

e*ka:  e*ka£-eka£,  every  one,  III,  29, 

15- 

6ka-ayu,  of  unique  vigour,  I,  31,  5. 
£na,  variegated  :  e*ni  iti,  I,  144,  61. 
enas,  sin,  I,  189,  i;  III,  7,  io8;  IV, 

12,4;  5?  V,  3,  7. 

e*man,  course,  path,  1,  58,  44  ;  IV,  7,  9. 
eva,  way  :  £vai£,  in  due  way,  I,  68, 

4  J  95,  6  5  £vena,  in  his  way,  I, 

128,  3;  arya\6  e*vai£,  IV,  a,  12*; 

—the  going,  I,  79,  2. 
ev£,  thus,  I,  76,  5;  77,5?  95,  »? 

Ill,  17,  2  ;  eva*,  Samh.,  V,  6, 


eshdapid,  (IV,  a,  4'). 

6ka,  homestead,  I,  66,  3. 
O£ay«imana,  displaying  his  power,  I, 

140,  6. 
6^ish/M,  richest  :  o^ish/fom  m&dab, 

HI,  21,  5l. 
6shadhi,  herb,  I,  59,  3  ;  98,  2  ;  II, 

i,  i;  4,  4;   III,  i,  13;    5,  81; 

22,  2  ;  V,  8,  7. 
6ha,  heedfulness,  IV,  to,  i*. 

Kawva.  I,  36,8;  io1;  u  ;  17;  19; 
kawvasaA,  I,  44,  8  ;  Kanvasya 

sfiniva^,  1,45,  5- 

katidh^  Jit,  everywhere,-!,  31,  a. 

kadft  >ani,  never,  I,  150,  2. 

kan  :  tisya  likan,  therewith  he  is 
satisfied,  I,  148,  a;  4ak£n&, 
loving,  III,  5,  a  ;  kanisha/>,  take 
joyfully,  III,  a8,  5;  ^akana>, 
delighting,  desiring,  V,  3,  io  ; 
«7,  31  ;—  a  jfake,  he  desires,  III, 
3,  3  ;  8(  Jake,  I  love,  III,  3,10. 

kanyg,  maiden,  I,  66,  *'  ;  kairfnam, 

v,  3,  *• 

kiya  :  kiyasya  ML  of  whomsoever, 
I,a7,8;  k^ya,  how,  V,  »,  3. 


arm:  srrpra  karasna,  III, 
18,  s1. 

karmanyi,  able,  HI,  4,  9. 
kirman,  work,  deed,  I,  3',  8;  III, 

la,  6. 

kalyana,  beautiful,  I,  31,  9- 
kavf,  sage,  I,  la,  6;  75;  13,  ,  a;  f, 
Ac.;  I,  95,8*;  dhtrfea*  kava- 
1,  146,  41. 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


kavf-kratu,  having  the  mind  of  a 
sage,  thoughtful,  I,  i,  5  ;  III, 
a,  4;  14,  7;  27,  i*;  V,  11,4. 

kavi-lMd,  showing  himself  as  a  sage, 
III,  12,  3'. 

kavi-tama,  the  highest  sage,  1 1 1, 1 4,  i . 

kavi-prajasta*,  praised  by  sages,  V,  i  ,8. 

kavi-jastd, praised  by  the  sages,  III, 

21,4;  29,7. 

kavydta,  wisdom,  I,  96,  2. 
ka :     ka'yamana^,   finding  pleasure, 

III,  9,  2.     See  kan. 
k#mya,of  love:  dugdh£mna"karnyam, 

V,  19,  41- 
kard,  race:  bhdgam  nd  kare*,  I,  141, 

lo1  ; — triumph :     abhf    kar£m 

ar*an,  IV,  i,  r42. 
karu,  singer,  I,  31,  8;  9;  148,  2  ; 

11,2,9;  III,6,i. 
kaVya,   quality  of  a  sage,  wisdom, 

1,72,  i1;  96,  i;  II,  5, 3;  HI, 

i,  8;  17;  18;   IV,  3,  16  ;  n, 

3 ;  V,  3,  5. 
kb'shf/'A,  pi.,  the  (aerial)  arena,  I,  59, 

6  ;  race-course,  I,  146,  5. 
kfyat,  however  small,  IV,  5,  6. 
kirf,  poor,  humble,  I,  31,  13*;  V, 

4,  lo1. 

KisfA:  Kist&a£,£hc  Kistas,  1, 137,7'. 
ki'ipaya,  agitating,  I,  140,  3. 
toi.nM,  prince,  IV,  15,  7-10;  boy, 

V,2,i';  2. 
k'jli'a,  axe,  III,  a,  i. 
KmikJ,  pi ,  the  Kujikas,  III,  26,  i1 ; 

35  29,  15. 

kO^it-arthin,  striving  for  all  that  is 
desired,  IV,  7,  6. 

kr/,  to  make,  &c.:  ya^wdm  kr/'/iotana, 
I,  13,  12  ;  kr/»uhi,  I,  31,  8  ; 
kr/dhf  na£  raye,  help  us  to 
wealth,  III,  15,  33;  kr/'a6ti 
dev*Kn  mdrtyeshu,  he  conveys 
the  gods  to  the  mortals,  I,  77, 
i1 ;  kdrikrata^,  displaying,  I, 
140,  s1 ;  knta/fc  (read  pdrish- 
krita/j?),  adorned,  I,  141,  81 ; 
dhiya^akre,  111,27,9';  kranta^, 

IV,  2,  14  ;  ikarma  te,  we  have 
done  our  work  for  thee,  IV,  2, 
19;  —  iram     karat,    he     may 
readily  serve,  II,    5,   8;    uru 
fokrirc,  they  have  made  wide 
room  for,  I,  36,  8  ;  satrg  4ak- 
ra*&,  1, 7  a,  i ;— £  kr/»6shi,  thou 
givest,  I,  31,  7  ;  g  kr/»udhvam, 
bring  hither,  J,  77,  a  ;-apa  K 


kr/'dhi,  drive  away,  III,  16,  5* ; 
— nf  ta£,  he  has  brought  down 
(i.  e.  surpassed),  1,72,  i1  ;--pa>i~ 
kr/ta,  made  ready,  III,  28,  2  ;-- 
sdm  akrmvan  te^se,  they  have 
sharpened,  III,  2,  10 ;  see 
krang. 

kr/dh6,  weak,  IV,  5,  14. 

kr/'p:  akn'pran,  they  have  pined, 
IV,2,i8*. 

kr/p,  body,  I,  127,  i;  128,  2. 

krrsh/i,  human  race,  I,  36,  19  ;  59, 
S  ;  74»  2  J  '89,  3  ;— tribe,  clan, 
V,  i,  6;  19,  3:— dwelling,  II, 
2,  ro. 

kr*sh»a,  black,  I,  58,  44J  73»  75 
141,  82 ;  kr/sh#d/>  vrrshabha^, 

I,  79,  a8;  darkness,  I,  140,  5  ; 
k/-/sh«asij,  in  the  dark  nights, 

1",  '5,3- 
kr/'sh»a"-adhvan,  whose  path  is  black, 

II,  4,  •'• 

awln',     speeding     en     hi*- 
blacJ:  »viy.  f;  14  r,  7. 
h^.?  piou,   iajni.^'^.i    MI    dark- 
ne-;>,  ?,  740,  ?, 
i-v.^t!ii,  vi'h    a   blu^k  trill, 

IIjj',71. 

krrh^i  -.>»*•],  «Jui^fn>;  bl  v\'  lurrow;, 

I,  ifo,  4. 
k//p:     'fA-'-.^-'i     .rvbhte,     they 

ch  <nt  ;.i  c3)  -;i"  -*  -  lyors,  IV,  I,  I  f. 

keta,  J:siio,  f,  T  ••>,  3.' 

kctu,  1'^At,  "?':>v,  ^ulciulour,  I,  36, 
J4;  IV,  7,  t  ;  T^  2  ;  V,  7,  4; 
kctum  'i  '^'^,  I,  71,  22;~ketu, 
beacon,  bir.  i-»r,  I,  27,  12  ;  III, 
i,  17;  i,  tl  ;  V,  u,  3;  vidd- 
tMsyi,  I,  ^,  i  ;  ya$v7dsya,  I, 
96,  6  ;  127,  6;  III,  u,  3  ;  29, 
5  ;  V,  ti,  2;  yvnnim,  111,3, 
3  ;  r,dhvnr?sya,  HI,  8,  8  ;  adh- 
varj-jlm,  IU,  to,  \. 

keVala,  n^ne,  I,  i^,  10. 

kejfn,  long-hairc*!,  I,  140,  8 ;  long- 
mancd,  III,  6,  6. 

krdtu,  power  of  mind,  wisdom,  I, 
65,  9;  67,  2;  68,  3;  69,  a; 
73,  2;  77,  31;  138,  4;  141,6; 
9;  143,  2;  145,  3;  II,  5,  4J 
In>  3,  3J  6,  5;  9,  6;  u,  6; 
IV>  5,  7  J  10,  i  ;  2  ;  12,  i  ;  V, 
*°»  »;  '7,  4J— mind,  I,  66,  s3 ; 
will,  I,  68,  9;  fti  batva,  with 
this  intention,  IV,  i,  i1; — power. 
I,  127,9;  128,5;  III,  i,|t 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


439 


krand,  to  neigh,  bellow,  roar :  krdn- 
dat,I,  36,  8;  aJikradat,  I,  58, 
a;  kdnikradat,  bellowing,  I, 
128,  31;  k randan,  III,  26,  3. 

kram  :  pdri  akramit,  he  has  circum- 
ambulated, IV,  15,  3. 

krlfoa',  as  soon  as,  I,  58,  31 ;  V,  7, 
82;  indeed,  V,  10,  21. 

kri</,  to  sport :  krf'/anta£,  IV,  4,  9  ; 
ki-r/an,V,  19,5- 

kshatrd,  royal  power,  IV,  4,  8  ;  V, 
27,  6. 

kshatriya,  royal  power,  IV,  12,  31. 

kshdp,  night:  kshdpa/6  (conj.  ksha- 
pi&),  I,  44,  8'2;  kshapd^  (conj. 
kshdpa/&),  nights  and  dawns,  I, 
70,  71 :  kshapd£,by  night,  1, 79, 
6  ;  kshdpaA  sam-yata£,  II,  2,  2*. 

kshapDt- vat,  earth-protecting,  1, 70, 5*. 

kshdm,  earth,  (I,  79,  f) ;  III,  8,  7. 

kshdya,  dwelling,  I,  36,  8;  74,  4; 
144,  7;  111,2,  6;  3,2  ;  ii,7f5 
V,  9,  2;  12,  6;  23,  4;  divi 
kshdyam  (conj.  divikshaydm), 

111,2,   I3\ 

kshar,  to  flow :  ksharasi,  I,  27,  6  ; 
ksharanti,  I,  72,  10. 

kshg,  earth,  I,  67,  5* ;  95,  ro  ;  96, 
71 ;  189,  3  ;  vijv£su  ksh#su,  I, 
127,  ioV. 

ksh&nan,  earth,  IV,  2,  16. 

kshi,  to  dwell:  ksheti,  I,  94,  2; 
ksheshyanta/^.  goinK  to  settle, 
II,  4,  V;  kshdya*,  III,  8,  i; 
kshepnyat,  may  he  give  ^us 
dwelling,  V,  9,7;-  pr/thivi'm 
upa-ksheti,  he  dwells  on  the 
earth,  I,  73,  3  ;  -  prati-kshiydn- 
tain,  who  abides  turned  towards, 

II,  10,  4  ;     to  rule:   kshdyan, 

III,  25,  5;  kshayasi,IV,  5,  u. 
kshitf,  dwelling,  human  settlement, 

I,  59,  i  ;  <>5,  55  72,  7J  73,  45 

ii,  2, 3;  in,  3,9;  13, 4l;  MI 

4;  IV,  5,  i5»;  V,  7,  i ;— tribe, 

III,  18,  i ;  V,  i,  10  ;  kshitin&u, 

daivinam,  III,  20,  4. 
kshfp, finger:  ddjakshipa/;, III,  23,  3. 
kshipra7,  a  tossing  (bow  ?),  IV,  8,  8l. 
kshi,  to  fail :  kshtyate,  II,  9,  5. 
kshu-mdt,  rich  in  food,  II,  i,  10;  4, 

8;  9,  5;  IV,2,i8«. 
kshe*?  IV,  3,6s. 

kshetra,  dwelling-place,  V,  a,  3* ;  4. 
kshetra-sftdhas,  giving  bliss  to  our 

fields,  III,  8,7*. 


kshema,  safety,  peace,  1, 66,  3  ;  67,  2. 
kshema-ydt,  living  in  peace,  111,7,  2- 
ksh6da,  stream,  I,  65,  5 ;  61 ;  10. 

kha",  opening,  IV,  n,  2. 

khya  :  priti  akhyat,  he  has  looked 
on,  IV,  1 3,  i ;  \  4,  i ;— vi  akhyan, 
they  looked  around,  IV,  i,  18. 

ga«d,  troop:  gandm-ganam,  III,  26, 

6  ;  crowd,  V,  i,  3. 
ganya,  belonging  to  the  host,  III, 

gabhira/deep,  IV,  5,  585  6. 

gam,  to  go:  ^agamyat,   I,  58,  9; 

pari-sidantajb  agman,  IV,  2$  17*; 

j — &kkh*  gamema,  we  may  obtain, 

IV,  5,  13  ;— sdm-gatani,  com- 
prised, I,  31,  s1 ;  sam-^agmana'- 
su  kr/shrishu,  when  the  human 
tribes  met  (in  battle),  I,  74,  2  ; 
mdnasa  sdm  gagmdb,  they  agreed 
in  their  mind,  III,  i,  13. 

gdya,  home,  I,  74,  2 ;  dominion,  V, 
10,  3. 

gdrbha,  womb,  I,  65,  4;  148,  5;— 
fruit  of  the  womb,  germ,  I,  95, 
2;  4;  146,  5;  II,  10,  3;  HI, 
r,  6;  lo1;  2,  10  ;  29,  2;  n  ; 

V,  2,   2  ;  bhtita'nanvgdrbham, 
III,  27,9  ; — child,son:  gdrbhaA 
apjKm,  vdnana*m,  &c.,  I,  70,  3 ; 
III.  i,  12;  13;  5,  3;  gdrbha* 
virtidham,  II,  i,  14  ;    dddhate 
gdrbham,  IV,  7,  9*. 

garbhfoi,  pregnant,  III,  29,  2. 

garh,  to  blame :  garhase,  IV,  3,  5. 

gavishd,  see  go-ishd. 

gdvishfi,  see  g6-ish/i. 

Gdvish//&ira,  V,  i,  12. 

gdvya,  of  the  cows,  I,  72,  8  ;    IV, 

2, 17;— bliss  in  cows,  1, 140, 13. 
gavydt,  longing  for  the  cows,  IV,  1,15. 
g£,  to  go:  pra-#fgata£,  coming 

forward,  I,  150,  2. 
ga*,  to  sing :   dM&a  agnfm  glsi,  V, 

25,  i1. 
g&tu,  path,  course,  I,  71,  2  ;  72,  9  , 

95,  10  ;  96,4;  III,  i,  2;  4,4* 
gayatrd,  Gayatra  song,  1, 12, 1 1  ;  27, 

45  79,  75  188,  ir. 
gayatrd-vepas,  moved  by  the  Gayatra 

song,  I,  142,  12. 

gah,  to  dive :  dti  gihemahi,  II,  7, 3- 
gfr,  praise,  prayer,  I,  26,  5 ;  59,  4' ; 

II,  a,  i«  &c. 


440 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


girf,  hill,  I,  65,  5- 

gfrva*as,  loving  pra'ses,  I,  45,  a  ;  II, 

6,3. 
gu :  y&guve,  he  has  loudly  praised, 

I,  127,  io2. 
gur :  £Ugurva";it  fti,  eager  in  praising, 

I,  142,  8  ;— abhi  £iigury&6,  ap- 
prove, I,  140,  13. 

gurfi,    heavy:    m£ntra£   gur6£,    I, 

147,4- 

guh,  to  hide  :  guha'mana/',  IV,  i,  1 1. 

gun,  covert :  guh&  guham,  I,  67,  6s. 

g<M,  in  secret,  I,  65^  i;  67,  3  ;  II, 
4,  p1;  III,  i,  9;  14;  V,  2,  i; 
*5,  5  »  Sun*  bhavantam,  samara, 
the  hfdden  one,  I,  67,  7;  141, 
3;  III,  5,  10  ;  V,  8,  3;  gun* 
hit&n,  hidden,  IV,  5,  81 ;  7,  6 ; 
V,  11,6. 

gfihya,  secret,  I,  72,  6*  IV,  5,  10; 
V,  3,  *  J  3  ;  5,  10. 

gri,  to  praise,  I,  44,  6,  &c. ;  gr/Viite, 
he  is  praised,  I,  79,  la1; — desh- 
»dm  abhi  grwittii,  hail  our  gift, 

II,  9,  4;    abhf  gratia^  they 
salute.   III,  6,  10 ;  gi'rai  abhf 
gr/fla'ti,    he    responds    to    my 
hvmns,  V,  27,  3. 

gr/ :  #3gr/-vawsa£,  having  awoke,  III, 
i°»  9  »  $£igar  fti,  he  has  awaken- 
ed, V,  i,  31.  See  jr/'. 

gritsa,clever,  III,i,2;  19,1;  IV,s,2. 

Gr/tsa-mada*  :    gr/tsa  -  mad£sa£,  1 1 , 

gndhnu,  greedy,  I,  70,  n2. 

gr/hi-pati,  master  of  the  house,  I, 
12,6;  36,5;  60,4;  II,  i,  a*J 
IV,  9,45  if,  55  V,  8,1 ;  a. 

g6,  co\v,  I,  31,  ia,  &c. ;  95,  81 ;  V, 
1,3*5  3,  a2;  fctam  nd  g&ra*,  I, 
66,  9 ;  UdhaA  nd  g6nim,  I,  69, 
3 ;  puru-da^isam  sanfm  .  g6i6, 

a3 ;  guhyam  nSma  g6nam,  V,  3, 

j;    Mpdat    gttt   V,    14,   4^; 

inasvanta  gavl,  two  oxen  with 

a  car,  V,  27,  i. 
g6-agra,  at  the  head  of  which  are 

cows,  II,  i,  i6!. 

fo-ishi,  fighting  for  cows,  IV,  i$,  a8. 
g6-ish/i,  'striving  for  cows,*  battle, 

.    ?5J«,«;  (45,  71)- 
l^r^tka,  (I,  44,  3'). 

Gfcama,  I,  79,  10;  IV,  4,  n;  pi., 
the  Gotamas,  I,  60,  3  ;  77,  5  ; 
78,1;  a1. 


gopdf,  shepherd,  guardian,  protector, 
1,96,7;  II,  9,  a  ;  6;  III,  15, 
2;  V,  2,  5;  n,  i  ;  12,  4; 
gopam  r/'ta*sya,  I,  i,  8;  III,  10, 
2  ;  vu&m  gopa^,  1,  94,  s1  ;  96,  4. 

g6-mat,  rich  in,  or  consisting  in, 
cows,  I,  79,4;  III,  16,  i;  IV, 
a,  s1;  V,  4,  u;  24,  a  ;  vn^Am 
g6-mantam,  full  of  cows,  IV,  i, 

15. 
gaurf,  buffalo  cow  :  gaury£m,  IV, 

12,6. 

gngf,  wife,  IV,  9,  4l. 
gnavat,  accompanied  by  the  divine 

wives  :   gn^va^  (conj.  gnavat), 

II,  i,  s1. 

gr£bha*a-vat,  a  firm  hold,  I,  127,  s5. 
gnKma,  hamlet,  I,  44,  10. 
grKvan,  pressing-stone  (of  the  Soma), 

IV,3,315  V,25,8'. 

ghanl,  club,  I,  36,  I61. 

gharmd,  offering  of  hot  milk  to  the 

Ajvins,  III,  26,  7*  ;  the  gharma 

vessel,  V,  19,  4. 

ghush  :  gh6shi,  it  resounded,  IV,  4,8. 
ghri,  to  besprinkle:  ^igharmi,  II, 

*<%  4  5  5- 
,  heat  :  gh/wia,  I,  141,  4*. 


ghr/ti,  the  Ghr/ta,  or  ghee,  I,  72,  3  ; 

127,  i,&c.;  II,  3,  ii8;  3,  61; 

ghr/t^ni  aksharan,   I,   188,  5  ; 

ghritdm  ni  pQtim,  III,  2,  i  : 

ghritebhi^  i(-hut£u&,  worshipped 

by  offerings  of  ghrita,  II,  7,  4l; 

^  jfi^i  ghr/tam  nd  taptirn,  IV,  i,  6. 

ghrita-ihavana,  to  whom  ghr/ta  ob- 

lations are  poured  out,  I,  ia,  5  ; 

45,5- 
ghr/t&-nir«i£,  whose  stately  robe  m 

ghee,  III,  17,  i  ;  37,  5- 
ghrita-pr;sh//>a,     whose     back     is 

covered  with  ghee,  I,  13,  5j 
.     V,  4,  3  ;  14,  5. 
ghr/ta-pratfka,  whose   face  shines 

with  ghee,  1,  143,  7  ;  IIItitft; 

V,  ii,  i. 
ghrita-prasatta,  taking  his  seat  in 

ghee,  V,  15,  i. 
ghr/ta-prush,    ghn'ta-sprinklinf,    I, 

45,  i;  H,  3,  a. 
fhn't£-yoni,  having   his   abode   in 

ghee,  (I,  140,  i»);  III,  4,  a1; 

V,  8,  9. 
ghr/ta-vat,  rich  in  ghee,  1,  14*,  *j 

ni,3,«5  75  ai»«. 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


441 


ghr/ta-j/Njt,  dripping  with  ghee,  III, 

«i  JJ  v>  Mi  3- 
ghrita-jn,  adorned  with  ghee,  1, 128, 

4;  V,  8,  3. 
ghr/ta-sna',  swimming  in  ghee,  IV, 

6,9. 
ghnta-snu,  swimming  in  ghee,  III, 

6.61;  IV,  2,3';  V,  26,2. 
ghrit&i,  (the  ladle)  full  of  ghee,  III, 

6,  i  ;  19,  2  ;  27,  i  ;  IV,  6,  3 ; 

V,  28,  i. 

ghrishvi,  brisk,  IV,  a,  13. 
ghora*,  terrible,  IV,  6,  6. 
gh6sha,  noise,  III,  7,  6. 

yfa,  and  :  £a  rdtham  for  Jardtham,  I, 
70,  7* ;  (in  the  first  member), 
I,  77,  a2. 

/tekri,  maker,  III,  16,  4. 

Jaksh,  to  look :  jatam  Hksha«a/> 
aksh£bhi£,  I,  128,  3  ; — £nu  £a- 
*a*ksha,  V,  2,  8  ;— abhi  Jakshase, 
v,  3,  9;— vf  *ash/e,  I,  98,  i; 
V.  19,  i3  ; — na£  kr/'dhi  sam- 
Jakshe,  make  us  behold,  I,  127, 
n. 

*dksha«a,  appearance,  I,  13,  5. 

&kshas,  look,  sight,   I,  96,  23;  V, 

15,  4- 

fat,  to  hide:  >tatantam,  I,  65,  i; — 
pra"  £at£yasva,  drive  away,  V, 
4,  6. 

fotu/r-akshd,  four-eyed :  >fratu£- 
aksha/6,  I,  31,  13*. 

>i£tu/>-pad,  four-footed,  I,  94,  5. 

>ftina£-hita,  with  satisfied  mind,  III, 
a,  2;  7;  ii,  2. 

>&nas  :  £a*na£  dha/b,  accept,  1, 26,  10. 

£andr£,  gold,  II,  2,  4*. 

Jandrd-ratha,  with  a  shining  chariot, 
I,  141,  12;  III,  3,5- 

4ar,  to  move,  walk :  torathaya  g\- 
vdse,  that  we  may  walk  and 
live,  I,  36,  14;  Jar&hl  (conj. 
Jcuitha),  I,  66,  91;  ^drataA 
dhruvisya,  of  whatever  moves 
or  is  firm,  I,  146,  i;  guha*  4£- 
rantain,  III,  i,  9s ;— nib  ^arati, 
he  comes  forward,  I,  95,  4  ; — 
te  piri  laranti,  they  walk  around 
thee,  I,  127,  9*;— v(  Jaranti, 
spread  around,  I,  36,  3  ; — abhi 
vi  taranta,  they  have  come 
hither  and  thither,  HI,  4,  5. 

Jar&ha,  all  that  moves,  (I,  66,  9')  *, 
stt&tu*  Jarftham,  I,  58,  5*; 


68,  i ;  70, 7*; 

I,  70,  3  ;  sthatrm  ^ardtham  ^a, 

I,  72,  6«. 

shwu,  speedy,  IV,  7,  9. 
j&rman,  skin:    sa^dsya  /^drma,  III, 

5,   62 ;    71  ;—^arma-iva,  like  a 

hide,  IV,  13,  4.. 
/arshawf,  human  tribe,  I,  127,   2 ; 

III,  6,  5;  10,  i ;  IV,  7,  4J  8, 
8;  V,  2},  i. 

^arshawi-dhrit,  supporting  the  human 

tribes,  IV,  i,  2. 
£arshaai-pra>,  filling  the  dwellings  of 

people,  IV,  2,  13. 
>fcashaia-vat,  with  head-pieces,  III, 

8,  lo1. 

^ayu,  respectful,  III,  24,  4. 
Hru,  beautiful,  1,58,  6,  &c. ;  ^ru, 

ioc.,  I,  72,  2s. 

^ru-pratika,  cheerful-faced,  II,  8,  2. 
k\ :  ni-Hyya,  revering,  III,  26,  i; — 

vf  Jinavat,  .may  he  distinguish, 

IV,  2,  n. 

^ikitvit-manas,  attentive-minded,  V, 

22,  3. 
/tit,  to  shine,  light  up :  £ita*yantam, 

II,  2,  4  ;  /fritayat,  II,  2,  5  ;  >*ita- 
yema,  II,  2,  10;  ^itr^»a  ^ikite 
bhas^f,  II,  4,  5J  *iketa,  ",  4, 
6;  *£kitana£,  resplendent,  III, 
29,    7 ;    #keta,    he    has    dis- 
tinguished himself,  V,  27,  i; — 
prd  £iketa,  he  has  shone  forth, 

V,  19,  i ;— vf  Jikite,  it  shines,  I, 

7i,  78. 

£it,  to  see,  watch,  be  intent  on : 
£ik£ta,  I,  67,  7 ;  £fketat  asmai, 
may  he  pay  attention  to  this 
(sacrificer),  1, 69, 9  ;  Mdyanta^, 
awaking  attention,  I,  94,  4; 
Jetati,  I,  128,  4;  III,  n,  31; 
tftate,  III,  14,  2;  *ikitan£& 
a^fttan,  seeing  the  unseen  ones, 
HI,  18,  2;  *6tata6,  attentive, 
IV,  5,  4J  *ikiddhf,V,  22,  4>; 
May  at,  he  has  enlightened, 

IV,  i,9l;  ^itiyan,  enlightening, 

V,  15,  58;   Jikitv&i,  knowing, 
I,  68,  6,  &c.  ;—l  ^iketa,  he  has 
understood,  1, 95,  4  ; — ^eti  pra\ 
it  has  been  known,  III,  12, 9 ; — 
vf  *it£yanta£,  causing  to  discern, 
V,  19,  a  ;— sam->ikitvan,  look-, 
ing  over,  IV,  7,  8. 

flti,  pile,  (I,  67,  lo1). 
Jittt,  mind,  V,  7,  9. 


442 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


*itti,  splendour  (?),  t,  67,  lo1. 

*itti,    thought,    III,    2,    3;    3,   3; 

\\isdom,  IV,  2,  ii. 
$trd,  bright,  excellent,   I,  66,    i ; 

6,  &c. 
j&itri-bhanu,  with  bright  splendour, 

I,  27,6;  II,  10,  2  ;  V,  26,  2. 
*itr£-yama,  whose  way  is   bright, 

III,  2,  13. 
^itra'-jo/fcis,  of  bright  splendour,  V, 

17,2. 
£itrajrava/>-tama,    whose    glory    is 

brightest,  I,  i,  5 ;  45,  6. 
/hid,  to  quicken,  promote :  yfroddyasi, 

I,  94,  15;  lodayata,  I,  188,  8. 
krfr  :  vi  £r/'tanti,  they  get  off,  I,  67,  8. 
^tana,  brilliant,  II,  5,  i2;  III,  12, 

2; — n.,  splendour,  light,  I,  13, 

n;  III,3,8;  IV,  7,  2. 

most  famous,  I,  65,  9 ; 

most  shining,  I,  128,  8;  most 

brilliant,  V,  27,  i. 
foda",  driver,  I,  143,  6. 
&>daya*t-mati,  stirring  thoughts,  V, 

8,6. 
£yu  :   a  tva  aJu>&yaviL&,  they  have 

made  thee  speed  hither,  1, 45,  8. 

Mad,  to  show  oneself:   Madayati, 

A  in,  9, 7. 

^aya,  hludow,  I,  73,  8. 


,  belly,  I,  95,  10  ;  III,  2,  i  r ; 
22,  i;  29,  I41. 

#an,  to  be  born  :  gAgn\n£&y  1, 12,  3; 
^ata/j  and  g&m-tvab,  I,  66,  81 ; 
#anayat,  he  caused  to  be  born, 
I>  7i,  83;  ^atasya  fa  ^yanu- 
nasya  fa  kshi(m,  the  earth  (i.e. 
the  support)  of  what  is  born 
and  what  will  be  born,  I,  96', 
71 ;  £i£yemahi,  we  may  multiply 
with  offspring,  I,  97,  4 ;  #ana- 
roasi,  III,  2,  i1;  garth  jftyate, 
HI*  8>  51 1  #anata,  they  have 
generated,  IV,  i,  i;  gMn 
ubha'ya'n,  the  two  races  (of  men 
and  gods),  IV,  2,  a ;  ^initos, 
from  giving  birth,  IV,  6,  7 ; — 
sK  ^ayam&nam  (conj.  ^flya- 
mUna),  1, 60, 31;— pra^fli-v&i, 
generator,  III,  2,  11. 

^£na,  man,  people,  I,  36,  2,  &c. ; 
dafvyam  £*nam,  the  divine  host, 
Ji  3^1  I7J  44|6'i  45,  i1,8;  9J 


^o;  V,  13,  3;  jfaftya  jirvate, 

1,  36,  19. 

^anas,  tribe  :  c^dnast  iti  ubh6  fti,  both 
tribes  (of  gods  and  of  men),  II, 

2,  4. 

^ani,  wife,  I,  66,  8  ;  £a"naya£  sd- 
nM§h,  I,  71,  i  J  —  woman,  III,  26, 

31;  IV,  5,  5. 

£anitr/,  begetter,  I,  76,  4*;  ^anita, 
rodasyo/',  I,  96,  4  ;  pitu/&  fa 
gdrbham  #anitu/&  fa.  III,  r,  lo1; 
dyau£  pita  ^anitS(,  IV,  i,  10. 

who  will  be  born  :  ^ni- 
tvam  (conj.  #cini-tva/&),  1,  66,  81. 

^niman,  birth,  III,  i,  4;  20;  tri/^ 
^animani,  IV,  i,  7  ;—dev2inSin 
^animani,  111,4,  10  ;  IV,  2,  17; 
1  8;—  offspring,  V,  3,  3. 

^ganus,  birth  :  ^anusha,  by  birth,  by 
nature,  1,^94,  6;  III,  i,  3;  9; 
2,  2  ;  ^anusham,  I,  141,  4. 

#ant6,  people,  human  creature,  I, 
45,  6,  &c.  ;  mdnusha^  ^antu- 
bhiA,  III,  3,6. 

an,  birth  :  ma'nushasya^a'nasya 
nma,I,7o,2j  devanam^nma, 
>  7°>  ^>  ^dnma-iva  nityam 
tdnayam,  III,  15,  2';  —  birth- 
place: parame  #£nman,  II,  9, 
3  ;—  -race  :  ubhayaya  ^anmane, 
1,51,7;  dwyaya^anmane,  1,  58, 
6;  dc\r)'n  IM-.  deviim)  ^anrna, 
I?  ^7,  3(T%  ^anmani  fti  ubh^ 
iti,  I,  14  «,  M  J  ;  #anma  ubhaya, 
II,  6,  7  ;  jganinaii-jpanmdii,  gen- 
eration by  generation,  II  1  1  i5 
20  ;  ii. 

a,  belonging  in  on^'^i  own 
pcoplo  :  ^inya  na,  (tonj.  ^an- 
ya/;-iv.i),  ll;  ^,  ;l. 

^ablru?  IV,  5,  7*. 

jiw,   I,    i  n»  5  ;    M^,   4J 
IV,  7,  10. 


,  sound  (?),  T,  141,  71. 
£-arat-visha,  l>UL'.y  among    the    de- 

cayed (wood),  V,  8j  21, 
(/ara-bodha,  N.pr.:  6ira-bodha,  I, 

27,  to1. 
^aritri,  praiscr,  I,  189,  45  H>  9,  5; 

III,  7,  6l;  12,2;  5;  i5,5;  V, 

3,  ii. 

^arim^n,  old  age,  I,  71,  10. 
££vish/£a,  most  swift,  IV,  2,  3. 
g&,  people  :  naJrg&Jb,  I,  143,  8. 

ip,V,  28,  j1. 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


443 


$2(grrvi,  watchful  :  jKgmiA,  I,  3  1  ,  9  5 
111,2,  12;  3,7  J  24,  3;  26,  3; 
28,5;  29,2;  V,  u,  i. 

Gata-vedas,  I,  44,  i  ;  5;  45,  3,  &c.; 
127,  i2. 
birth  :  tr&i^ffna,  I,  95,  3. 


£ami,  kinsman,  I,  31,  10;  65,  7  ;  71, 
75J  75,A35  4J  IV  4  5;  V,  19, 
4  ;  ££min3m  svasr/«am,  uterine 
sisters,  III,  i,  n  ;  lokim^amfm, 
the  sister  world,  III,  2,  9*. 

^,  wife,  I,  66,  5;  IV,  3,  a1. 

u,  victorious,  I,  67,  i1. 

£,  lover,  I,  66,  8  ;  69,  i1;  9- 


i,  to  conquer,  to  gain:  #ayati,  I, 
36,  4;—  sam-tfigivan,  III,  15,  4. 
v,  to  stir:  #invate,  III,  2,  n; 
#inva,III,3,7;  15,6;  -upapra 
£invan,  they  have  excited,  I, 
71,  i1. 

ri,  aged,  I,  70,  10. 
a,  down  -streaming,  I,  95,  5. 
Z,  tongue,  I,  140,  z  ;  II,  i,  i  j  ; 
4,4;  III,  20,  a;  IV,  s,  10;  7, 
10  ;  V,  26,  i. 
£,  quick,  1,44,  u;  lit,  3,  6. 

a,  with  quick  horses,  I,  141, 
12;  11,4,2- 
#ira-danu,  rich  in  quickening  rain, 

I,  189,  8. 

^tv,  to  live  :  ^iv^se,  I,  56,  14  ;  77,  7  ; 
70,  9;  #iv^,r;c,  I,  94  ,4. 
,  living,  I,  68,  3;-    l.re,  I,  ip,«. 
hanya,  the  pri/o  (of  o«ntctf  ;) 
which  living  beings  tu 


ga,  whose  stream  is  drunk. 
by  living  beings,  I,  i  J.Q,  i1. 
-yS^i,    a     sacrifice    of    living 
(\icrims),  I,  31,  15. 

,  s^e  gri. 

h,  to  be  pleased,  accept  ghdly  : 
^iasv^,  I,i2,  12;  75,  i  ;  144, 
7;  ^ushanta,  I,  68,  3  ;  9  ;  a- 
^ushran,  1,  71,  i,  &c.  ;  ^ushinta 
pdntham,  they  followed  ghdly 
his  path,  I,  127,  6;  tmvlm 
^•ushasva,  III,  i,  i6;  ^oshi,  find 
pleasure,  IV,  9,  7l;  —  prati 
^oshayete  iti,  they  caress,  I, 

95,  5  5  *• 
^sh/a,   welcome,   I,  44,  a  ;    4  ;  — 

grateful,  I,  73,  10. 
£uhu-£sya,    whose    mouth    is   the 

sacrificial  spoon,  I,  12,  6. 


£uhur!n£,  leading  astray,  I,  189,  i. 

£uhtif,  sacrificial  ladle,  I,  58,  4s;  76, 
59;  145,  3;  II,  10,  6;  IV,  4, 
a1;  V,  i,  3;  saptd^uhvaA,  I, 
58,  72. 

g&9  to  speed,  incite :  ^-una^,  1,27,7; 
^unasi,  I,  71,  6;  £%u-vat, 
impetuous,  IV,  u,  4. 

^ff,  speedy:  #6va£,  1, 140,  4*. 

^fltf,  speeding,  I,  127,  2  ;— solicita- 
tion, 111,3,8  j—ya^/asya  £Uty  2(, 
stirring,  III,  12,  3. 

g&rn'i,  flaming  (?),  I,  127,  10. 

£-{irv,  to  consume:  ni-^tfrvan,  IV, 
7,11. 

gri,  to  grow  old:  ^firyati,  I,  128,  2  ; 
^u^urv^in,  II,  4,  5;  £uYyat-su, 

III,  23,    i;   ^ardyan,    making 
decay,  II,  8,  a1;  #arase,  V,  i5,4l. 

g ri,  to  praise :  ^-arate,  he  is  praised  (?), 
I,  59,  7  ;-  ^m  te  #areta,  may 
it  resound  to  thee,  IV,  3,  15'. 

gri,  to  be  awake  :  #arate,  I,  59,  7  ; 
127,  io4;#arase,  I,  94,  14*;  *a- 
rasva,  III,  3,  7 l ;  --sain  ^aratam, 
may  it  awaken,  IV,  4,  8l. 

^ctr/,  conqueror,  I,  66,  3  ;  V,  25,  6. 

^nya,  noble,  I,  71,4;  128,7;  140, 
2;  146,  s;  II,  s,  *;  V,  i,  5. 

^osha,  desire  :  #6sham  &,  I,  77,  »>, 

^ohutr.i,  to  be  invoked,  II,  ro,  i. 

g#\,  to  know:  a  ^-anlta,  accept,  I, 
94, « ;  -pra-^anan,  prescient,  1 1 , 
3,  10 ;  ami  pra-^andn.  III,  26, 
8  ; — vi^anan,  discriminating,  1, 
63,  31 ;— sam  #anata,  they  were 
concordant,  I,  68,  81 ;  wm- 
^aruna/?,  being  like-minded,  I, 
72,3. 

j*y'iyas,  batcr,  I,  27,  13. 

^ycslu^i,  the  first,  1, 127,  z ;  eldest, 

IV,  r,  2. 

£yotf£-ratha,  whose  chariot  is  light, 

I,  140,  i. 
£y6tis,  light,  I,  36,  19;  59,  2  ;  III, 

26,  8;    div.i£  #y6tiA,  I,  69,  r; 

vipftm  ^yotiwshi,  lit,   10,   s1; 

viddnta  ^y/>tiA,  IV,  i,  14;  svJA 

ni^-yoti^,  IV,  10,  3l. 
^tiyas,  space,  I,  95,  o;  140,  9  J  V, 

8,7. 

takvan,  N.  of  an  animal,  I,  6/>,  a1. 

taksh,  to  fashion:  h/vd£  ta.sh/an 
mantran,  I,  67,  4;  tataksha, 
111,8,6;  ataksham,  V,  a,  u. 


444 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


ta/it,  lightning,  I,  94,  7. 

t4t>O£as,  having  the  strength  of  such 
a  one,  V,  i,  8. 

tan,  to  spin  out,  stretch  out :  ta'ntum 
tanushva,  I,  142,  i  ;  ta'ntum 
tat  am,  II,  ^  6;  tanvan££  yzg- 
fl&m,  III,  3, 6 ; — iva  tanuhi,  un- 
bend, IV,4,s ;— i-tatinthajthou 
hast  spread,  III,  22,  2  ;— iti  nib 
tatanyu£,  may  they  spread  out, 
I,  141,  i32;— vi  tanvate,  V,  13, 

A.  *    It     1^ 

tin,  continuation :  jcLrvata*  tin  a, 
constantly,  I,  26,  61;  tin  a,  for 
ever,  I,  77,  4;  II,  2,  i2;  III, 
35>  *  5  37>  9  ;— tokisya  na£  tine 
tanOfnam,  II,  9,  2. 

tinaya,  offspring,  I,  96,  4  ;  III,  15, 
2' ;— -tokisya  tinaye,  of  kith  and 
km,  I,  31,  ial;  tok£  iti  tinaye, 
I,  147,  i8;  tokgya  ta"  nay  ay  a,  I, 
189,  2;  IV,  J2,  5. 

tanayitnu,  thunderbolt,  IV,  3,  i. 

tana,  see  tin. 

tantf,  body:  tanva£,  I,  31,  12;  72, 
3 ;  5";  iM&nta  reta>&  mithi£ 
tanflshu,  I,  68,  81 ;  tine  tantf- 
nim,  II,  9,  2  ;  tanvam  ^ushasva, 
III,  i,  i5;  tanva*  su-^ata,  III, 
15,  a;  tantf-bhi£,  IV,  2,  14; 
tanya£  tanvate  vi',  V,  15,  3*. 

tanti-krit,  the  body's  creator :  tanti- 
kr/t,  I,  31,  9. 

Tinfi-naplt,  'son  of  the  body,'  1, 13, 
a1;  142,  a;  188,  a;  III,  4,  2; 
39,  ii. 

tanti-ru>t,  shining  with  his  body,  II, 
i,  9. 

tintu,  thread  (of  sacrifice),  I,  142, 
i; — ta'ntum  tatim,  warp,  II,  3, 
6;— web  (of  light),  IV,  13,4. 

tand,  to  grow  tired:  tandate  (by 
conjecture),  I,  58,  i1. 

tanyatu,  thunder,  V,  25,  8. 

tap,  to  burn,  heat:  tdpo  fti,  tipa, 
III,  1 8,  a;  tatipate,  IV,  a,  6. 

tipish/^6a,  hottest,  IV,  4,1;  5,  4. 

tapu,  hot,  II,  4,  6. 

tapu£-#ambha,  with  fiery  jaws,  I, 
36,  16  ;  58,  5. 

tipus,  heat :  tipOmshi,  IV,  4,  a. 

tanuL6-hin,  destroyer  of  darkness,  I, 
140,  i. 

timas,  darkness:  dvKrl  timasa^, 
III.  5,  i;  tira>  tama^si  dar- 


tar£«i,  strongly  advancing,  tri- 
umphant, 1, 128,  6;  III,  n,3f; 
29,  13;  IV,  4,  12. 

tiras,  advancing  power,  III,  18,  3. 

tirutri,  a  winner,  I,  27,  9. 

tirus:  dakshasya  tirusha^,  of  su- 
perior strength,  III,  a,  3. 

tavis,  strong,  III,  i,  i1;  2;  13. 

tavisha*,  powerful,  III,  i  a,  8. 

tavishi,  strength,  I,  128,  5;  III,  3, 

,    5 ;  36, 4. 

tavyaws,  most  powerful,*  I,  143,  i; 

V,  17,  i. 

tSy6,  thief,  I,65,  i ;  V,  15,  5*. 
tavaki,  thy,  I,  94,  11. 
tigita,  sharp,  I,  143,  5- 
tigma*,  sharp,  IV,  6,  8 ;   7,  10;  V, 

*9>  5- 

tigmd-anika,  sharp-faced,  I,  95,  2. 
tigmi  ayudha,  with  sharp  weapons, 

V,  2,  10. 
tigmi-^ambha,  with  sharp  teeth,  I, 

79,6;  IV,  5,  4;  15,5- 
tigmi-bhr/'sh/i,    sharp-pointed,    IV, 

tigmi-jo/tfs,  sharp-flaming,  I,  79, 10. 
tigmi-heti,  with  the  sharp  weapon, 

IV,  4,  4- 

ti,g-,  to  sharpen:  tegamana£,  sharp- 
ened, III,  8,  ii. 

titvishani,  rushing  forward  impetu- 
ously, V,  8,  5. 

tir,  see  tri. 

tir£&-ahnya,  kept  over  night,  I,  45, 
iol;  111,28,3;  6. 

tira^-hita,  dwelling  in  concealment, 

IH,  9,  5. 

tiraj/ta',  throughout,  II,  10,  4. 
tiris,  through,  III,  27,  13. 
tu :  ttitiva,  he  is  strong,  I,  94,  a. 
tu£,  to  stir,  press  onward:  tutiyya't, 

I,  143,  6 ;  t6^4gamina\6,  III,  i, 

16;  tu^e,  IV,  i,  3. 
tu^,  impetuous :  lug£  girK,  V,  17,  3*. 
tuturi,  conqueror,  I,  145,  3. 
tud,  to  strik? :    nf  tundate  (conj. 

nu  tandate),  I,  58,  i1. 
turd,  quick,  t,  68,  9  ;  96,  8 ;  III,  4, 

ii ;  IV/3,8. 

turfpa.  seed,  1,  143,  10;  III,  4,  9. 
Turva/a,  T,  36,  ig1. 
Turvfti.  I,  36,  1 8". 
tuvi-gra,  mightily  devouring,  I,  z  40, 9. 
tuvi-griva,  with  mighty  neck,  V,  a,  i  a. 
tuvi-*ata\  strong-born,   IV,  n,  a; 

V,  a,  ii ;  27,  * 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


445 


tuvi-dyumna,  highly  glorious,  III, 
16,  3;  6. 

tuvf-brahman,  knower  of  mighty 
spells,  V,  25,  5- 

tuvfjravaMama,  most  mightily  re- 
nowned, III,  n,  6  ;  V,  25,  5. 

tuvishmat,  mighty,  IV,  5,  3. 

tuvi-sva*n,  loudly  roaring,  V,  16,  3. 

tuvi-svan£s,  roaring  mightily,  IV,  6, 
lo-;  V,  8,  3. 

tuvi-sva*ni,  loudly  roaring,  I,  58,  4  ; 
127,  6. 

tffr*i,  swift,  III,  3,  5;  u,  5. 

tu'r«i-tama,  quickest,  IV,  4,  3. 

tr/,  to  get  through,  to  overcome : 
ataran,  I,  36,  8;  to" ran,  III,  24, 
i ;  tury&ma,  V,  9,  6  ;  tanshini, 
may  they  pass  across,  V,  10,  6l; 
tuturyat,  may  he  traverse,  V, 
15,  3 ;— titirviKwsaA  dti  srfdhaA, 
1, 36, 7;  iti  tarema,  III,  27, 3;— 
with  pra",  to  prolong,  promote : 
pra-tirin,  I,  44,  6  ;  pr£  tira,  1, 
94,  16;  III,  17,  2;  pra*  tirasi, 
IV,  6,  i;  pr£  taYi  pra-taram, 
IV,  12,  6;— vf  tar'.t,  he  has 
crossed.  I,  69,  5*;  73,  i;  vi- 
tdritrata,  progressing,  I,  144,  3. 

tr/»a,  grass,  III,  29,  6. 

tr/'d,  to  perforate:  atr/wat,  IV,  i, 
19  ; — inu  tr/ndhi,  V,  12,  2. 

trip,  to  satiate  oneself:  s6masya 
tr/mpatim,  III,  12,  3. 

tn'sh,  to  be  thirsty:  tatr/shaw&6,  I, 
31,  72;  a'tmhyantta,  free  from 
thirst,  I,  71,  38,4;  tatr/sha»a/j, 
11,4,6. 

trishu,  thirsty,  greedy,  I,  58,  2  ;  4 ; 
IV,  4,  i;  7,  u. 

tr/shu-^yut,  moving  abort  thirstily, 

I,  140,  3. 

tr/sh/£,  pungent  sharpness,  III,  9,  3. 
te^as,   sharp  splendour,  I,  71,  8a ; 

sharpness :  sam  akr/nvan  te^ase, 

III,  2,  10. 

te#ish/£a,  hottest,  I,  127,  4'. 
te^iyas,  sharpest,  III,  19,  3.    ' 
toka,  children :    tokd  t^naya,  kith 

and  kin,  I,  31,  12'  ;    147,  i3; 

189,  2  ;  IV,  12,  5;  nftye  toke, 

II,  2,  ii ;  tok&sya  tane  tandf- 
nam,  I),  9,  2  ;  toka\a  tu^e,  IV, 

i,  3- 

toki-vat,  with  offspring,  III,  13,  7. 
tod&,  an  or  the  impeller,  I,  150,  i2. 

bounteous.  III,  12,  41. 


tmdni,  by  oneself,  by  one's  own 
power,  I,  69,  10  ;  79,  6,  &c. 

tmdnya*,  thyself,  I,  188,  10. 

trdya^-tri/»jat,  thirty-three  (gods), 
I,  45,  2. 

Trasddasyu,  V,  27,  3*. 

tra  :  trasate,  may  he  protect,  I,  128, 

5  J  7- 

tr#,  protector,  (I,  72,  5'). 
tratr/,  protector,  I,  31, 12;  V,  24,  i. 
tri,  three,  I,  13,  9,  &c. ;  trf  ro/^a- 

nS(ni,   the    threefold   light,    I, 

149,  4;    tisr/-bhya£  &  vaYam, 

II,5,52;  tisra^dev^,II,  3,8; 

III,  4,  8;  V,  5,  8;   tnwi  jata 

trf  sahasrani  triwjat  fa  dev^ 

n£va  >^a,  III,  9,  9 ;  tn»\  j(yQwshi, 
-tfLnU>,Ul,  17,  3l;  tri, 
^,  III,  20,  2. 
thirty:    tri»u£tam  trth  fa 

devi(n,  III,6,9. 
Tr'-aru«a,  V,  27,  1-3. 
trf-ajir,  with   threefold  admixture 

(Soma),  V,  27,  51. 
Tritd,  V,  9,  5. 
tri-dh#tu,    threefold:     arka\6    tri- 

dhatu^,  III,  26,  71. 
tri-murdhdn,  having  three  heads,  I, 

146,  i1. 

tri-vaVfitha,  thrice-protecting,  V,  4, 8. 
tri-vish/i',  thrice,  IV,  6,  4  ;  15,  2'. 
tri-vrit,  threefold:  tri-vrit  innam 

I,  140,  22. 
tn's,  thrice:   \rib  saptd,  I,  72,  61  ; 

ir\h  a/^an,  III,  4,  2  ;  trf£  (read 

tri  ?),  IV,  i,  71. 
tri-sadhasthd,     dwelling    in    three 

abodes,  V,   4,   8  ;  —  threefold 

abode,  V,  u,  2s. 
Traivr/shwd,  the  son  of  Trivr/shan, 

V,  27,  i. 
tva*£,  skin,  III,  21,  5; — leather-bag 

(cloud),  I,  79,  3s; — tvaJi  upa- 

misyam,  I,  145,  5'. 
tv£d,  pers.  pron.:  tv6  iti,  in  thee,  I, 

26,  6;    36,  s1;  6;  te,  ace.,  I, 

127,9*;  V,  6,  41;  te  t6bhyam, 

V,  6,  s1. 
tvadrik,  directed  towards  thee,  V, 

3,  12. 
Tvdsh/r/,  N.  of  a  god,  I,  13,   10  ; 

95,  a8;   525   MS,  10;   188,  9; 

II,i,5;  3,9;  111,4,9?  V,  5,9- 

tvaMita,  guarded  by  thee,  I,  73,  9  ; 

,74,  8;  HI,  19,  3;  IV,  4,  14; 

V,  3,  6. 


446 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


tviC-data,  given  by  thee,  V,  7,  10. 
tvfl-dfita,  with  thee  as  messenger, 

II,io,6;  V,  6,  8. 
tvi-ya',  desire  of  worshipping  thee, 

IV,  2,  6;  14. 

tv&-vat,  like  thee :  tv^-van,  1, 189, 6. 
Tvjish/ri,  son  of  Tvashfr/,  III,  7,  4*. 
tvish,  see  titvishawl 
tvfshi,  impetuous  power,  I,  71,  5; 

V,  8,  5. 

tveshi,  impetuous,  fierce,  I,  36,  20; 
66,  6;  70,  ir ;  95,  8;  143,  35 

II,  9,   i;    III,   22,   2;    26,  5; 
IV,  6,  10  ;  V,  8,  6. 

tveshitha,  fierceness,  I,  141,  8. 
tveshi- pratika,  with  sharp  point,  I, 

66,7. 

tsar:  tatsara,  he  steals  upon  (his 
prey),  I,  145,  4  ;-  iva  tsarat,  he 
stealthily  approached,  I,  71,  5. 

da*?;,  to  bite :  debate,  I,  189,  5. 
damsina,  wonderful    deed,    III,    3, 

1 1  ;  wonderful  power,  III,  9,  7. 
diwsas,  wonderful  deed,  I,  69,  8. 
diksha,    mind,    I,    68,    8 ; — power, 

ability,  skill,  I,  76,  i  ;  95,  61 ; 

141,  na  ;   III,  2,3;  13,2  ;  IV, 

10,  2;  V,  10,  2;  18,  2;  20,  3; 

diksha m  (conj.  yakshim),  IV, 

3,  13s;    Diksha    personified, 

III,  27,  98;    10;   V,  16,  2  ;— 
skilful,.!,  59,  4;  III,  14,  7. 

diksha-pati,  lord  of  power,  I,  95,  6. 
dikshas,  ability,  II,  i,  n. 
dakshjKyya,  to  be  treated  kindly,  II, 

4,  3- 

dakshmatis,  from  the  right  side,  I, 

95,  62. 

dikshma,  the  sacrificial  gift,  V,  i,  3s. 
dakshiaa-avrit,  turned  to  the  right, 

I,  144,  i8. 
dakshifla-va'h,  carrying  from  left  to 

right,  III,  6,  i\ 
digdhr/,  burner,  V,  9,  4. 
datvit,  having  teeth,  I,  189,  5. 
Dadhi-kra1,  III,  20,  i2;  5. 
din,  house  :  piti£  din,  lord  of  the 

house,  I,  149,  ia. 
dint  a,  tooth :  atharva£  ni  dintam. 

IV,  6,  8'. 

dabh,  to  deceive:  dfpsanta£  nide- 
bhu£,  I,  147,  3  ;  dadabhanta,  I, 
148,  2;  dabhan,  I,  148,  5;— 
jatrum  i-dabhu^,  III,  1 6,  2. 

dibha,  deceiver,  V,  19,  4'. 


dabhri,  few,  I,  31,  6. 

dim,  house:  dim-su,  I,  MI,  4. 

dima,  house,  I,  i,  8,  &c. ;  II,  i,  72; 
8;  4itti£  ap&n  dime,  I,  67, 
lo1;  dime-dame,  house  by 
house,  I,  128,  4;  IV,  7,  3;  V, 

1,  5  ;  6,  8. 

dimtinas,  domestic,  friend -of  the 
house,  I,  60,  4a;  68,  9;  140, 
10;  141,  n  ;  III,  i,  n;  17; 

2,  15;  3,  6J  5,  4J  IV,  4,  ii  ; 
n,  5;  V,  i,  81  ;  4,  5;  8,  i. 

dim-pati,  master  of  the  house,  I, 
127,  8;  V,  22,  4;— dim-pat!, 
husband  and  wife,  V,  3,  2. 

dimya,  domestic,  III,  i,  15  ;  2,  8. 

day,  to  bestow :  dayasva,  I,  68,  6  ; — 
vf  diyamana£,  distributing,  III, 
2,  ii  ;  vf  dayate,  he  tears  to 
pieces,  IV,  7,  10. 

dirv?,  sacrificial  ladle,  V,  6,  9. 

darjati,  conspicuous,  beautiful,  I, 
36,  9  ;  141,  i;  144,  7;  III,  i, 
3;  10,6;  27,  13. 

dija-pramati :  dira-pramatim,  read : 
dlra  primatim,  I,  141,  a4. 

dajasy :  sim  dajasya,  forgive,  1 1 1,  7, 
10. 

das:  sam-dadasvzKn,  being  ex- 
hausted (?),  II,  2,  61. 

dasmi,  wonderful,  I,  77,  3  ;  148,  4  ; 
II,  1,4;  9,  5;  III,  1,7;  3,2; 
IV,  i,  3  ;  6,  9  ;  V,  6,  5  ;  17,  4. 

dasmit,  possessed  of  wonderful 
power,  I,  74,  4- 

Disyu,  I,  36,  18;  59,  6;  V,  4,  6; 
pi.,  the  Dasyus,  I,  78,  4;  III, 
29,  9J  V,  7,  10 ;  14,  4- 

dah,  to  burn:  daha,  I,  12,  5,  &c. ; 
dhikshat,  burning,  II,  4,  7  ;— 
inn  dhakshi,  II,  i,  10  ; — pri 
dhakshi,J,76,  3  ;— priti dahatSt, 
burn  against,  HI,  18,  x; — sim 
daha,  I,  36,  14 ;  20. 

d£,  to  give :  inu  du£,  they  give  way, 

I,  127,  4  ;— ni  piri  dat,  he  will 
not  surrender,  V,  3,  ia. 

da,  to  bind :  nf-daduA,  (V,  a,  6') ; 

nf-ditam,  V,  2,  7. 
d^  (do),  to  cut,  to  shear  :  d&ti,  1, 65, 

8  J  V,  7,  7. 
d6tn,  giver,  I,  13,  n. 
diKtr/*,  mower,  V,  7,  7. 
d&ia,  gift,  V,  27,  5- 
divin  :  da  vine,  for  the  sake  of  giving, 

II,  i,  10. 


INDEX   OF   WORDS. 


447 


dir,  to  offer,  worship  :  dad&ra,  I,  36, 
4,  &c.;  y&6  tfibhyam  dajat,  I, 
68,  6;  dajat,  IV,  2,  9;  d&at 
yl&  asmai  aVam,  who  satisfies 
him,  I,  70,  5  ;  n£ma£  d&rat,  I, 
71,  6;  agndye  dash/i  aVase,  I, 
127,  42. 

d£j,  worship,  I,  127,  7. 

d&ju-adhvara,   performing  worship, 

I,  75,  31- 
d£jva#fs,  worshipper,  liberal  giver, 

I,  1,6;  27,  6,  &c. 
da's:  abhi-da'sati,  he  tries  to  harm, 

I,  79»  "• 
dtsd-patni,  (strongholds)  of  which 

the  Dasas  are  the  lords,  III, 

ia,  6. 
dasvat,  munificent,  I,  127,  i ;  II,  4, 

3  J  IV»  2>  7  ;  V,  9,  2. 
Dfti,IV,2,  ii8. 
didr/kshe«ya,  worthy  to  be  looked 

for,  I,  146,  5. 

didr/ksheya,  visible,  III,  i,  12. 
didyu,  arrow,  \,  71,  5. 
didyut,  shaft,  I,  66,  7. 
didhisha'yya,  worthy  to  be  searched 

for,  desirable,  I,  73,  2* ;  II,  4,  r. 
didhishu,  seeking  to  obtain,  1,71,  32. 
dfv,  see  dyu. 
diva£-r6>&,  shining  from  heaven,  III, 

7,  5- 
divikshas,  dwelling  in  heaven,  III, 

7,  a1- 
div&-tarit,  more  than  by  day,  1, 127, 

5s- 
divi-kshayi,  dweller  in  heaven :  divi- 

kshayam  (conj.  for  divf  kshd- 

yam),  III,  2,  if. 

divi'tmat,  going  to  heaven,  I,  26,  2. 
dfvish/i,  the  striving  for  day,  I,  45, 

71 ;   141,  6;       heaven-aspiring 

sacrifice,  IV,  9,  3. 
divi-sprij,   attaining  to  Heaven,  I, 

142,  8;  V,  n,  i  ;   13,  a1. 
divya,  heavenly,  I,  143,  5;  144,  6  ; 

III,   2,  4; --divine:    divyiKya 

^dnmane,  I,  58,  6. 
di'j,  quarter  of  the  world :  dua/6,  I, 

31,   1 4s ;   prd  dfjam  (for  pra- 

di'jam),  I,  95,  j2. 
dt,  did!?  to  shine,  I,  36,  ii,  &c.; 

rayim  asmasu  didihi,  shine  upon 

us  with  thy  wealth,  II,  a,  6 ; 

didayet,  may  he  illuminate,  II, 

4,   3  ;  dfdyat  (conj.  dt'dhyat), 

III,  i,  is;  devgn  &kh*  dTdy- 


,  brightly  shining  towards 
the  gods,  III,  15,  5' ;  dfdyatam 
br/hat,  111,  27,  15. 
didi-vdws,  resplendent,  I,  12,  5  ;  10, 

&c. 

dfdivi,  shining,  I,  i,  8. 
didhiti,  (adoring)  thought,  devotion, 
,    111,4,3!  IV,  2,  i62;  V,  18,4. 
dirghd,  long-lasting :  dirghd/^  rayi'£, 

IV,  2,  5. 

dtrgh4-ayus,long  living,  IV,  15, 9;  10. 
dirghifyu-jojf  is,  flaming  through  long 

life,  V,  18,  3. 

du/fr-ita",  trouble,  misfortune,  danger, 
I,  99,  i;  128,  5;  III,  20,  4; 

V,  3,  ii ;  4,9;  9,6. 
du/D-uktd,  evil  word,  I,  147,  4. 
du£-e"va,  of  evil  conduct,  IV,  5,  5  ; 

V,  a,  9. 

du£-ga\  trouble,  I,  99,  i  ;  189,  2. 
du/&-g£ha,  difficulty,  V,  4,  9. 
du/6-gr/bhi, difficult  to  seize,  1, 140, 6. 
du^-gribhiy:    du^-gr/bhiyase,   thou 

showest  thyself  hard  to  seize, 

V,  9,  4- 
du£-d£bha,  undeceivable,  III,  2.  2  ; 

IV,  9,  2  ;  8. 
du/6-dhita,  badly-composed  (prayer), 

I,  140,  ii. 
du^-dhf,  malicious,  I,  94, 8  ;  9  ;  III, 

16,2. 
du£-matf,  hatred,  ill-will,  III,  15,  6  ; 

IV,  11,6. 

du/&-j^wsa,  one  who  curses,  I,  94,  9 
dugdh£,  milk,  V,  19,  41. 
du^Mna,  misfortune,  I,  189,  5. 
dudhita,  confused,  IV,  i,  17*. 
dur,  gate,  door,  I,  68,  10;  II,  2,  7l; 

IV,  4,  6  ;  dura^,  the  doors  (of 
heaven),   I,   69,    10 ;    188,   sl ; 
raya"£  dura/&,  I,  72,  8. 

duritd,  see  du£-it<L 
dur6ka-jo>is,  he    to    whose    flarne 
men  do  not  get  accustomed, 

1,  66,  51. 

durowl,  house,  1, 69, 4  ;  5 ;  70,  4*,  &c. 

durgd,  see  du/r-gi. 

d6ryS,  pi,  dwelling,  IV,  1,9;  18  ; 

2,  12. 

duvas,  worship,  I,  36,  14*;  III,  a, 
6;  16,4;  IV,  2,  9;  8,6, 

duvasani,  hastening,  IV,  6,  io2. 

duvasy,  to  exalt:  duvasyati,  I,  78^ 
a ;  III,  3,  i ;  duvasyan,  III,  r, 
a;  13;  duvasydta,  III,  a,  8; 

V,  a  8,  6. 


448 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


dush,  to  violate :  dfidushat,  III,  3,  i. 

dustaVa,  invincible,  I,  79,  81 ;  II,  2, 
10 ;  111,24,  *  ;  V,  i5,  3- 

duh,  to  milk:  dohase,  I,  141,  2; 
amritam  duhana£,  III,  i,  14. 

duhitri,  daughter,  I,  71,  s1, 

dtita*,  messenger  (Agni),  I,  12,  i ;  8  ; 
36,  3-5  J  44,  2;  3  ;  9;  n  ; 
58,  i;  60,  i  ;  72,  7;  74,  4  J 
188,  i  ;  11,6,6;  7;  9,  2  ;  III, 
3,  2  ;  5,  2  ;  9  ;  6,  5  ;  9,  8 ;  1 1, 

'  2;  17,  4;  IV,  1,8;  2,  2;  7,4; 
9;  n  ;  8,  i  ;  9,  2;  V,  3,  8  ; 
8,6;  n,  4;  21,  3  ;  26,  6. 

clfitya,  the  work  of  a  messenger : 
dtityam  (y&i),  I,  12,  4 ;  44,  12  ; 
74,  7  ;  messengership,  1, 71, 43 ; 
IV,  7,  8  ;  8,  4  ;  9,  6. 

dflre-bhl,  far-shining,  I,  65,  10. 

dr/,  to  rend:  dadr/-v&»sa£,  IV,  1,14. 

driMj  strong,  I,  71,  2 ;  72,  8. 

dr/jika,  beautiful,  I,  27,  jo; — sight, 
I,  66,  10  ;  69,  10. 

drijya,  visible,  IV,  2,  12. 

dr/shat-vati,  N.  of  a  ri\er,  III,  23,4. 

dev£,  god,  I,  i,  2,  &c. ;  deva"£  deve- 
bhi£,  deva'na'm,  &c.,  I,  1,5; 
13,  n  ;  31,  i;  9;  68,  21 ;  94, 
13;  142,  ii ;  II,  3,  i  ;  IV,  15, 
i ;  devam-devam,  this  or  that 
god,  I,  26,  6  ;  bhuva/6  dev£nam 
pita'  putra£  san,  I,  69,  2  ;  de- 
vanim  ^Snma,  I,  70,  6  ;  devftn 
(i.e.  dev&n)  ^anrna,  I,  71,  35,6 ; 
IV,  i,  22;  2,  i72;  paUa£  de- 
vebhya/&,  I,  188,  lo1 ;  devSfnam 
^dnimani,  III,  4,  10 ;  deva'nam 
guh\a  namani,  V,  5,  10  ;  de- 
v%sab  saYvaya  vijSf,  V,  26,  9  ; — 
vi'jve  deva'*,  II,  3,4^  V,  3,  i  ; 
26,4  ; — divine,  I,  i,  i ;  III,  20, 
4;  dv£ra£  devft,  I,  13,  6;  II, 
3»5J  V,  5,  5;  deva  barh^,  II, 
3,4;  dhfyam  dev'im,  III,  18, 
3  ;  devte  pitni^,  IV,  5, 13. 

deva-av^,  eagerly  longing  for  the 
gods,  III,  29,  8. 

dev$-kama,  loving  the  gods,  II,  3, 9 ; 
III,  4,  9. 

dev£-£ush/a,  agreeable  to  the  god, 

I»  77,  i- 

deva"-£(ita,sent  by  the  gods,  IV,  11,4. 
dev£-ta*ti,  the  divine  world,  host  of 

the  gods,  I,  127,  9;  Mr,  10  ; 

III,i9,  2;  4;  26,2;  IV,  6,3; 

9;  dev£-t£t$,  among  the  gods. 


I,  58,  i;  95,  8s;  128,  2;  III, 

19,  i ;  IV,  6,  i. 

deva-tnK,  to  the  gods,  1.128,  68;  III, 

i,  22  ;— among  the  gods,  III,  8, 

75  V,  20,  i. 

deva-tvd,  divinity,  I,  68,  4 ;  69,  61. 
devadrya"//*,    turned    towards    the 

gods:  devadrfcim,  III,  6,  i3. 
devapsara£-tama,  most  agreeable  to 

the  gods,  I,  75,  i. 
devd-bhakta,  god-given,  IV,  i,  10. 
deva-ya^yif,  worship  as  is  due  to  the 

gods,  V,  21,  4. 
deva-ydt,    worshipping,   or   longing 

for,  the  gods,  pious,  I,  36,  i4 ; 

77,3;  HI,  5,  i;  6,  i;  3;  8,  i  ; 

4;  6;    10,  7;  29,  12  ;    IV,  2, 

17;  ii,  5J  V,  i,  4;  21,  i. 
deva-yiK,  approaching  the  gods,  III, 

8,5s. 
deva-yiKna,   (the  ways)   which    the 

gods  go  :  ddhvana/6  deva-yKuan, 

I,  72,  78- 

deva-yii,  godly,  IV,  2,  7  ;  9,  r. 
devd-vata,  beloved  by  the  gods,  III, 

20,  2  ;  IV,  3, 15 ;— Devavata,  N. 
p.,  Ill,  23,  2. 

deva-v^fhana,  drawinghither  the  gods, 
III,  27,  H. 

deva-vi'tama,  most  excellently  re- 
pairing to  the  gods,  I,  36,  9. 

deva-viti,  feast  ot  the  gods,  I,  12, 
9;  III,  17,5;  21,  2. 

deva"vya>fra£-tama,  which  best  receives 
the  gods  with  its  wide  extent, 
I,  142,5;  IV,  26,  8;  V,  22,  2. 

devi-vya^as,  receiving  the  gods,  III, 

4,  4- 
deva-j£s,  for  each  of  the  gods,  III, 

21,  5- 

Devd-jravas,  N.  p.,  Ill,  23,  2  ;  3. 
deva-hOftama,  best  invoker  of  the 

gods,  III,  13,  6. 
devihtiti,  invocation  of  the  gods,  I, 

12,  12. 
dev&#>t,  turned  towards  the  gods,  I, 

127,  i. 
devi',  goddess,  I,  13,  9;  III,  7,  *s; 

25,3;  IV,  14,  3;  tisr&  devfo, 

11,3,8;  111,4,8;  V,5,  8. 
devya,  godhead,  I,  140,  7. 
desh»i,  gift,  II,  9,  4. 
Daiva-vat£,  (Agni)  of  Devavata,  III, 

23,  3;— son  of  Devav£ta,   IV, 

15,  41- 
dafvya,  divine,  I,  27,  12  ;  II,  5,  2; 


INDEX   OF   WORDS. 


449 


111,20,4;  dafvya-h6tara,  1, 13, 
81;  142,  8;  188,  7;  II,  3,  7; 
III,  4,  7  J  V,  5,  7 ;  dafvyam 
,  host  of  the  gods,  I,  31, 


"i7;  44,6;  45,  i1,3;  9?  io;  V, 
1 3,  3  ;  dafvyani  vrata,  I,  70,  2  ; 
dafvya£  jamita',  II,  3,  10;  ma*- 
dhunt  dafvyena,  III,  8,  i3;  v£- 
/tesa  dafvyena,  IV,  i,  15  ;  daf- 
vySni,  divine  powers,  IV,  4,  5. 

do,  see  daL 

d6gha,  milkstream,  V,  15,  5*. 

dosha1,  evening  :  dosh#  ushSsi,  II,  8, 
3 ;  IV,  2,  8 ;  prati  dosh&n 
ushdsam,  IV,  12,  2  ;  V,  5,  6 ; 
dosha\  at  evening,  IV,  ii,  6. 

d6sha*-vastar,  shining  in  the  darkness, 

I.t.71;  IV,  4,  91- 

dohaVia,  stream  (?),  I,  144,  21. 

dy^vakshama,  du.,  Heaven  and  Earth, 
I,96,  5;  140,  13;  III,  8,  81. 

dyaVa*pr/thivi,du.,  Heaven  and  Earth, 
I,  31,  8;  II,i,i5;  2,  3,;  7;  HI, 
3,  ii  ;  25,  3;  26,8;  IV,  14,2. 

dyu,  sky,  heaven,  Heaven,  I,  31,  41, 
&c. ;  67,  5a;  upa-ma"  diva£, 
I,  31,  is1;  div££  na  s&nu,  I, 

58,  2  ;  mfirdha'  diva£,  I,  59,  2  ; 
III,  2,  14  ;  divifr  br/hatdA,  I, 

59,  5  ;  7*,  2  ;  dyau£  n4  bhtfma, 
I,  ^5,  3l;  diva^#y6ti£,  I,  69,  i  ; 
mah6  pitre  dive,  I,  71,  s1 ;  IV, 
i,  io ;   dyauA  (conj.  dy6^>),  I, 
71,  8*;   divl&  akshr  fti,  I,  72, 
io1  ;  pa>igtna:nain-iva  dyS(m,  I, 
127,    28;    dy2(va    pr/thivt   fti, 
Heaven  and  Earth,  I,  143,  2; 
vfjva  diva/6  ro^an^f,  I,  146,  i  ; 
111,6,8;  12,9;  dyfi-bhi^tvam 
(conj.   dy6-bhyaA),   II,    i,   i2 ; 
asura/>  mah£&  divd/>,  II,  i,  6; 
diva^-iva  aratfA,  II,  2,  2  ;  dvauA 
nd  stri-bhi/>,  II,  2,  5  ;  IV,  7, 
3  ;  tisrdA  dfvaA,  II,  3,  2 ;  divi6 
kavin&m,  III,  i,  2  ;  divaA  pn- 
thivy^,  III,   i,  3;  6,  2s;   3; 
25,1;  IV,  5,  ii  ;  diVd*  yahvifc, 
III,  1,6;  94 ;  diviA  prish/Mm, 
III,  2,  12  ;  divf  kshdyam  (conj. 
divikshaydm)  111,2, 13* ;  ketfim 
diva/&,  III,  2,  14;  diva-6  nilbba, 
III,  4,  4  ;  varshman  divi&,  III, 
«s,  9;  dy^va,  III,  6,  4*;  divifr 
drnam,  III,  22,  3 ;  diva*£  putr^fr, 
IV,"  2,  15;  divlfr  >Kkitv2(n,  IV, 
3,  8  ;  div&fr  a-r6dhanan:,   IV, 

[46]  G 


7,  8 ;   8,  2  ;   4 ;   divl6  skam- 
bhdA,  IV,  13,  5;  divlfr  jfcum, 

IV,  15,   6s;  divdA  Ait  br/hdt, 
more  mightily  than  even  the 
sky,  V,  10,  42;  diva£  dhdrman, 

V,  15,  2f;  divifr  na  retasi,  V, 

17,  3*. 

dyu,  day :  dive-dive,  day  by  day,  I, 
i,  35  7,  &c, ;  divlfr  pffrvaA, 
before  daybreak,  I,  60,  2  ;  £nu 
dyffn,  day  by  day,  1, 7 1, 6  ;  148, 
4;  III,  23,  2;  IV,  4,  8;  9; 
diva*  ndktam,  I,  98,  2  ;  144,  4f; 
trf£  it  div££,  I,  142,  3  ;  dyfi- 
bhiA,daybyday,III,3,2;V, 
16,  2.  ' 

dyukshl,  heavenly,  II,  2,  i. 

dyut,  to  shine :  vf  abhf  dyaut,  mayest 
thou  beam  forth,  IV,  4,  6  ; — vf 
didyuta£,  make  shine,  II,  2,  7  ; 
vf  adyaut,  thou  hast  shone  forth, 

III,  i,  8;  18;  vf  didyutinl*, 
flashing,  HI,  7,4 ; — sam  adyaut, 
I",  5,  a. 

dyu-bhakta,  assigned  by  Heaven,  I, 

73,  6  ;  IV,  i,  18. 
dyu-mat,  brilliant,  I,  74,  9 ;  II,  7, 

i;  9,  6;  III,  10,  8; -13,  7;  V, 

23,4. 

dyumat-tama,  most  brilliant,  V,  24, 21. 
dyumna,  splendour,  I,  73,  4,  &c. ; 

dyumnaf/6,  with  (songs  full  of) 

splendour,  I,  78,  1-5 ;  dyum- 

nasya  jdvasa,  V,  7,  3. 
dyumna- vat,  brilliant,  III,  29,  15. 
dyumnin,  brilliant,  I,  36,  8. 
dyumn(n-tama,most  brilliant,!, 1 27,9. 
drapsa,  spark,  I,  94,  ii; — banner, 

IV,  13,2*. 
drav£t,  see  dru. 

dravina^-dds,  giver  of  wealth,  11,6, 3. 
dravma£-£U£,  giver  of  wealth,  I,  96, 

1-8;  II,  1,7. 

dravinas,  wealth,  I,  96,  8  ; — wealth- 
giver,  III,  7,  10. 
draviaasyu,  aspiring  after  wealth,  II, 

*,  3?  V,  13,2. 
dru,  to  run :  dravat,  speedily,  I,  44, 

7;  dravatam,  III,  14,  3;  drti- 

«anl&?  IV,  4,  ia. 

drfi-anna,  feeding  OP  wood,  II,  7,  6. 
drub,  guile,  IV,  4,  15. 
dru-hantara,  a  mighty  woodcutter, 

(I,  127,  3*)- 
druham-tara,  conqueror  of  deceitfd 

foes,  I,  127,  3*. 


450 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


dvay*,  falsehood,  I,  147,  4;  55  V, 
3,75  12,  2. 

dvaY,  door :  dvaVa£  devfo,  the  divine 
doors,  I,  13,  6;  142,6;  II,  3, 
5  J  v,  5,  5  5  dvara,  the  two  folds 
of  the  door,  I,  128,  6;  dvaY£ 
tamasa£,  III,  5,  i. 

dvf*  p4&ia,  twice  Jive,  IV,  6,  S1. 

dvi-^anman,  of  double  birth  (Agni), 

I,  60,  i1;  r4o,  a1;  M9>  4  J  5- 
Dyita,  V,  18,  2». 

dvilff,  forsooth,  verily,  I,  127,  7  ;  II, 

4,  2«;  111,2,  i8;  17,  s1. 
dvi-pad,  two-footed,  I,  94,  5. 
dvi-barhas,  twofold,  I,  71,  6; — 

doubly-powerful,  IV,  5,  3*. 
dvi-matr/,  having  two  mothers,  I, 

31,  a1, 
dvfsh,  hostile  power,  I,  97,  7 ;  II, 

7,2;  3;  III,  15,  i. 
dvesha£-ytit,  driving  away  malice, 

IV,  ii,  5?  V,9,6. 
dvlshas,  hatred,  malice,  II,  6,  4  ; 

IV,  i,  4  ;  10,   7 ;  V,  20,  2  ;— 

hostile  power,  III,  16,5';  27,  3. 

dhakshi  (Samhita:  dakshi),  voc.  (?), 
O  burning  one  (?),  I,  141,  8*. 

dhakshu,  burning,  II,  4,  4. 

dhatcshus,  burning,  I,  141,  7. 

dhan:  dhan£yan,  they  set  into 
motion,  I,  71,  3 ;— dadhanyuA 
(read  dadhanvu^?),  IV,  3,  12*. 

dhana,  prize,  I,  31,  6  ;  8  ;  36,  4. 

dhanam-£ay£,  winning  the  prize,  I, 

74,  3- 

dhana-sa*,  gaining  wealth,  II,  10,  61. 
dhana-sprit,  winner  of  prizes,  I,  36, 

10  ;  V,  8,  2. 
dhanin,  rich,  I,  150,  2  :— containing 

the  prize  of  the  contest,  IV,  2, 

15s. 
dhinuS,  dry  land:  dhlnoA  adhi,  I, 

144,5*.    ' 

dhan y a,  precious,  III,  i,  16. 
dhanv,  to  run    along:    dadhanve, 

II,  5,   3 ;  dadhanvu£,  (IV,   3, 

i**). 
dhan  van,  dry    ground,  I,  95,   10 ; 

—desert,  V,  7, 7. 
dhanva-sdh,  a  conquering  bowman, 

1, 127,  3e- 

dham,  to  melt:  dh£manta£,  IV,  2, 
I71 ;— upa  dhamati  dhmatari,  V, 

dhinman,  firm  law,  I,  128,  i1. 


dhar^ma,  supporter :  dhar6na>&  rayt- 
«2(m,  I,  73,  4j;  supporting,  V, 
15,  i ;  a  ;  51 ;— firm  ground, 
III.  3,  i. 

dhar»asi,firm,1, 141,11 ;— supporter, 
V,  8,  4. 

dharof,^  supporter,  I,  127,  7. 

dhartr/,  supporter,  V,  i,  6  ;  9,  3. 

dhaVman,  law,  ordinance,  III,  3,  r ; 
V,  26,  6;  prathama'anu  dhaVma, 
III,  17,  i;  ami  dharma,  III, 
17,  5;— support,  V,  15,2. 

dha,  to  put,  place,  give:  dadhire*,  I, 

26,  8,  &c. ;  J&mh  dha^,  accept, 

1,  26,  10 ;  dadhire,  have  been 
laid  down,  I,  59,  3* ;  dadhana£, 
obtaining,  I,  73,  5a;  m$k\b  naA 
duA-itS(ya  dhayi/&,  do  not  deliver 
us  to  distress,  1, 147,  5  ;  d£dhat, 
3rd  pers.  or  part.,  I,  188,  21 ; 
dadhire  pur£&,  they  have  placed 
in  front  (as  Purohita),  III,  2,  5  ; 
dhishva,  III,  6,  6  ;  didhishantu, 
may  they  bestow,  III,  8,  6; 
dhamahe,may  we  acquire,V,i6, 
5 ;— &  dadhe,  I  have  established, 
III,  27,  92; — ni  dadhe,  he  has 
established,  I,  36, 19 ;  nf  dadhe, 
I  have  laid  down,  III,  23,  41; 

27,  io!;    nf  dadhu^6  (conj.  ni 
daduA?),  V,  2,  68;   nf  dhattc 
pura£,  V,  28,  2l ;— vi-dh2(ti,  he 
worships    (conj.   for  vi-bhi(ti), 
1,71,6';  vi  dhaA,  distribute,  I, 
72,  7  ;  IV,  6,  ii  ;  vi  dadhau, 
he  determines,  I,  95,  3. 

dha,  to  suckle  :  dhapayete  ft),  I,  96, 
5;adhayat,I,i44,  2;III,i,  10; 
V,  i,  3*;— upa  dhapayete  iti,  I, 

95,  *• 

dhatr«,  establisher,  IV,  7,  i. 
dh&ia:   pdri  dhSnam  akt6^,  about 

nightfall  (?),  111,7,  6. 
dhtfrnan,  foundation,  I,  95,  91 ;  144, 

i*;  111,3,4;  IV,  7,  7;— abode, 

11,3,2;  ii  ;—  statute, law, III, 

2,  10  ;  7,  6;  IV,  5,  4  ;— form: 
sapt*  dhama-bhL&,  IV,  7,  s1. 

dhStyas,  prospering,  I,  31,  13;— 
refreshment,  refreshing  drink, 
1,72,9;  94,  12;  141,6;  II,  5, 
7  J  V,  7,  6  ;  9  ;  15,  4.  . 

dhara,  stream :  dharam  r/tasya,  I, 
67,  71 ;  V,  i  a,  a ;  dhaYa*  udan- 
ya>&-iva,  II,  7,  3;  dharifr,  III, 
j,  8 ;  9. 


INDEX  OF   WORDS. 


45* 


dh&Y:  nf  dhivate,  he  runs  down,  I, 

141,  5- 

dhfcsf,  drink,  I,  140,  ia;  III,  7,  il; 
32;  IV,  3,  9J  V,i2,  4. 

dhita-van,  in  whom  (wealth)  has 
been  laid  down,  III,  27,  2. 

dhiyam-dha',  thoughtful,  I,  67,  4 ; 
72,  2. 

dhiyff-vasu,  giving  wealth  for  prayer, 
I,  58,9;  60,  5;  111,3,  2;  28,1. 

Dhishiwa,  N.  of  a  goddess,  I,  96,  ia ; 
III,  2,  i2. 

dhfshuya,  liberal  (?),  111,22,  31. 

dhishayMhe  Dhishwyaaltar,  IV,  3, 61. 

dhi,  to  think :  devftn  a>^a  di'dhyat 
(conj.  for  dfclyat).  Ill,  i,  i8;— 
£nu  vratdm  diahyana£,  contem- 
plating the  law,  III,  4,  7. 

dhf,  (pious)  thought,  prayer,  I,  i,  7  ; 
27,  ii,  &c.;  95,  8a;  III,  n, 
2  ;  3  ;  12,  i ;  yantaYam  dhina'm, 

III,  3,8;  dhiya  *akre,  III,  27, 
91 ;  *akr/p£nta  dhibhi'A,  IV,  i, 
14. 

dhitf,  thought,  I,  68,  s1  J  7i,  3l  J  HI, 
12,  7;  13,  55  V,  25,  3;  devo- 
tion, I,  77,  4 ;  pious  thought, 

1.  e.  hymn,  or  prayer,  I,  143,  i  ; 
144,  5  ;  IV,  5,  7. 

dhira,  wise,  I,  65,  a1,  &c. 

dhuni,  roaring,  I,  79,  ia. 

dhur,  to  harm :  idhtirshata,  V,  12,  5. 

dhur,pole,  III,  6,  6. 

dhO,  to  shake :  ddhdnot,  I,  59,  6 ; 
davidhava,  1, 140,  6  ;  dodhaviti, 
he  waves,  1 1, 4, 4* ;  adhtinutam, 
you  have  hurled  down,  III,  12, 
6;  dividhvat,  shaking,  IV,  13, 
2  ;  d«ividhvata£,  having  shaken, 

IV,  1 3,4a ; — ava-dhfinushe,  thou 
hurlest  away,  I,  78,  4. 

dh(U>-sa'd,  charioteer,  I,  143,  7;  II, 

2,  i8. 

dhfim£,  smoke,  I,  36,  9;  III,  29,  9  ; 

IV,  6,  2;  V,  n,  3. 
dhfima'-ketu,  whose  banner  is  smoke, 

,      I*'7'  ii ;  44,3-          f     T 
dhuma-ketu,  banner  of  smoke,  1, 94, 

I01. 

dhfimfn,  smoky,  V,  9,  5*. 

dhdrtf,  mischief,  I,  36,  15  ;  128,  7. 

dhr/,  to  hold :  dadhilra,  1, 66, 3,  &c. ; 

— ni-dhariyanta^,  setting  down, 

IV,  2,  12. 
dhr/ta'-vrata,  whose  laws  are  firm,  I, 

44,  M5  14h  91  II,  *>  4- 


dhr/sh  :  .&  dadharshlt,  may  he  defy, 
IV.  "4,  3;  ni  i-dhrishe,  not  to 
bedefied,  V,  8,  5. 

dh/rsha*?  V,i9,5a. 

dhrrshatK,  fiercely,  I,  71,  5  ;  IV,  4, 
2  ;  5,  6. 

dhr/t,h«u-yff,  fiercely,  V,  10,  5. 

dh6ni,  strfeam,  I,  141,  i ;  shower, 

HI,  i,*1. 
dhenfi,  milth  cow,'  I,  66,  2  ;  73,  6  ; 

11,2,2;  91;  5,  s1;  III,  i,  7; 

6,4;  IV,  i,  6;  16;  dhentf  iti, 

I,  146,  3s;  divikshas&fr  dheni- 

vaA,  111,7,  2a. 
dhma,  see  dham. 
dhmatr/,  smelter,  V,  9,  5. 
dhra#:    6pa  dhra^antam,  speeding 

forward,  I,  149,  i. 
dhragimat,  hasting,  I,  79,  i. 
dhruvd,  firm,  I,  36,  s1,  &c. ;  ^drataA 

dhruva*sya,  I,    146,  i  ;   dhruve* 

(for  Pada  :  dhruviA),  III,  6,  4». 
dhruv^-kshema,    dwelling    in    firm 

peace,  IV,  13,  3. 
dhvams:    dhvasdyantam,  sparkling, 

I,    140,   3 ;    dhvasa*yanta£,    I, 

140,  5. 

dhvasmdn,  bespatterer,  IV,  6,  6. 
dhvr/,  see  dhur. 

na\  '  like/  and  nd,  'not/  I,  127,  3*. 

ndkis,  not,  I,  27,  8;  69,  7. 

nakta,  Night :  nakta  to  ushasa,  I, 
73,  7  ;  ndktam,  by  night,  I,  98, 
2;  127,5;  M4.4a;  V,  7,4. 

nakta-y&,  by  night,  IV,  ii,  i. 

nakti,  Night:  nakt?^ ushasa/6?  II, 2,  2. 

Naktoshasa,  du.,  Night  and  Dawn,  I, 

'3,7  J  96,  5J  142,  7- 
naksh,  to  reach:  n£kshante,  I,  66. 

9 ;— abhf  nakshati,  I,  95, 10. 
nad:  n3nadat,  roaring,   I,  140,   5; 

111,2,  II. 

na*pa%  offspring:  flr^a/6  napat,  1,  58 
8;  II,  6,  XJ  HI,  27,  12;  V 
17,  5  ; — apim  n£pat,  the  child  01 
the  Waters,!,  143,  ia;  III, 9,1 

n£ptri}  offspring:  fag&b  ndptre,  V 

7,i- 

nabhanya?  I,  149,  3a. 
ndbhas,  cloud,  I,  7i>  10 ;  II,  4,  6 

III,  12,  I1. 

nam  :  ^-nimam,  to  direct,  IV,  8,  3. 
ndma^-ukti,  praise,  I,  189,  i  ;  III 

14,  2s. 
ndmas,  adoration,  reverence,  I,  i,  7 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


Ac.;    nimasa,  adoringly,   III, 

namasy,  to  worship,  adore  :  namasy- 
anti,  I,  36,  19;  namasy*,  IM4, 
61  :  namasyan,  I,  72,  5  ;  nama- 
syata,  III,  a,  8  ;  namasyamafr, 
111,17,4;  namasyinta^,  adoring, 
IV,  6,  n. 

namasya,  to  be  adored,  venerable, 
1,78,5'!  II,'  i,  j;  10  ;  111,5, 

ajra7'J3'       i     c 
namasvfn,  adorer,  I,  36,  7. 

NaYajiftfsa,'  song  of  men'  or  'praised 
by  men/  I,  13,3';  142,3;  H 
3,  i;  111,99,11;  V,5,a. 

narya,  manly  power,  I,  72,  i1. 

na\a,  new,  young,  I,  31,  8,  &c.  ;— 
nivyams,  navyasT,  I,  27,  4  J  «o, 
3;  141,5;  M3i  i;  I",  *,  13; 
niviyasa,  I,  12,  ii;—  navyaA, 
gen.,  V,  i  a,  3';—  n&vishrta, 
youngest,  V,  a7  3- 

nava-^Ap  new-born,  IV,  6,  3. 

niva-^ata,  new-born,  V,  15,  3. 

narati,  ninety:  navatfm  pura£,  III, 
la,  6. 

navam&m,  for  the  ninth  time,  V, 

«7,  3*- 

Ndva-vfctva,  I,  36,  iS1. 
navedas,  watcher:  ushasaA  niveda^, 

1,79,  i';—  witness,  V,  12,3. 
nivya,  young,  I,  141,  10;  189,  a. 
nas,  to  attain  :  nasate,  V,  4,  n  ;—  a 

Una/,  I,  71,  8. 

naj  :  n&rat,  it  disappeared,  IV,  i,  17, 
Nahusha,  N.  of  a  clan,  I,  31,  n"; 

V,  ia,  6. 


nflka,  sky,  firmament  :  pip&ra  nakam 

stribhiA,!,  68,  ioj—  III,  a,  ia; 

5,  10;  IV,  13,5;  V,  i,  i  ;  17,  a- 
nana-ratham,  on  many  chariots,  III, 

6,9. 

nandf,  delight  :  nandye,  I,  145,  4. 
Nabhinedishrta,  (I,  i4a,  to1). 
nalihi,  navel,  centre,  I,  59,  i1;  143, 

lo1;    I",   5,  5J    TV,   10,    8; 

nifohi*  prithivy^  I,    59,    a  ; 

I43i   4;    II,  3,  7J  HI,  5,  9; 

*9,4J  pra-^Jm  ntohim,  II,  3, 

9;    diva*  njbha,   III,    4,    4; 

amritasya  nobhim,  III,  17,  4. 
oilman,   name:    deva-tvam   ni(ma, 

amritam  nftma,  I,  68,  4*;  n&- 

mini  dadhire  ya^ffyini,  I,  79, 

3  ;  prathamim 


IV,  i,  16;  gfihyam  nflfma,  V,  3, 

9;  3;  5,  10  ;  bhfln  n2nia  da- 

dhiti,  V,  3|  IP. 
njrt,  wife,  I,  73,  3- 
nlrmiirf?  I,  iff,  t1. 
navS,  boat  :  naviyi,  I,  97,  B1. 
Nasatya,  IV,  3,  6»  ;-du.,  the  Ajvins, 

IV,  14,  i». 

niws,  to  kiss  :  nfmsate,  I,  144,  i4. 
nf-kima,  desirous  of,  III,  i,  15. 
niksh  :  vi-nikshe,  to  pierce,  V,  a,  9. 
ni-tir*,  watchful,  III,  9,  4. 
nUik,  secretly,  IV,  5,  81. 
ni«y£,  hidden,  I,  95,  41  ;  inmost,  IV, 

3,  16. 
nftya,  one's  own,  I,  66,  i1  ;  5;  71, 

ij  MO,  7;  148,  3!  5;  II,  *. 
ii  ;  —  true  (friend  of  men),  I, 
141,  a1;  —  nityam,  constantly,  I, 

nftya-aritra,  with  its  own  rudders, 

1,  140,  i  a1. 

nid  :  nidan&fr,  scolding,  IV,  5,  la. 
nfd,  scoffer,  III.  16,  5  ;  —  revilenient, 

IV,  4,  15-  ' 

ninitsu,  who  tries  to  revile,  1,  189,  6. 
ninditri,  reproacher,  V,  a,  6. 
nfndya,  reproachable,  V,  a,  6. 
ni-mfsh,  closing  of  the  eyes,  1,  72,  5*. 
ni-v&tanaj  invocation,    I,    189,    8; 

—recitation,  IV,  3,  16. 
ni-vft,  depth  :  ut-vata^  ni-v&ta^,  III, 

2,  10. 

ni-vdrtana,  return,  III,  9,  a. 

ni-vfd,  the  Nivid  formula,  I,  96,  a1. 

nishki-griva,  with  a  golden  ornament 
at  his  neck,  V,  19,  3. 

nf-hita,  laid  down,  I,  73,  6. 

nff  to  lead:  padam  nayanti,  they 
follow  his  track,  I,  146,  4';— 
piri  nayanti,  they  carry  around, 
I,  95,  a*  ;  pfri  niyate,  he  is  led 
around,  IV,  15,  i. 

iii/a1,  nest,  IV,  i,  n  ;  ia. 

nithi,  song,  IV,  3,  16. 

nitha-vfd,  knowing  all  the  ways,  III, 


with  the  dark  blue 
back,  III,  7,  3. 
nu,  to  low,  roar  :  na^anta,  1,  66,  10  ; 
nonava,  I,  79,  a  ;—  to  shout 
(hymns  of  praise)  :  nivanta,  I, 
69,  10  ;  —  abhf  pra  nonumaA,  I, 
78,  1-5;  abhf  anushata,  they 
have  greeted  withshouts,!,  144, 
a  ;  IV,  i,  16  ;  abhf  anOshata, 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


453 


(the  hymns)  have  been  sung, 

V,  5,  4  ;—  sam  navanta,  IV,  3, 

n. 
nu,  now  :  nu  Ait  nu,  I,  58,  i1  ;  nil  Ja 

purf  *a,  I,  96,  7. 
nfftana,  present,  recent,  I,  r,  2  ;  III, 

i,  20. 
nundm,  now  :  adya"  ntina'm  *a,  1,13, 

6  ;  nfineim  aparim,  now  and  in 

future,  I,,i&9,  4. 
nri,  man  :  nr/n  (for  various  cases), 

I,  146,  4s;  HI,  14,  41  5  IV,  2, 

15,  V,  1  5,  a*  ;  nara£  maruta£, 

III,  1  6,  21  ;  j^wse  nr/'«£m,  III, 

16,4. 
nr/-&kshas,  beholding  men,  III,  15, 

3  ;  22,  2  ;  IV,  3,  3. 
nri-tama,  manliest,  I,  59,  4  ;  77,  4  J 

III,  i,  12;    19,  3;  IV,  5,  2; 

V,  4,  6. 
nr/'-pdti,  lord  of  men,  I,  71,  8s  ;  II, 

i,  i  J  7- 

nr/'-pejas,  (the  divine  doors)  with 
men  as  their  ornaments,  III,  4, 
*  4 


manly  power,  I,  67,  3  ;  V, 

19,  2. 

nn-v£t,  with  men,  V,  18,  5. 
nrivdt-sakhi,  rich  in  manly  friends, 

IV,  2,  s1. 

nr/'-sddana,  seat  of  men,  V,  7,  2. 
nr/-h£n,  man-killer,  IV,  3,  6. 
netri,  leader,  III,  15,  4;    20,  4; 

ishfrn  nets,  III,  23,  22. 
nedish/£a,  near,,  nearest,  I,  127,  n  ; 

IV,  i,  5. 

nemd-dhiti,  discord,  I,  72,  4*. 
nemi,  felly,  I,  141,  95  H,  5,  3  ;  V, 

13,6. 

ne"sha-tama,  best  leading,  1,  141,  12. 
ne"shfr/,  the  N.  priest,  II,  5,  sl. 
nesh/ra,  office  of  the  Nesh/r/  (priest), 

II,  i,  2. 
nau,  boat  :  navff-iva,  I,  97,  7  ;  A99> 

1  j  V,  25,  9  ;  sfndhum  na"  nav8, 

V,  4,  9  ;  n^vam  nftya-aritram 
pat-vdtfm,  I,  140,  i  a1. 

nyifti,  directed  downwards  :  nftfc, 
1,66,  io8;  72,  10*. 

pakvi,  ripe,  I,  66,  3  ;  IV,  3,  9. 

pa/tet4,  baked,  III,  28,  a. 

p£&bn,  five  :  £dhi  p^w/fa  kr/sh/tshu, 
over  the  fivefold  dwellings  (of 
the  five  peoples),  II,  a,  10. 

pattirft,  fifty,  V^i8,  5. 


pat:  patyate,  he  rules,  I,  128,  7; 

pat  vase,  thou  possesses!,  II,  i,  8. 
pat,  to  fly:  pdtanti  miha^,  I,  79,  2. 
patanga",  winged  (flames),  IV,  4,  2. 
patatrm,  winged,  1,^58,  ja;  94,  u. 
patiira,  winged  :  prijnya^  patardm, 

II,  a,  4. 
pdti,  lord,  I,  26,  i,&c.;  pati>6  din, 

I,  149,  if  ;—  husband,  I,  66,  8; 

71,  i;  IV,  3,  21. 

piti^ushd  {nVri),  (a  wife)  beloved 

by  her  husband,  I,  73,  3. 
pati-rfp,  deceiving  her  husband,  IV, 

pdtnf,  consort:  devfa  pa"tn?£,  IV,  5, 

13- 
pdtni-vat,  together  with  the  wife,  I, 

72,  5;  HI,  6»  9- 

pitman,  flight,  I,  141,  7;  V,  5,  7. 

pat-va"t,  having  feet,  I,  140,  9;  pat- 
vat  im  n&vam,  I,  140,  I21. 

pdtvan,  flight,  V,  6,  7. 

pathya,  path,  III,  14,  3. 

pad,  to  fall  :  padish/d,  1,  79,  1  1  ;—  ava 
padyate,  IV,  13,  5. 

pid,  foot  :  padl&  ni  dadhati,  I,  146, 
2  ;  pad-bhfA  (conj.  for  pa/-bhf/?), 
IV,  2,  14*. 

pad£,  footstep,  footmark,  track,  I, 
65,3;  67,  62;  IV,  5,  3;  padam 
nayanti,  they  follow  his  track, 
I,  M<5,  43J  padam  ve\&,  III,  5, 
51;  6;  IV,  5,  8*;  paddm  Vish- 
wo/&  upa-m5in,V,  3,  3;—standing- 
place,  abode  :  pade  param6,  I, 
72,  a  ;  4  ;  tri£  saptd  gtjhyani 
padjC,  steps  or  places,  I,  72,  61  ; 
\&h  pad6,  I,  128,  i;  r/tSsya 
pade,  IV,  5,  9;  mMb  pad^ 
parame,  IV,  5.  10. 

pada-vf,  following  the  footsteps,  I, 


pan 


72,  2';  III,  5,  i1.       TT 
,  to  praise:  pin  ant  a,  II,  4,  s1; 


pa 
V, 


na\anta,  III,  6,  7^  panaya, 


pinish/ta,  most  wonderful,  III,  i  ,  1  3. 
piniyaws,  highly  miraculous,  V,  6,  4. 
panff,  praise,  I,  65,  4. 
piyas,  milk,  I,  66,  a  ;  79,  3J  IV,  3, 

9;  10. 

p£yasvat,  rich  in  milk,  II,  3,  6. 
par,  see  pri. 
paVa,  distant,  III,  1  8,  a. 
para^-pK,  a  protector  far  and  wide, 

II,  9,  a;  6. 
parauu,  axe,  I,  127,  3  ;  IV,  6,  8. 


454 


VEDIC  HYMNS. 


para's,  beyond :  pard£  man!sh£ya*,  V, 

17,  a2. 

parastat,  on  high,  III,  22,  3. 
para-va"ta£,  from  afar,  I,  36, 18  ;  73, 

6;  III,  9,5. 
paYi,  prep.,  from,  I,  31,  4 ; — for  the 

sake  of,  III,  5,  iol. 
pari-kshit,  encompassing,  III,  7,  i. 
paYi-ftnan,  walking  round  the  earth, 

1,  79,  3s;  I27,  a8;  III,  2,9s; 

IV,  3,  6*;  V,  10,5. 
paYi-takmya.  the  decisive  moment, 

1,31,6V- 
pari-b&ih,  hindrance,  V,  2,  10. 

pari-bhfi,  encompassing,  I,  i,  4 ;  97, 
6;  141,  9;  III,  3,  10. 

paYi-vfta,  enveloped,  1, 128,  Is;  III, 
8,4!;  IV,  1,7. 

paYish/i,  encompassing,  I,  65,  3'. 

paYwas,  abundance,  III,  24,  5;  V, 

10,  I. 

partehfi,  searching,  (I,  65,  31). 
parushd,  speckled,  V,  27,  5. 
paYvan,  joint  (of  the  month) :  paY- 

va»a-parva»a,  I,  94,  41. 
palitd,  grey,  I,  1441  4  5  fem.  pdlikni, 

V,  2,  4*. 

pavftra,  purification,  III,  i,  5 ;— puri- 
fying strainer,  III,  26,  8. 

pa/,  to  see:  dti  pajyasi,  I,  94,  7; 
— paYi  apajyanta,  they  have 
searched,  I,  146,  4 ; — vf  pajya, 
look  forth,  III,  23,  2\ 

paj,  eye  :  pa/-bhf£,  IV,  2,  i22;  pa/- 
bhib  (conj.  pad-bhi£),  IV,  2, 14*. 

paju,  animal,  beast :  pajvfl  na*  tayum, 
I,  65,  iV;  pajuA  r.a*  jfjva,  I, 
65,  10 ;  (Agni),  II,  4,  7;  V,  7, 
7;  cattle,  I,  67, 6s ;  72,6;  III, 
9,  7;  IV,  2,  i8>;  V,  a,  5; 
victim,  IV,  6,  3. 

paju-pff,  shepherd,  I,  i4^,  o;  IV.  6, 4. 

paju-sa*,  winner  of  cattle,  1, 127,  \o\ 

pajvd-yantra,  taking ...  as  an  instru- 
ment (?),  IV,  i,.  14. 

pastya,  dwelling.  TV,  i,  u. 

pS:  sa^  pati  (conj.  sdpati),    ,     ,. 

p2(ka  simple,  I,  31,  14  ;  III,  9,  7  ; 

IV,  ^  2. 

pilfe-as,  stream  of  light,  I,  58,  5 ;  III, 
14,  i;  is»  i;  «9,  3;  IV,  4,  x; 

V,  I,  2. 

p&has,  abode,  I,  188,  iol ;  II,  3,  p ; 

III,  8,  9;    plth&   (conj.    pa- 

thiA?)   11,2,4*.     , 
payu,  guardian,  1, 3 1 ,  i  a ;  13;  95, 9 : 


i43>  «;  147,  3J  i«9,  4?  II,  i, 
7;  2,4;  III,  15,  41;  IV,  2,  6; 
4,  3J  «;  V,  12,4. 

parthiva,  dweller  on  earth,  I,  95,  3 ; 
—the  terrestrial  (space),  1, 128, 
3  J  T44,  6 ;  p-rdyawsi  paYthiva, 
V,  8,  7. 

pavakd,  purifier,  1, 12,  9  ;  10  ;  13,  i; 
6o>  4  J  95,  xx;  142,  3J  6J  U, 
3,  i;  7,  45  HI,  5,  7;  10,  8; 

17,  i ;  21,  2;  27,  4;  IV,  5,  6; 
v    6,75  V,4,  3;  7;  7,4;  26,1. 

pavaka-jo^i,  whose  flame  is  purify- 
ing, III,  2,  6. 

pavakd-jo^is,  purifying  with  his 
flames,  III,  9,  81;  n,  7 ;  IV, 
7,  5  5  V,  22,  i. 

pa/a,  fetter,  V,  2,  7. 

pitu,  food,  I,  69,  3 ;  V,  7,  6. 

pitu-mat,  rich  in  food,  I,  141,  2<2; 
144,7;  IV,  i,  8. 

pitri,  father :  mahe  pitr6  div€t  1, 71, 
5 ;  pitu/j  paramStt  (Heaven),  I, 
141,  41;  pitu>&  k*  gznitdb  kz, 

III,  i,  io»;  piti(  ya^nSm,  III, 
3,    4J— V,    3,    92;    lo1;— du., 
parents,  I,  140,  72;  HI,  7,  i1; 

1 8,  i1;  pitr6£  upa-sthe,  I,  146, 
i2;  III,  26,  9;  ma,tdr£  pitdra, 

IV,  6,  7 ; — pitaYa/»  Angirasa^,  I, 
71,  a1;  pita  pitri-bhyaA  fitdy^e, 

II,  5,   *8;   pit^ra^  manushyaX 
IV,    i,    xs1;    pit^iraA    pdr^sa/b 
pratnifsa/6,  IV,  2,  16. 

pitr/-vitt5,  acquired  by  the  fathers, 

I,  73,  x1;  9- 
pitrya,  paternal:  sakhy£  pftryltoi,  I, 

71,  10. 
pin/,  to  swell?  pfnvama*nH&,  III,  i, 

7  ;  pinvasva.  III,  3,  7. 
pij,  to  aHorn  :  pip^ja,  I,  68,  10. 
,  j>ija*hga-rfipa,    tawny-coloured,    II, 

,     3»  *' 
piy,  to  abuse :  pTyati,  I,  147,  a. 

putrfn,  with  sons,  V,  4,  1 1. 

punar :  puna£  astu  s££  asmai,  may  it 
(the  spell)  recoil  on  him,  1, 147, 
4 ;  p6na£,  give  us  back,  1, 189, 3. 

pur,  stronghold:  p(L&-bhf£  ayaslbhiA, 
I,  58,  8;— I,  149,  3J  189,  a; 

III,  12,6;  15,4;  V,  19,  a. 
pura£-etr/;  leader,  I,  76,  a1;   III, 

if,  5- 

puraA-ga',  going  in  front,  I,  188,  n. 
pursb&-sad,  sitting  in  front,  I,  73,  3. 
purl&-hita,  the  Purohita,  I,  i,  i; 


INDEX  OF   WORDS. 


455 


44,  jo1;  12;  58,  3;  94,  61,2; 
128,  4;  III,  2,8;  3,  2;  11,  i; 
V,  11,2. 
Pftram-dhi,  Liberality  of  the  gods, 

II,  ',  3*. 
purds,  in  front  :  dadhir£  purd£,  III, 

a,  5  ;  V,  16,  i8. 
purft,  before  (with,  gen.),  I,  71,  ™  ; 

—formerly,  I,  96,  7. 
punshya,  of  the  soil:   punshyasa£ 

agndyaA,  HI,  22,  4l. 
puru,  many,  I,  36,  i8,  &c.;  111,4, 

5s  ;  puru  vi  dram  (conj.  puru- 

vftram),  1,  142,  ioa  ;  dnu  pfirvi&, 


puru-anika,  with  many  faces,  I,  79,  5. 
puru-kshu,  rich  in  food,  I,  68,  10  ; 

111,25,2. 

puru-&mdrd,  rich  in  splendour,  I, 
27,  n;  II,  2,  12;  III,  25,  3; 
V,  8,  i. 

puru-tr#,  in  many  places,  I,  70,  10  ; 

i46,  5- 

puru-dd/ttsa,  wonderful,  III,  i,  23. 
puru-druh,    full    of    deceit,     III, 

18,  i. 
purudhd-pratika,  with  many  faces, 

111,7,3. 

purudhtK,  manifoldly,  IV,  2,  19. 
punini£-sthd,  growing  up  in  many 

places.  V,  1,6. 
Puru-nitha,  N.  pr.,  I,  59,  7. 
puru-peja,  manifoldly-adorned,  II, 

10,  3'. 
puru-pe\ras,  manifold-adorned,  III, 

3,6. 
puru-prajastd,  praised  by  many,  I, 

73.  2. 
puru-priyd,  beloved  of  many,  I,  12, 

2;  44,  3J  45,  ^  ;  III,  3,  4;  V, 

18,  i. 
puru-praishd,  he    who  pronounces 

many  Praishas,  I,  145,  3*. 
puru-rupa,  of  all  kinds,  manifold- 

shaped,  II,  2,  9;  V,  8,  2;  5. 
puru-vdsu,  rich  in  wealth,  II,  i,  5. 
puru-viKra,    with    many    treasures, 

bountiful  :    puru-varam    (conj. 

for  puru  va*  dram),  I,  142,  io2  ; 

—11,2,2;  IV,  2,20;  5,  15. 
puruvaVa-pushfi,  lord  of  bountiful 

prosperity,  I,  96,  4. 
purusha-tra  :  conj.  purusha-ta,  men 

as  we  are,  IV,  12,  4l. 
puru-stutd,  praised  by  many,  I,  141, 

6;  v,s,5. 


puru-sprih,  much  desired,  1,  142,  6; 

II,  7,  i;  IV,8,7;  V,7,6. 
pum-hfitd,  much-invoked,  I,  44,  7. 
Purftrdvas,  I,  31,  4. 
puro/aj,  sacrificial  cake,  III,  28,  1-6. 
pur6hita,  see  pur^-hita. 
push,  to  make  prosper  :  pushyasi,  I, 

94,  6  ;  V,  26,  6  ;  pushyata,  I, 

94,   8;    pushy  at  i,   III,   io,   3; 

pushyanta/6,  causing  to  thrive, 

IV,  8,  5. 
push/f,  prosperity,  I,  65,  5  j  77,  j  5 

11,4,45  v,  io,  3. 
push/i-mdt,    with    prosperity,    IIIn 

n,  7- 
push/nn-bhard,  bringing  prosperity, 

IV,  3,  7. 
push/i-vdrdhana,  augmenter  of  pros- 

perity,  I,  31,  5-A 
pfi,  to  purify:   punana£,  II,  3,  5; 

krdtum   punand£,   III,    i,  51; 

pundnti,  III,  8,  5  ;  dpupot,  III, 

26,  8  ;—  abhf  punatt',  IV,  5,  7. 
ptitd,  purified,  I,  79,  io. 
pGtd-daksha,  of  pure  powers,  III, 

J)  3s- 

P(Jr6,  the  POrus,  I,  59,  6;  V,  17,  i. 

pilfrva,  former,  ancient,  I,  r,  2,  &c.; 
pfirva-vdt,  as  for  the  ancients, 
I,  3  r,  17  ;—  -divd/r  pdfrva/r,  before 
daybreak,  1,  60,  2  ;  to  the  front, 
I,  94,  8l;  m^nushatpfirvaA,  II, 


3,  32;   tvdt  h6ti 


,   III, 


17,  5;—  eastern:  pdfrvam  dnu 

pra-dijam,  I,  95,  3. 
pOrva-tha,  in  the  old  way,  III,  29,  i. 
purvyd,  ancient,  I,  26,  5;   94,  6; 

111,14,  32;  23,  3;  V,  15,  3a;~ 

foremost,  1,  74,  21. 
Pfishdn,II,i,6;  IV,3,7. 
pdshan-vdt,  accompanied  by  Pushan, 

1,142,12. 
pri  or  par,  to  bring  across  :  piparshi, 

thou  leadest  forward,  I,  31,  6*; 

pdrshi,  II,  7,  2  ;  pdrshat,  III, 

20,  4;   pipr/tam,  III,  26,  9; 

parshati  dvishifr,  may  he  help 

us  across  our  enemies,  V,  25,  i  ; 

9  ;—  dti  paraya,  I,  97,  7  ;    ^ti 

parsha,  I,  97,  8  ;  dti  parshat,  I, 

99,  ** 

pri,  to  till  :  pGrdhi,  I,  36,  12  ;  papHK, 
I,  69,  i;—  apapri-v2(n,  I,  73,  8  ; 
146,1;  dUpriaat,  III,  2,  7  ;  & 
apm/a/>,  III,  3,  io  ;  &  aprsLfr, 
IV,  14,  a;~pi4-pra  pr/Vitana, 


456 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


fill    (with    bliss)    further    and 
further,  V,  5,  5- 

priksh,  nourishment,  I,  71,7';  73, 
5;  II,  1,6* 

priksh*,  power,  1, 127,  51 ;  ",  i,  '51 ; 
— powerful.  I.  141.  a1;  sapta 
prikshfea*,  III,  4,  71. 

priksha-prayar,  mighty  sacrifice!-, 
Ill,  7.  lo1- 

prikshfidh:  prikshudhaA  ?  1,141,4"- 

prvl :  priJUutl,  they  fill,  I,  79,  3 '. 
prjfttfte,  they  grow,  I,  128,  5  ; 
paprfJanIsa6,  swelling,  I,  141, 
6B;  papriASsi,  make  swell,  I, 
141,  ii1;— tamase  vi-pri4e,  for 
dispersing  the  darkness,  IV,  13, 
3  ;  vi-prikvat,  cleared  from  ad- 
mixture, V,  2,  31; — sam-priftiS- 
n££,  being  united,  I,  95,  8. 

pnt,  battle,  I,  27,  7 ;  79,8;  V,  9, 
7!  10,7;  16,5;  "7,5- 

pritani,  battle,  III,  16,  a  ;  24,  i. 
"       ,  racing  of  battle,  HI,  8, 


10. 


pr/tani-yu,  seeking  to  combat,  III, 

i,  1  6, 
pritana-sih,  powerful  in  battles,  III, 

99,9;  V)  93,  «• 

pritanyai,  foe,  II,  8,  6. 

prftsutf,  hostility,  V,  4,  i- 

prftbivl;  earth,  Earth  :  nffbhi*  pri- 
thivjtt,  I,  59,  a;  HI,  29,4; 
agnfo  dlti  r6ma  pr/thivy^,  I, 
65,  8  ;  kshffm  and  prj'thivfin,  I, 
67,  5;  dyflvli  prithivi  iti,  Heaven 
and  Earth,  I,  14),  2;  diviA 
prithivyai,  III,  i,  3  ;  maning 
prAhivylLfr,  III,  7,  10';  vlrsh- 
cnan  prithivyK^.  III.  8.  3  ;  vire 
fit  prithivyKA,  111,23,4";  divi* 
sOn6A  prithivyiLfr,  III,  25,  i  ;- 
Earth,  1,  72,  95  94,  16  !  95,"! 


prithu- 


^js-  11,1,1.. 
ith  broad  stream  of 
t,  III,  2,  ii  ;    3,    i;    5,  i  ; 
a7,5- 
pn'thu-pragaaa,  with  broad  passages, 

prithfi-pragaman,  proceeding  on  his 

prithu-Oudhna^  broad-based,  IV,  2,5. 

priml,  the  speckled  (cow),  1,  71,  5*. 

pr/jni,  speckled,  IV,  3,  loV-Priini, 

the  mother  of  the  Maruts,  11, 


prishat-ajva,  with  the  spotted  deer 

as  horses,  III,  26,  6\ 
prishatT,  the  spotted  deer,  III,  26,  4'. 
prish/a-bandhu,    after  whose  rela- 

tions men  ask,  III.  20,  3". 
prishfrt,  back,  I,  58,  •';  IV,  2,  n«j 

ridge,   V,    7,    5;-  a    certain 

Stotra?  IV,  5,6!. 

pr/sh/^ya,oftheback:  piyasaprish- 
na,  IV,  3,  ic1. 
ornamented  form  :  yavffa1- 

•7ipC«4II,3v6F. 
Peshi,  V,  2,  .". 
p6tr/y  the  Potri  priest,  I,  94,  6;  II, 

5,  2  ;  IV,  9,  3. 
potra,  service  of  a  Potri,  I,  76,,  4'  ; 

II,  i,  2. 

posha,  welfare,  I,  i,  3  ;  V,  5,  9. 
poshayitnu,  which  is  to  thrive,  III, 

pyai,  to  swell  :  pipiyanta,  they  were 
exuberant,  1,  73,  6;  pipayat, 
may  he  augment,  I,  77,  5; 
pi'yana*  (conj.  pfylnam),  I,  79, 
31;  pfpiya,  it  has  prospered, 

II,  2,  9  ;  pfpyanlLfr,  rich  in  milk, 
1  1  1  ,  i  ,  i  o1  ;  —  pri  pipaya,  increase, 

III,  15,  6. 

pra-avitri,    protector,    I,    I2y    8; 

furtherer,  III,  21,  3. 
pra-avfs,  zealous,  IV,  9,  2. 
pra-ketl,  splendour,  I,  94,  5. 
pri-letas,  provident,  wise,  I,  44,  7  ; 

ii  ;  II,io,  3;  111,25.1;  >9,5' 


praJ£,  to  look  for  :  prishrifr,  1,  98,  a1, 
pra-^anana,  the  creative  organ,  IIIj 


(conj. 


29,  i. 
pra-£&,  children  : 

pra-^fsu),  I,  67,  91  ;         - 
vi  syatu,  may  he  deliver  a  son, 

",  3,  9- 

pra^a-vat,  procuring  offspring,  I,  76, 
4  ;  prajft-vat  rldhas,  abundance 
of  progeny,  I,  94,  15  ;  accom- 
panied by  offspring,  II,  2,  12; 
III,  8,  6;  16,  6;  rich  in  off- 
spring, III,  16,  3  ;  IV,  ap  5. 

pra-tarana,  carrying  forward,  II,  i, 
12. 

pii-tavas,  strong,  IV,  3,  6. 

prfti.  equal  to,  II,  i,  8;  15;  3,  a- 

pratftja,  to  be  listened  to,  IV,  5,  14 

pratnd,  old:  pralnam,  I,  36,4;  II 
7,6;  111,9,8. 

pratna-tha,  in  the  ancient  way.  I 
'96,1;  UI.s.iis  V.I.J. 


INDEX   OF  WORDS. 


457 


pratyi&t,  turning  back,  I,  95,  5  ; 
11,3,  i;  III.I8,  I. 

prath,  to  spread  out:  prathayan 
nrfn,  III,  14,  4;  paprathslna£, 
V,  15,  4  ;— vi  prathantim,  may 
they  open  wide,  II,  3,  5 ;  vi 


prathasva,  spread  thy  self,  V,  5,4. 
prathama*:   prathamg  a*nu  dharma, 

after  the  primitive  ordinances, 

•III,  17,  i. 
prathama-rf,  first-born  (son),  III, 

29,  15  . 
pra-dakshbzft,  from  left  to    right, 

III,  19,2';  IV,  6,  3. 
pra-diva,  ancient,  II,  3,  i. 
pra-divas,  from  of  old,  I,  141,  3*; 

IV,6,4;  7,8;  V,8,7. 
pradfj,    commandment :    pradua£, 

(I,  31,  I41). 
pra-dfs,    region:    pra-dbam   (conj. 

for  pra*  duam),  I,  95,  3*. 
pra-mti,£uidance,lll,i5,i;  IV,4,i4. 
pra-netri,  leader,  If,  9,  2  ;  III,  23,  i . 
pra-pitvl,  the  time  of  the  advancing 

day,  I,  189,  7V. 
pra-bharman,  the  bringing  forward, 

pra-bhdf,  eminent :  pra-bhvfo  (dura/6), 

I,  188,5*;  9. 

pra*-bhtiti,  copiousness,  III,  19,  3. 
pri-mati,  guardian,  I,  u,  9  ;    10; 

14;  16;  141,  2*  ;— kindness,  I, 

71,  7  J  «re,  I,  94,  i. 
pri-mahas,  highly  exalted,  V,  28,  4. 
pri-yaryu,  friend  of  sacrifices,  III, 

6,2l. 

pri-yata,  forward-bent,  IV,  5,  10. 

priyata-dakshiaa,  giving  sacrificial 
fees,  I,  31,  15. 

pra-yantn,  giver,  I,  76,  4*. 

prayas,  joy,  delight,  feast,  I,  31,  7  ; 
45,  8;  58,  78J  7i,  35  HI,  n, 
7;  12,  8;  IV,  5,  6;  15,  a8. 

prayasvat,  offering  enjoyment,  I, 
*o,3;  111,6,35  V,  20,  3. 

pra-yS,  onset,  111,29,  15. 

pravajia*,  hill-side,  HI,  22,  4. 

pra-vfc,  declivity,  L  144,  5*;— pre- 
cipitous: pra-vau,  HI,  5,  8. 

pra-vft>tya,  to  be  openly  uttered,  IV, 
5,8. 

pra-vfd,  finding  out,  III,  7,  6. 

pn-j4msya,  deserving  of  praise,  II, 
a,  3;  ii. 

pra-/asta*,  praised,  glorious,  precious, 
I,  3^t  9  J  60,  1 5  66,  4. 


prd-jasti,  praise,  I,  26,  9 ;    70,  9 ; 

74,6;  148,  3;  V,  9,  6;  16,  i. 
pra-jfotri,  the  PrajSs>tr/  priest,  I,  94, 

61;  II,  5,4- 
pra-jastr^,  office  of  the  Prajistr/ 

priest,  II,  T,  2. 
pra-jfsh,  command,  I,  145,  i. 
pra-sdh,  power,  V,  23,  i. 
prd-siti,  onslaught,  IV,  4,  i. 
pra-sCf,  sprouting  grass,  I,  67,  9*; 

95,  io2;  111,5,8. 
Prdska«va,  1,  44,6;  45,  3. 
pra*-svanita,  roaring,  I,  44,  12'. 
pra-hoshi,  libation,  I,  150,  2. 
praJ&^ihva,  stretching  forward  his 

tongue,  I,  140,  3. 
pragma,  eastward-turned    (barhfs), 

I,i88,4. 
,  inclined  towards,  II,  2,  7  ; — 

eastward :      prsfw/kim    ya^«am 

^akrima,  III,  i,  22;    pr^i  iti, 

III,  6,  i o1;— turned  forwards, 

HI,  7,  7- 
id,  breath  :  Kyub  prS«dA,  1, 66,  i. 

prataj&-yaVan,  coming  early  in  the 
morning,  I,  44,  13  ;  45,  9. 

prata^-savd,  morning  libation,  III, 
28,  i. 

priy£,  beloved,  1, 13,  3,  &c. ;  dear= 
</>iXos,  I,  67,  61  ;  sapta*  priy2(saA, 
seven  friends,  IV,  i,  12  ;  priya*m 
tva  kr/ifdvate,  he  gratifies  thee, 

IV,  2,  8. 

priyd-dhama,  whose  foundations  are 

pleasant,  I,  140,  i. 
Priya-medha :    priyamedha-v^t,    1, 

45,  31 ;  priya"-medha£,  1,  45,  4!. 
prt,  to  please:   pri»Sna\&,  I,  73,  i; 

pfprishati,  he  longs  to  gladden, 

IV,  4,  7  J— £  pipraya£,  gladden 

(the  gods),  II,  6,  8*. 
prUa*,  well-cared  for,  I,  66, 41 ;  69.,  5. 
prush,  to  sprinkle,  shower :  prushita", 

1, 58,  2  ;  prush«dvat,  III,  13, 4. 
pretri,  friend,  I,  148,  5. 
pre*sha.  instigation,  I,  68,  51. 
praisha,  sacrificial  command  of  a 

priest,  (I,  145,  3')- 

phalgvi,  feeble,  IV,  5,  14. 

baV,lo!  1,96,  i;  141,  i. 
b&ndhana,  fetterer,  V,  12,  4. 
bandhtita,  kinship,  IV,  4,  n. 
babhrf,  carrying  (the  prize),  III,  i, 
12. 


458 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


babhrtf,  brown  (plants),  I,  140,  61* 
baVhish/tam,  most  powerfully,  III, 

13,  i. 
barhfshmat,  he  who  has  spread  the 

Barhis,  V,  2,  12. 
barhfs,  the  sacrificial  grass,  I,  12,  4 ; 

13,  5J   7;   9,  &c.;    prajinam 
barhi/6,  I,  188,  4;  diva  bar  hi  6, 

II,  3,  4 ;  mddhye  if  barhf/fr,  III, 

14,  2. 

barhi-sa*d,  sitting  on  the  Barhis,  II, 

balf,  tribute,  I,  70,  9;  V,  i,  10. 
bahu,  many :  bahvi£  fa  bhuyasta  fa 

y&MGra£,  I,  188,  5. 
bahula*,  large,  I,  189,  2. 
badh,  to  drive  away:  ba/dhamatna£, 

III,  8,  2  ;  bDfdhasva,  beat  away, 
III,  15,1. 

bahu,  aim,  III,  29,  6. 

budh,  to  take  notice:   bodhi,  III, 

14,  7  ;  V,  24,  3  ;    sa>  fa  b6- 
dhati,  may  he  be  attentive,  I, 
77,  2^;— to  think:  b6dhat,  IV, 

15,  71; — Abodhi,  he  has  been 
awakened,  V,  i,  i;  a  ;  bfidhya- 
mani6,     awaking,    V,     3,    6 ; 
bodhaya,  awaken,  V,  14,  i1; — 
vf  bodhaya,  awaken,  I,  12,  4. 

budhnd,  bottom,  base,  I,  95,  8*  ;  9  ; 

96,  6  ;  II,  2,  3  ;  mahd/>  budhn£ 

ra^asa^,  IV,  i,  nl; — depth,  I, 

141,  31. 
br/h£t,  great:    br/ha*t  bh&&,  I,  45, 

81;  br/hatfivetibr/0,  I,  59,  4'; 

&  br/hdt  vadema,  loud,  II,  i, 

16;    mightily,    III,  3,  n1;  V, 

25,  81. 

Br/ha"t-uktha,  V,  19,  3. 
br/hat-uksh,  mightily  growing,  III, 

26,4. 
br/ha*t-ketu,  with  mighty  light,  V, 

8,2. 
br/ha*t-diva,  dwelling  in  the  great 

heaven,  II,  2,  9. 
br/h^t-bhSnu,  with  bright  light,  I, 

27,  12;  36,  15. 
Br/ha*t-ratha,  I,  36,  ig1. 
Br/haspdti,  III,  20,  5  ;  26,  a2. 
bradhn£,  ruddy,  III,  7,  5. 
brahma'n.  the  Brahman  (priest),  II, 
t        i,*\  3aJ  IV,  9,  42. 
brahman,  (sacred)  spell,  I,  31,  18 ; 

II,  2,  7;  10;  III,  8,  a;  13,  6  ; 

1 8,  3  ;  V,  a,  6  ;  prathama-#&& 

brahma#a£  111,29,15';— sacred 


word,  II,  5,  31;  IV,  3,  15  ;  4, 
6 ;  —  prayer,  hymn  :  vo/tema 
brShma,  I,  75,  a ;  brahmana^ 
pate,  Brahmaaaspati,  II,  i.  3  ; 
ikiribrdhma,  IV,  6,  ir. 
brfi :  upa-bruv6,  I  invoke,  1, 188,  8. 

bhiga,  good  fortune,  I,  141,  6s; 
1 11 ;— love,  V,  7,  88 ;— a  winner 
(in  a  contest),  1, 141,  lo1 ;  144, 
3M;— Bhaga,  the  god,  I,  44,8; 
II,  i,  7;  HI,  20,  4;  55  IV,  3, 
5  J  V,  16,  a1. 

bha^,  to  obtain :  bh£ganta  .  . .  nifrna, 
I,  68,  4;  bhaktdm  dbhakiam 
^va>&,  blessings  enjoyed  or  not 
enjoyed  (before),  I,  127,  58  ;— 
a  na£  bha^a,  let  us  partake,  I, 

27,5- 

bhadrd,  good,  I,  i,  6  ;  fortunate,  I, 
67, 2 ;  blissful,  1, 94,  i ;  glorious, 

1,  94,  14,  &c. 

bhadra-jo#,  with  glorious  light,  V, 

bhand :  bha*ndamane  iti,  of  glorious 
appearance,  I,  142,  7;  III,  4, 
6* ;  bha*ndama*na£, glorified,  III, 

2,  12  ;  bhandate,  he  is  glorified, 

"1,3.4- 
bhandish/^a,  most  glorious,  I,  97,  3  ; 

V,  i,  iol. 
Bharata*,  Agni  the  B.,  I,  96,  3*;  pi., 

the  Bharatas,  V,  n,  i. 
Bhara*t-va#a,    the    Bharadva^as,    I, 

59,  7. 

bhdrgas,  splendour,  I,  141,  i. 

bharv,  to  chew  :  bhaVvati,  I,  143,  5. 

bhas:  pra*  babhasat,  may  he  con- 
sume, IV,  5,  4. 

bhasman,  ash,  V,  19,  5. 

bha,  to  shine :  a*nu  bhasi,  III,  6,  7  ;— 
vi-bhfti,  he  shines  (conj.  vidhfiti), 
I,7i,  61;  vi  bhisi,  thou  shinest, 
II,  i,  ioV;  vibhlhi,!,  95,  n. 

bha^-ri^ika,  whose  r/>1ka(?)  is  light, 
I,  44,  31;  III,  i,  12;  14. 

bhaga,  share,  portion,  I,  73,  5*;  II, 
10,  6;  III,  i,  19. 

bhiga-dhe*ya,  portion,  III,  28,  4. 

bha^ayu,  desirous  of  distributing 
(goods),  II,  i,  4. 

bha-tvakshas,  whose  power  is  light, 
I,  143,  3- 

bhlnu,  ray,  I,  36,3;  97,5?  "I,  if 
14;  flame,  I,  143,  3;  V,  i,  15 
light,  splendour,  II,  a,  8,  Sec. 


INDEX  OF   WORDS. 


459 


bhanu-mdt,  shining,  V,  i,  n. 

bhiKma,  splendour,  III,  26,6;— flame, 
V,  2,  10. 

bha'mfn,  luminous,  I,  77,  i. 

bhard,  burthen,  I,  31,  3. 

BhaYata,  (Agni)  of  the  Bharata  tribe, 
II,  7,  i1;  5  ;-Bharata,  the  two 
Bharatas,  III,  23,  2'. 

Bh&rati :  H6tra  Engrail,  I,  142,  92  J 
II,  i,  ii1;-!,  188,  8;  II,  3,  8; 
bharatibharatibhi*,  III,  4,  8. 

bh&,  light :  br/hft  bha^,  I,  45,  81 ; 
IV,  5,  i';-IIf4l55  IV,  7,  9- 

bhiksh,  to  implore,  I,  73,  6  ;  7. 

bhid :  ava  bhet,  he  cut  down,  1, 59, 6. 

bhuj- :  bho^ate,  receives  nourish- 
ment, I,  72,  82;  bhu^e,  to  en- 
joy, I,  127,  8  ;  ii ;  bhu^am,  for 
the  enjoyment,  111,2,9 ; — yasya 
sam-bhu^am,  whom  I  may  en- 
joy, II,  i,  41. 

bhii4§-ma*n,  fertile :  bhu^g-ma  (conj. 
bhutfma),  I,  65,  5l. 

bhur :  ^aYbhurat,  hurrying  around, 
II,  2,  5;  #drbhura«a/&,  II,  10, 
5  ;  bhura"nta,  they  have  made 
tremble,  V,  6,  71 ;— pari-^drbhu- 
ra«a£,  hurrying  around,  I,  140, 
10. 

bhura#y6,  quick,  I,  68,  r. 

bhurfc,  pole-arm  (?),  IV,  2,  i48. 

bhtivana,  world,  I,  31,   2;    73,  8 ; 

II,  3,   i;    III,   2,  10;    3,   10; 
IV,  14,  2  ;  bhuvanasya  ma^ma- 
na,  I,  143,  41;- being,  1,98,  i; 

III,  16,  4. 

bhfl  :  sataV;  *a  bhdvataA  /to,  of  what 
is  and  what  comes  into  being, 
I»  9<S  7  »—  bhavatat,  be,  ill,  23, 
2*; — pdri  bhuvat,  he  encom- 
passed, I,  68,  2 ;  pa>i  babhfitha, 
thou  hast  excelled,  I,  69,  2. 

bhffman,  earth,  I,  65,  31 ;  II,  4,  7  ;— 
being :  et&  bhfima,  I,  70,  6  ; 
— world  :  vuvani  bhtfma,  II,  4, 
2;— V,  7,  5. 

bhuyaws,  many,  I,  31,  6. 

bhffri,  rich,  I,  73, 4  ;— bhffri  kritvaA, 
many  times,  III,  18,  4. 

bhdri-poshfn,  rich  in  manifold  pros- 


perity, III,  3,  9- 
ri-r 


bhtfri-retas,  rich  in  seed,  III,  3,  ii. 
bhOTri-varpas,  manifold-shaped,  III, 

3)  4* 

bhffnii,  qnick,  I,  66,  2  ;  III,  3,  5. 
bhdsh,  to  be  busy :  bhtfshan,  I,  140, 


6;  III,  25,  2  ; — upa  bhtishema, 
may  we  honour,  III,  3, 9 ;— pdri 
bhOshasi  vrat&m,  thou  adminis- 
terest  the  law,  I,  31,  a;  paYi 
bhtishanti,  they  celebrate,  I, 
95,  3  ;  pa>i  bhtishati,  he  takes 
care  of,  III,  3,  2 ;  paVi  bhOsha- 
tha£,  you  display,  III.  12,  9. 
bhr/,  to  bring :  ndma/f?  bharanta£,  I, 
1,7;  bh&r  fti  bh&&,  I,  128,2; 
bibharshi  (conj.  bibharshi),  V, 

3 ,  21 ;— ut-bhr/ta,  taken  out,  III, 
21,  5;-  prd  ^abhrire,  I,  72,  4; 
pra*    bhara    (SiiwhitS:    bhara), 
2nd  or  ist  person,  I,  140,  i1; 
pr^-bhr/ta,  proffered,  1, 147,2; — 
vi  bharanta,  they  have  brought 
to  different  places,  I,  70,  xo1 ; 
vi-bhr/ta>&,    brought    to    many 
places,  I,  71,  41;  dispersed,  I, 
144,  2  ;  vi  bhaVibhrat,  quickly 
shaking,  II,  4,  42. 

Bhr/gava«a,  Bhr/gu-like,  I,  71,4*  ; — 
belonging  to  the  Bhr/ps,  IV,  7, 4. 

Bhrrgu,  I,  60,  i ;— bhr/gava^,  the 
Bhr/gus,  I,  58,  5;  127,  7;  143, 
4;  II,  4,  2;  III,  2,  4l;  5,  10 ; 

IV,  7,  i. 

bhrimi,  quick,  I,  31,  i62. 

bho^ana,  food:  vuvasya  bhog-ana, 
O  food  on  which  everything 
lives,  I,  44,  s1 ; -possession,  V, 

4,  5- 

bho^ya,  bounty,  I,  128,  5. 

bhrama",  whirl,  IV,  4,  2. 

bhra^,  to  shine:  bhra^antc,  I,  44, 

12;  abhraf,  1,66,6;  IV,  6,  5. 
bhr%at-r/sh/i,  \\  ith  brilliant  spears, 

I,  31,  i. 
bhriKtr/',  brother,  1, 65,  7  ;  bhra'taram 

vdru»am,    IV,    i,   2  ;    bhr&tub 

r/wdm,  IV,  3,  i32. 
bhratr^,  brotherhood,  II,  i,  9  ;  IV, 

10,  8. 

mawhdna,  bountifulness,  IV,  i,  6; 

V,  10,  2;  mawhina,  instr.,  V, 
16,  42;  18,  2. 

hish^a,  most    rich    in   liberal 

gifts,  I,  147,  a1, 
makshu,  quickly,  I,  58,  9,  &c. 
maghd,  wealth,  III,  13,  3 ;— liberal 

boon,  III,  19,  i ;— liberality,  V, 

10,  3.  i 

magh£-vat,  generous,  I,  58,  9 ;  140, 

10. 


46o 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


maghi-van,  liberal  giver,  I,  jr,  12  ; 

58,  9;  73,  5  J  8  i  77,  4  J  981  3  5 
127,  n;  140,  12;  141,  13; 
M*,  5!  11,6,  4;  V,  16,3;  1 8, 
3 1  5  !  magh6na£  (conj.  magh6- 
nam),  V,  27,  il. 
madman,  greatness,  power,  I,  128, 

5;  141,6;  M3,  a  J41!  II,  i,  '5- 
matf,  (pious)  thought,  I,  60,  5 ;  III, 
26,  8  ;— prayer,  I,  141,  i;  M*, 
4;  111,5,35  IV,  3,  «6;  v£4a6 
matlm,  I,  143,  i1. 

math  or  manthr  to  produce  by 
attrition:  mftthit,  1, 71,  4  ;  148, 
i;  mathna'ntaA,  I,  127.  7; 
ma'thte,  I,  127,  ii ;  mathayati, 
I,  141,  3;  mathit*,  III,  9,  5; 
anianthish/am,  III,  23,  2; 
manthama,  III,  29,  i;  minthata, 
III,  29,  5 ;  mAnthanti,  III,  29, 
6  ;  mathya'ma'na*,  V,  n,  6;— 
nf£-mathita6,  produced  by  attri- 
tion, 111,23,  i;  29,  12. 
mad  or  mand,  to  be  pleased,  rejoice  : 
mindasva  (with  gen.),  I,  26,  5  ; 
madayante,  I,  59,  i1 ;  m&da*- 
yasva,  II,  3,  n3;  III,  6,  9; 
madanti,III,4,7;  7,7;  mlda- 

Jantam,  III,  4,  IT;  madantam, 
II,  26,  9;  madayeth&m,  IV, 
14,  4 ; — abhf  pri  mande,  1  glad- 
den, V,  4,  i. 

mid,  pronoun  :  me,  ace.,  V,  27,  4". 

mida,  delight,  I,  1 27,  9  ;V,  2,  10. 

m£dhuf  sweet  drink:  m£dhva6  a- 
dhave*,  I,  141,  3";— noney,  I, 
142,  3;  188,  a;  III,  i,  7 ;  8; 
midhun*  dafvyena,  HI,  8,  i1;— 
honey-drink,  V,  19,  3*. 

midhu-^ihva,  honey-tongued,  I,  1 3, 
3;  44,6;  60,  3. 

madhu-peya,  honey-drink,  IV,  14, 4". 

madhu-pr/)f,  mixing  the  honey-drink, 

II,  10,  6. 

mldhu-mat,  rich  in  honey,  1, 13,  2 ; 
142,  2 ;  honey-sweet,  I,  78,  5  ; 

III,  4, a;  IV,  3, 9i  ia;— sweet 
(food),  III,  7,  a. 

madhumat-tama,  sweetest,  V,  n,  5. 
mldhu-vaJas,   sweet-tongued,    IV, 

*i5- 

madhu-sfit,  Madhu-presser,  IV,  3,  3. 
nrfdhu-hlstya,  with  honey  in   his 

hand.  V,  5|  a. 
madhyat&,  out  from  the  midst,  IH, 


madhyam£,  middle:  madhyame'shu, 

I,  a7,  5- 

man:  manvata,  they  have  devised, 

v     IV,  i,  16;    minyase,  thou  art 

*     considered,  V,  17,  21,*. 

manana*,  thought,  III,  6,  i1. 

minas,  thought :  minaj  ni  sadvifr, 
1,71,9;  mind  :  minasaA  vlraya, 
1, 76,  i1;  ghrita-prusha  manasa, 
his  mind  being  intent  on  scatter- 
ing ghnta,  II,  3,  2 ;  manasi  sim 
£agmu6,  they  agreed  in  their 
mind,  III,  i,  13. 

manishff,  (pious)  thought :  manfshif 
(Pada  text  for  manfshfo?),  I, 
70,  ia;  76,1;  111,8,5;  prayer, 
IV,  5,  31  6,  i;  V,  ii,  5';- 
thoughtful  mind,  I,  94,  i ;— wise 
thoughts,  IV,  ii,  2;  3;— parlfr 
manisha*ya,  beyond  thought,  V, 
17,  a1. 

manishfn,  thoughtful  man,  I,  13,  5  ; 
III,  10,  i. 

mami,  man,  I,  96,  2  ;  140,  4 ;  V,  2, 
12  ;— minave,  to  the  man,  or  to 
Manu,  1, 189, 74 ;— Manu,  N.p., 

I,  3',  4;   36,  10 ;   19;  68,  7; 
128,  2. 

miniLfr-hita,  instituted  by  Manus,  I, 

13,4";  111,2,  15. 
Minu-^fLta,  offspring  of  Manu,   I, 

45,  i1- 

Manu-vit,  like  Manu,  II,  10,  6. 
minusha,  man,  I,  31,  na. 
manushya,  man,  I,  59, 4 ; — belonging 

to  men,  III,  i,  10. 
Manushvit,  as  for  Manu,  I,  31,  17  ; 

II,  5,  2  ;  111,  17,  2 ;  as  Manus 
did,  I,  44,  n ;  V,  21,  i. 

minus,  man,  (I,  31,  n1);  I,  36,  7; 

III,  26,  2;  IV,  i,  9*;«|ii5Vf 
3,  4 ;  5,  7  ;  mJnusha*,  (Aryan) 
men,  I,  189,  7'; — mlBjushaA,  of 
the  man,  or,  of  Manus,  II,  2, 6 ; 
B;-Manus,N.p.JI,a6,4;  76, 
5l;ia8,  i;  II,  10,  i;  IV  •  i1; 
manushaA  purtt-hitaJ,  III,  3, 
2  s-Minusha^fantu-bhl^IIl, 
3,6;man6trifdeviserlIIl9l4. 

mintra,  hymn,  I,  31,  I3;  spell,  I, 
67,  4 ;  5 !  M7,  4 ;  prayer,  I, 

mand,  see  mad. 

mandid,  joy-giving,  cheerful,  I,  26, 

7|  &c.;  lovely,  delightful,  V,  17, 

j ;  a6,  i. 


INDEX   OF   WORDS. 


461 


mandii-#ihva,  with  lovely  tongues, 

I,  142,    8;  —  with    agreeable 
speech,  IV,  ir,  5  ;— with  the 
delightful  tongue,  V,  25,  2. 

mandra'-tama,  most   delightful,  V, 

22,   I. 

mandra-tara,  a  great  joy-giver,  III, 

7,9- 

mlnman,  thought,  I,  26,  a1;  III,  14, 
5  J  IV,  *,  i ;— prayer,  I,  77,  4  J 
127,  2;  140,  i;  n;  148,  2; 

II,  4,  8;  III,  u,  8;  IV,  3,3  J 
15  ;  5,6;  u,  2;  V,  13.  i. 

manma-so'dhana,  fulfiller  of  thought, 
I,  96,  6. 

manyu,  spirit,  V,  7,  io\ 

indmaka,  mine,  I,  31,  iis. 

maya^-bhdf,  comfort-giving,  1, 13, 9  ; 
111,16,6;  IV,  1 1,4;  V,5,8. 

mtyas,  happiness,  I,  31,  7;  fresh- 
ness, HI,  i,  31. 

Martit :  maruta£,  the  Maruts,  I,  31, 
i;  44,  14;  94,  12;  128,  5; 
142,  p1;  III,  26,  4-6;  29,  15; 
IV,  i,  3;  2,  4;  V,  3,  3;  5,  ii ; 
26,  9;  marutam-iva  svana"/>,  I, 
M3i  5?  marfitam  ja*rdha£,  II, 
3»  3  t  IV,  3,  8 ;  vfjve  mar6ta£, 

III,  14,  4  ;  nara£  maruta/?,  III, 
i 6,  21. 

marutvat,  accompanied  by  the 
Maruts,  I,  142,  12  ;  III,  4,  6. 

marut-vr/dh,  whom  the  Maruts 
strengthen,  III,  13,  61. 

m&Vta,  mortal,  man :  ma*rtin  (for 
maVtam,  gen.  plur?),  I,  70,  6l; 

IV,  2,  32;    n1;    maVtiya  (for 
maYtyaya?),  I,  77,  a1;  maYtam 
jamsani,  praise  of  mortals,   I, 
141,  64. 

maYtya,  the  mortal,  I,  26,  9l ;  m£r- 
tyeshu  devftn  kr/#6ti,  I,  77,  i1; 
deva*sya  inaYtyzisya  £a,  II,  7,  a. 

maYya,  manly,  I,  77,  3* 

maryaka",  young  bull,  V,  a,  5*. 

mdrya-jrf,  like  a  beautiful  youth,  II, 
10,  5. 

marya'da,  limit,  IV,  5,  13. 

mah :  mamahantim,  may  they  grant, 
I,*  94, 1 6  ;  95,  n;  mamahe  me, 
he  has  presented  me,  V,  37,  i ; — 
to  exalt :  mahayanta,  III,  3,  3; 
mahiyan,  HI,  3,  n;  mahaya, 
III,  24,  4  :  maha*yamilna£,  III, 
*5»  5;— sim  mahema  (conj. 
sam  ahema),  I,  94,  i1. 


ma"h,  great  :  mahaV;  (ace.  pi.),  I,  31, 
3f,  &c.  ;  IV,  4,  n1;  mahftiam, 
of  the  great  (waters),  III,  i,  la1. 

mdh,  greatness:  mahe,  III,  7,  10. 

maha1,  great:  maha*£,  I,  146,  5*. 

mahdn,  greatness:  manna*  mah£t- 
bhi/j,  I,  72,  9. 

mdhas,  power:  mdhaA-bhiA,  II,  10, 
3*;  III,  4,  65;  with  all  their 
might,  IV,  14,  i1  ;—  mightily  : 
maha£  raye  >itdyan,  V,  15,  5*. 

ma*hi,  great,  I,  79,  4. 

Mdhi-keru  :  mdhi-kerava^,  I,  45,  4l. 

mahi-tvd,  greatness,  might,  I,  59,  5  ; 
6  ;  mam'-tva*,  I,  67,  9  ;  68,  2  ; 
growth,  III,  i,  4. 

mahina*,  greatness,  III,  6,  a  ;  7,  io2. 

mahimdn,  greatness,  I,  59,  7. 

mahi-ratna,  possessor  of  great  trea- 
sures, I,  141,  io. 

mahi-vrata,  lord  of  high  laws,  1,  45,  3. 

mahisha*,  buffalo,  I,  95,  91  ;  141,  31. 

mdhishi,  queen,  V,  a,  a1;  buffalo- 
cow,  V,  25,  72. 

Mahf,  *  the  Great  One/  N.  of  a  god- 
dess, I,  13,  91;  142,  9;  V,  5,  8. 

ma,  to  create,  produce  :  amimjta, 
he  produced,  II,  4,  5;  mimite, 
III,  i,  5  ;  dmimita  (matdri),  he 
has  been  shaped,  III,  29,  ii1; 
mfmanam,  preparing,  V,  a,  3  ;  — 
upa  m^si,  measure  out,  I,  142, 
a  ;  —  vf  r£ga.b  mame,  he  passes 
through  the  air,  I,  58,  i;  vi- 
ma'na£,  traversing,  III,  26,  7  ;  — 
sam-ma'ya,  building,  1,  67,  io. 

makis,  not,  I,  147,  5. 

Matarfjvan,  I,  31,  3  ;  60,  i;  71,  41; 
96,4';  128,  2;  141,  3;  143,2; 
148,  x;  III,  a,  13;  5,  9;  io  ; 
9,5;  26,  a1;  29,  ii1. 

matri,  mother:  matil  Aditi£,  I,  73, 
9;  mother  (Earth),  I,  140,  9'; 
mat6/&,  II,  5,  61  ;  rnatu*  upa- 
sthe,  III,  8,  is;  39,  14;  V  i, 
6  ;  dmimita  mStan,  III,  39,  ii1; 
trib  saptd  matu2>  paramani,  IV, 
i,  I61;  mat{L6  ushasa^,  IV,  a, 
15;  mitte  %6b,  IV,  5,  io1; 
mata*  yuvatf/6,  V,  a,  i  ;  a  ;  mata- 
iva,  V,  15,  4;—  du.,  ubhS(  mS- 
tara,  1,  140^  315  mat^rl  samUT, 
the  parents  turned  towards  each 
other  (Heaven  and  Earth),  III, 


7,  i1 


,n,  3; 


462 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


.  6,  7 ;  yahvf  iti  r/ta"sya  ma- 
a*,  V,  5,  6;- pi.,  mothers,  I, 
95,  7;  141,  sl;  \atsa>  matrifc 
^anayata,  -I, 95, 42 ;  sapta*  jiva'su 
matr/shu,  1,  141,  22;  matr& 
apa*£,  III,  9,  2;  sO-^atam  ma*- 
tr/shu,  III,  23,  3;  jdjvatishu 
mltr/shu,  IV,  7,  6. 
m£dhyanciina,  midday:  ma'dhyandine 

savane,  III,  28,  4. 

M8na,  N .  p.:  m&iasyasfinuA,  1, 1 89, 8l. 
mainavasydt,  acting 'as  men  do,  I, 

140,  4. 

m&nisha,    man,  I,   58,    5,  &c.  ;— 
belonging  to  men,  I,  44,  lo1; 
128,  7;  human,  I,  59,  5;    60, 
3 ;  manushasya  g dnasya  #anma, 
I,  70,  2  ;  manusM  viV,   I,  72, 
8;    dhi/&   manushl,    II,   2,   9; 
human   (sacrificer):    ma'misha't 
pflrvaA,  II,  3,  3<2; —belonging  to 
Manus,    III,  9,  6;    mitnushe 
(conj.  mtmusha£),  III,  23,  4*. 
Mamateya*,  son  of  Mamata*,  1, 147,  3 '. 
mayfl,  wonderful  power,  1, 144.  i; — 
secret  power,  III,  20,  32;  27, 
71;— wile,  V,  2,9. 
mSyfn,  powerful,  III,  20,  3. 
Maruta,    of  the  Maruts:    jaYdha/> 
maVutam,  I,  127,  6;   II,  r,  6; 
IV,  6,  10. 
mir^alya,  liking  to  be  groomed,  V, 

1,8. 

min/  ka*,  mercy,  I,  79,  93- 
ma7- vat,  like  me,  I,  14?,  2. 
nulhina,  mighty,  III.  6,  4;  7,  5. 
mi,  to  erect:    miyamanaA,  III,  8, 
3  ;  —  ni-mimy6£,     they     have 
fastened  down,  III,  8,  6  ;  nf- 
mita,  III,  8,  7. 

miksh,  to  mix:  nnmikshati,  I,  142, 
3  ;    ghr/tdm    mimikshe,   he   is 
joined  with  ghr/ta,  II,  3,  u3. 
mit^-dru,  measu redly  running,  IV, 

6,5- 

mitra*,  friend,  I,  (36,  I71) ;  67,  i ; 
75,  4 ;— friend  or  Mitra,  the 
god,  I,  96,  i8;  II,  2,  3;  4,  i 
III,  5,  3  ;— Mitra,  the  god,  I 
*6>  4J  3<5,  4;  44»  13;  58,  6 
77,  V;  79,  35  94,  ia*5  »3l 
16;  95,"J  98,3;  141,9;  M3 
7;  II,  r,  4;  III,  4,2;  6;  5,9 
'4,  4J  IV,  i,  *8;  2,  4;  3,  5 
5,4;  6,7s;  13,3;  V,  3,1;  2s 
9,  6;  10,  2;  16,  i;  26,  9 


mitrff,  the  two  Mitras  i.e.  Mitra 

andVaru/ra,  1, 36, 17* ;  ksheshy- 

a"nta£  n£    m1tra*m,  II.   4,  31; 

mitral  agnf>6  bhavati,  III,  5,  4. 
mitra-mahas,  great  like  Mitra,  I,  44, 

12;  58,  8;   II,  i,  5;  IV,  4,  15. 
MitrftvaYuaau,  du.,  Mitra  and  Varuua, 

I,7i,  92;  75,  5J  HI,  20,  5. 
mftrya,  belonging  to  one's  allies,  II, 

6,7. 
mitha*s,  mutually,  1, 26, 9 ; — together, 

I,  68,  8. 

mithuna*,  twin,  I,  144,  4. 
miye'dha,  sacrificial  meal,  1 1 1, 19,1 ;  5. 
miyedhya, sacrificial,  1, 26,  i ; — holy : 

I,  36,9;  44»  5- 

mish :  ni  mish  iti,  he  closes  his  eyes, 
III,  29,  14. 

mfh,  mist,  1,79,  2;  141,  13. 

mi,  to  break  (a  law):  minanti,  I, 
69,  7 ;  yasya  vratdm  na*  miyate, 
U>  8,  3  i~to  impair:  minSti,  I, 
71,  10 ;— mina*t,  fading,  V,  2, 
i* ; — &  aminanta  (Sawhita  text : 
°ntan),  thev  were  disparaged, 
I,  79,  21 ; — am^myane  ity  &-me- 
mylne,  constantly  destroying, 
1, 96,  5  J — pri  minanti,  they  di- 
minish, III,  28, 4 ;  pra-minata'6. 
trespassing,  IV,  3,  13;  pra 
minati,  he  destroys,  V,  7,  4. 

mu&vaVns,  bountiful,  I,  27,  2 ;  II,  8, 
i;  III,  16,  3;  IV,  3,  5J  5,  i; 
i5,5. 

mu£,  to  loosen  :  muiyase,  I,  31,  4. 

mfidjoy,  I,  145,  4. 

mumukshu,  striving  to  break  loose, 
I,  140,  4. 

muhu/>-gfr,  the  sudden  devourer,  I, 
128,  3. 

mtirdha'n,  head:  mdrdh^  diva^,  I, 
59,  2;  HI,  2,  14;  mfirdhftnam 
tatdpate,  IV,  2,  6;— summit: 
mtirdhan  ya^^sya,  II,  3,  2. 

mr/,  to  die  :  mamrfishiA,  I,  140,  8. 

mri:  prd  mriVihi,  crush,  IV,  4,  5. 

mr/kt^-v^has,  carrying  away  injury, 
V,  1 8,  2a. 

mnga*,  animal,  I,  145,  5. 

mrik,  to  injure:   mar^yati,  mr/k- 

shish/a.  I,  147,  4;  5;  V,  3,  7. 
r/y,  to  rub :  mar^yantaA,  I,  60, 
5;  marmr^6nya,  to  be  smoothed 
down,  I,  189^7;  II,  10,  i;— 
to  clean,  brighten :  marmr/^m^, 
III,  1 8,  4.;  marmr/^ata,  IV,  ij 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


463 


14;  m£rmr/>ata£,  IV,  a,  19; 
mar#ayema,  IV,  4,  8  ;  marm/v- 
^ydnte,  IV,  15,  6  ;  mar^ayanta, 
they  have  cleansed  themselves, 
V,  3,  31  ;  —  to  groom  :  mnfyanti, 
V,  i,  75  mr/syate,  V,  i,  S  ;— 
paVi  marmr/^yate,  purifies,  I, 
95,  8«. 

nv/V,  to  be  merciful  :  mr/Vaya,  1,  12, 
9;  mri/a,  I,  36,  12;  94,  la  ; 
IV,  9,  i. 

mri/aya't-tama,  most  merciful,  I,  94, 

14. 

mri/ika",  mercy,  IV,  i,  3  ;  5. 

mm  :  abhi  mr/jate,  he  strokes,  I, 
145,  4;  n£  abhi-mrije,  not  to 
be  touched^  II,  10,  5. 

mr/sh,  to  forgive:  mimr/shaA,  I,  31, 
1  6  ;  to  forget  :  mil  pr£  marshi- 
sh//&a^,  I,  71,  10  ;  nd  t£t  pra- 
mrishe,it  should  not  be  slighted, 

1II,9,2. 

me/f,  roaring  (?),  Ill,  26,  9*5  IV,  7, 

ii2. 

metri,  builder,  IV,  6,  2. 
m£das,  fit,  III,  21,  i  ;  2  ;  4  ;  5l. 
me"dha,  sacrifice,  I,  77,  3. 
medh3(,  wisdom,  V,  27,  4. 
mgdhira,  \vi«e,  1,  31,  2;  127,7;  142, 

u;  III,  i,  3;  21,  4. 
me*dhya,  holy,  V,  i,  12. 
Mldhya-atithi,  I,  36,  lo1;  n  ;  17'. 
m£na,  woman,  I,  95,  6. 

yaksh  with  pr£,  to  aspire  after  : 
pra-y£kshan  vasu,  II,  5,  i  ;  pra- 
yakshe,  111,7,  i. 

yakshd,aspirit,  IV,  3,  ijV(bis). 

ya^,  to  sacrifice:  ydkshi,  I,  13,  i; 
31,  17;  36,  6;  yashrave,  I,  13, 
6;  ya^wim  yakshatam,  I,  13,  8; 
arva^am  ydkshva,  I,  45,  10  ; 
y%adhyai,  III,  4,  3:  4yara£ 
hotrdm,  III,  17,  2  ;  >at  yapasi, 
III,  19,4^;  dhru>amaylA,III, 


aVa  yaksnva,  cause,  by  sacri- 
ficing, to  go  away,  IV,  1,5;— 
K  yVati,  procures  (blessings)  by 
sacrificing,  I,  26,  3;  l-y%ase, 
*>  94r  a  ;  %  ya#a,  produce  by 
sacrifice,  I,  188,  9  ;  21  ya^asva, 
obtain  by  sacrificing,  III,  i>  22  ; 
a-ya^ante,  they  bring  hither  by 
sacrifice,  III,  4,  2  ;  &  yakshat, 
V,  13,  31- 


ya^ata,  to  be  worshipped,  worship- 
ful, I,  59,7;  128,  8;  11,5,8; 

III,  5,  3J  IV,.ifi«5  15,*;  V, 
i,  ii ;  8,  i. 

y%atra,  deserving  worship,  worship- 
ful, I,  65,  21,  &c. 

ya^citha,  the  sacrificing,  sacrifice : 
ya^athaya,  III,  4,  i  ;  5,95  17, 
i  ;  19,  5J  V,  1,2;  n,  2. 

y%amSna,  sacjificer,  1,  127,  2;  V, 
26,5. 

ya^ish/^a,  best  sacrificer,  I,  36,  10  ; 
44,  55  58,  75  77,  i  ;  127,  i; 
128,  i;  149,  45  U,  6,  6;  III, 
10,7;  13,  i;  14,  5  ;  IV,  1,4; 
19;  2,  i;  7,  i;  5;  8,  i;  V,  14,  2. 

y%iyams,  the  best,  or  excellent, 
sacrificer,  II,  9,  4J  HI,  4,  3  ,* 
'7,  5;  i9>i;  IV,  6,  i  ;  V,  1,5; 
6  5  3,  5- 

a,  sacrifice,  I,  i,  i;  4',  &c.; 
II,  2,  i1;  yng-fiiKnam  adhvara- 
jrfyam,  I,  44,  3a;  mfirdha'n 
ya^asya,  II,  3,  a;  ya^wasya 
net^ri,  II,  5,  2  ;  rudrim  yzgfil- 
nam,  III,  2,  sl ;  ketum  ya^^fil- 
nam,  III,  3,  3;  n,  3;  29,5  ; 
pitS(  ya^nlm,  III,  3,  4; 
ya^«dm-ya^«am,  III,  6,  10; 
ya^wasya  net^  prathamasya,  III, 

15,4. 

andhu.  kinsman  of  sacrifice. 

IV,  .,  9l- 

y^d-vat,  performing  the  sacrifice, 

111,27,6. 
ya^fta-vanas,  accepting  the  sacrifice, 

IV,  i,  2. 
ya^jzd-vihas,  fitting  out  the  sacrifice 

as  a  vehicle,  III,  8,  3* ;  24,  i1. 
ya^»a-si(dh,  performer  or  promoter 

of  sacrifices,  I,  96,  3  ;  128,  2. 
ya^fta-s&dhana,     accomplisher     of 

sacrifices,  I,  145,  3. 
ya^dfiya,  worshipful,  I,  27,  io2;  72, 

3;  4J  6;  73,  7  J  148,  31;  II, 

3,  4;    III,  i,  21  ;  2,  13;  6,  3; 

IV,  i,  20;  V,  10,  2 ;— sacrificial, 

V,  !2,  I. 

ya^yu,  sicrificer,  I,  31,   13  ;  III, 

19,  4- 

y%van, sacrificer, 1, 1 3, 12;  III,  14,1. 

yat :  yatate,  he  ranges  (the  wings  of 
his  army),  I,  95,  7*;  he  unites 
with,  1, 98,  i2 ;  y£tlna£,  ranging 
themselves,  III,  8,  9  ;— ydtate, 
he  stands  firm,  III,  16,  4; — 


464 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


yatayase,  thou  wil't  requite,  V, 

ydta£,  since,  I,  128,  4. 

yat£~sru£,  holding  forth  the  sacri- 

ficial ladle(s),    I,   142,   i;    5; 

III,  2,  5;  27,  6;  IV,  2,9;   12, 

i  ;  —  to    which    the    sacrificial 

ladles  have  been  raised,  1  1  1,  8,  7*. 
yad,  adv.  when  (repeated  twice),  I, 

141,  4s. 
yadi,  when  :  ya"di  ida"m,  when  here 

(all  this  happened),  I,  79,  2s  ;  — 

as  I  am,  IV,  5,  i  ia. 
Yadu,  I,  36,  iS1. 
\anttir,  governor,  III,  27,  na. 
yant/v,  guider:   yantftram  dhinimi, 

III,  3,  8;—  guide,  III,  13,  3. 
yam,  to  command  :  y£nti,  I,  27,  7  ;  — 

to  hold:  yayantha,  I,  59,  i; 
ydmati,  it  can  hold,  1,  141,  ii3; 
yemandm,  fast-holding,  IV,  i, 
15  ;  yemuA,  they  have  held  up, 

IV,  2,  14;—  to  bridle:  jake*ma 
ya*mam,  I,  73,  iol;  II,  5,  i*; 
III,  27,  3;   yamate,  he  holds 
himself  back,  1,  127,  3  ;—  a*yami 
te,  it  has  been  offered  to  thee, 
III,    14,   21  ;  —  to   lead:    a^ur 
yamu£,  V,  6,    io2  ;—  a-yemire", 
they  have  turned    themselves 
hither,  I  II,  6,  8  ;  —  ut  yamyamiti, 
he  raises  again  and  again,  I,  95, 
7  ;  ut  yawsate,  may  he  lift  up, 
I,  143,  7  ;—  ni-yata,  ruled,  IV, 
3,   9  ;  —  with   pra",  to   bestow  : 
pra*    yawsi,    III,    i,    22  ;    pra* 
yandtii,  bestow,  IV,  2,  20  ;  pra*- 
yata,   IV,    15,   8  ;—vf   yawsat, 
may  he  spread  out,  1,  189,  6;  — 
sam  ayaoista,  he  pulls  in  (the 
reins),  I,  144,  3. 

yama,  twin  :  yamd/6  ha  gp&h  yam££ 

^dni-tvam,  I,  66,  81. 
Yayati:  yayati-vit,  I,  31,  17. 
ya"va,  barley,  I,  66,  3  ;  corn,  II,  5,  6. 
ydvasa,  meadow,  V,  9,  4. 
yavasa-aci,  grass-consuming,   I,  94, 

n. 


,  the  youngest  (god,  Agni), 
1,26,2;  44,4;  141,  4;  io;  147, 
a;  189,4;  H*M;  7»«;  IH>i5» 
3;  19,  4;  IV,  2,  io;  13;  4»  6; 
u;  12,  3;  4J  V,  r,  io;  3,  it. 
ydvish/^ya,  youngest  (Agni),  I,  36, 
6;  15;  44,  6;  III,  9,  6;  28, 
a;  V,  8,6;  26,7. 


ydvya,  bliss  in  crops,  I,  i  fo,  13. 
yaja£-tama,  most  glorious,  11,8,  i. 
ya/is,  bringing  .glory,  glorious,   I, 
i,  3;   31,  8;  60,  i;   II,  3,  5; 

III,  i,  19;  V,    15,  i;  ya/$sa£ 
(fern.),  I  II,  i,nV;yajasig6A, 
through  the  brilliant  (milk  ?)  of 
the  cow,  IV,  i,  i64;  mdrtasya 
yaja'sa',    through    the    mortal's 
brilliant  (offering),  V,  8,  4*. 

ya»asvat,  glorious,  I,  79,1*;  1  1  1,  1  6,  6. 
yahu,  young  son  :  sahasa^  yaho  iti, 

I,  26,  io1;  74,  $l;  79,  4. 
yahva*,  vigorous,  I,  36,  ia;    III,  2, 

91J3,8;  5,5J9J  28,4;IV,5,6; 

V,  16,  4s;  restless,  III,  i,  12*  ; 

IV,  5,  2;  7,  1  1  ;—  young,  V,  i, 
i  ;—  yahvifc,   new,    I,  59,  4  ;— 
sapta*  yahvlA,  I,  71,  r\  72,  81; 
III,  i,  4';    IV,   13,  3;~div^ 
yahvte,  young  (daugh'ers),  III, 
1,6;  94;—  yahvf  iti  mlt^ra*,  I, 
'43,  72?  V,  5,  6. 

ya,  to  go  :  y£m\  r^itnam,  I  pray  for 
treasure,  I,  58,  7s;  yasat,  may 


he  drive  on,  I,  71,  6s;  —  b 
yahi,  come  hither,  I,  31,  17; 
devaYi  bkkb*  ylftave,  I,  ^4,  41;  — 
ava-yataVn  (conj.  ava-yat£(),  I, 
94,  1  2^  iva  yasis'sh^a^,  mayest 
thou  deprecate,  IV,  i,  4. 
u,  a  bad  demon,  V,  12,  a1. 

yatu-£-u,  inciting  demons,  IV,  4,  5. 

ya*tu-maVat,  ally  of  the  Yatus  :  yitu- 
m^vata>&,  I,  36,  20. 

y&r/',  avenger  (?),  I,  70,  n8, 

ytoa,  procession,  V,  3,  12. 

y^man,  way,  III,  2,  14  ;  29,  61. 

yn  :  yuyushataA,  they  try  to  draw 
towards  themselves,  1,  144,  3;— 
yuyodhi,  drive  away,  I,  189,  i  ; 
3;  II,6,4;  y6dhi,V,3,92;- 
&  yuv£mina£,  seizing,  I,  58,  a  ; 
i-y6yuvana^,  drawing  towards 
himself,  IV,  i,  u  ;—  vi  yoshat, 
may  he  be  deprived  of,  IV,  2,9. 

y6,  going  :  y6£,  I,  74,  72- 

yukta*,  see  yu^. 

yukti-gravan,  who  sets  to  work  the 
precs-stones,  III,  4,  9. 

yuga*,  generation,  tribe  :  mtmusha* 
yug2(,  I,  i44i  4  J  II,  2,  2  ;—age: 
yug^-yuge,  III,  26,  3. 

vug",  to  harness,  yoke  :  yuginam,  I, 
65,  iV;  ayukthaA,  I,  94,  io; 
ayukshata,  III,  26,  4;  dakshua 


INDEX   OF   WORDS. 


465 


yu^yate,  V,  i,  3* ;  yukti,  V,  27, 
2;  3*;— to  join:  nri-bhlfr  yukt££, 
1, 69,  8 ; — yu%£,  I  make  ready, 

III,  i,  i*. 

yug,  share :  yu^am,  V,  20,  i1. 
yu^ya,   companion :    yu^yebhi/j,  I, 

145,  49- 
yfidh,  the  fighting,  I,  59,  5  ;  battle, 

I,  140,  10 ;  V,  25,  6. 
yuvati,  young  woman  :  dlra  yuvata"- 

ya£,  1,95,  22;—III,  1,6  j  V,2, 

z;  2;  4'. 
yfcvan,  young,  I,  12,  i ;  27,  13  J  7»i 

8;  141,10;  144,4;  111,23,  i; 

IV,  i,  12;  V,  i,  6;   yuva  su- 
vasa£,  III,  8, 4* ;— see  ydvish/Aa, 
yaVish/^ya. 

y  ushma*  d,  pron . :  va£,  dativus  ethicus, 

1,  143,7';  v3m,  III,  4,  41. 
yGtha,herd,  I,58,  5;  IV,  2,  18  ;  V, 

2,  4l. 

yffpa,  sacrificial  post,  (I,  13,  n1); 

V,  2,  7. 

y6ga,  the  yoking,  II,  8,  i ;— setting 

to  work,  III,  27,  ii. 
yogytf,  the  harnessing,  III,  6,  6. 
y6ni,  womb,  I,  149,  2;  II    3,  n 


9,  3  ;  r/ta*sya  yonau,  I 
III,  i,  ii  ;  IV,  i,  12 
41;  uparasya  y6nau,  I 


65,  4 

V,2I 

79,  3 


ghr/tisya    y6nau,    III 
r%asa/)    y6nau,    IV,   i,    ii; — 
couch,  I,  66,  5  ;—receptacle,  I 
.140,  i2;— birthplace,  I,  144,  2 
IU,A  29,  10  ;— abode  :    samane 
y6na,    I,    144,  4 ;    su-kr/tdsya 
y6nau,  III,  29,  8  ;— place,  III, 
5,  71;  home,  IV,  3,  2. 

yOshan,  young  female:  ddja  y6- 
shawaA,  I,  141,  2*;  abhrata>a£ 
nd  y6sha«aA,  IV,  5,  52. 

y6s :  jam  yo/6,  with  luck  and  weal, 
I,  189,  2;  III,  17,  3;  18,  4; 

IV,  12,  5. 

rawh,to  hasten :  raraha^a/»,  1, 148,3. 
rawhya,  rapidly,  IV,  i,  3. 
r£kshas,  pi.,  rdkshawsi,  the  Rakshas 
(devils),  I,  79,  12;  IV,  3,  M; 

V,  2,  9  ;   jo. 

raksnas,  sorcerer,  I,  36,  15  ;  76,  3  ; 

79,6;  III,  15,1;  IV,4,  i;  4,15. 
rakshasvin,  sorcerer,  1, 12,  5  ;  36,  20. 
raghu,  swift,  IV,  5,13. 
raghu-dru,  quickly  running,  !,  140, 

4  J  V,  6,  2. 


raghu-y£t,  quickly  moving,  IV,  5, 9. 
raghu-sy£d,  swift  runner,  I,  i^o,  4  ; 

111,26,2;  IV,  5,  9;  V,25,6. 
ra^-as,  air,  atmosphere,  aerial  space, 

I,  58,  i;   5;    79,  i ;   141,  7; 

H9,4;  11,2,  3:4;  III,  1,5; 

4,  4s;    26,  7;   ra>asa£  y6nau, 

IV,  i,  ii2. 

ra^ishfta,  straightest,  I,  79,  3. 
raw,  to  rejoice,  delight :  raaiyanta, 

I,  147,  i;  rawanti,  III,  7,  55 
ra»ayanta,    IV,   7,    7  ;  ,  havyl£ 
ra»yati,  V,  18,  i2. 

ra»a,  battle  :  ra^e-ra»e,  I,  74,  3. 

ranv,  to  be  joyful :  ranvit6  (ti,  II, 
3,6. 

ra»va,  pleasant,  lovely,  I,  65,  5  :  66, 

3-5;  128,  8;  II,  4,  4J  IV,  i, 

8  5— W,  joyous,  cheerful,  I,i44, 

7 ;   II,   4,  6;   III,  26,  I;  IV, 

t     7,55  V,  7,  a. 

ratna,  treasure :  yami  ratnam,  I, 
58,  7s ;  vdsu  rdtna,  III,  2,  ii  ; 
kr/dhi  rdtnam,  III,  1 8,  5. 

ratna-dha,  bestower  of  treasures,  II, 

i,  7. 
ratna-dhSftama,  highest  bestower  of 

treasures,  I,  i,  i  ;  V,  8,  3. 
ratna-dheya,  bestowal  of  treasures, 

IV,  13,1. 
ritna-vat,  blessed   with   treasures, 

HI,  28,  5. 
r£tha,  chariot :  titham-iva  vedyam, 

II,  2,  32 ;  rdtha/^  nd  sasniA,  like 
a  victorious  car,  III,  15,  5. 

rathira",  charioteer,  III,  1,17;  26,  r. 

rathi',  drawing  a  chariot :  Irv£sa6 
rathya^,  1, 148,  3 ;  III,  6,  8  ;— 
charioteer,  I,  77,  3  ;  III,  3,  6; 
IV,  15,  2  ;  rathi&  adhvara^iam, 

I,  44,  2  ;  rathft  n'tdsya,  III,  2, 
8;  IV,  10,  2. 

rdthya,  of  a  chariot :  dtya^  ra*thya£, 

II,  4,    4;    rithya-iva    (supply 
JaM?),     II,    4,    62;    *akram 
rdthya-iva     (rather     rdthyam- 
iva?)(lV,  i,  j». 

rad,  to  cleave  :  ralsi,  V,  10,  i. 
radhrd:  radhrdsya  for  adhrdsya,  (I, 

31,  H'). 

ra~pas:  rdpawsi,  Pada  text  instead 
of  ipawsi,  I,  69,  8". 

rabh  :  sam  rebhire,  they  have  em- 
braced, I,  1^0,  8  ;— abh(  ^a»ri 
rabhante,  they  take  care  of,  III, 


[46] 


Hh 


466 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


rdbhas,  vigour,  I,  145,  3. 

rabhasd,  robust,  II,  10,  41 ;  fierce, 

III,i,8. 

rdm-su,  joyously,  II,  4,  5. 
rdm-sr^-ihva,  with  lovely  tongue,  IV, 

1,8. 
rayl,  riches,  treasures :  kshapzK-van 

ravfo&n,  I,  70,  s1. 
rayi-pdti,  treasure-lord:    rayi-pdti£ 

rayw&n,  I,  60,  4;  72,  i  ;   II, 

rayi-vfd,  gainer  of  wealth,  II,  i,  3  ; 

HI,  7,  3. 
rayisha'h,  conqueror  of  wealth,   I, 

_,          5l'3'.  •  T 

rava,  shouting,  roaring,  I,  71, 2  ;  94, 
10 ;  agne  rdve»a  (Pada :  agn££ 
aVena),  I,  128,  s1. 

ra/ana',  rope,  (I,  13,  1 11) ;  IV,  i,  92 ; 
V,  i,  31- 

rajmf,  ray,  I,  59,  3  ;  IV,  13,  4  ;  14, 
2;  3;  v,  19,  SJ-sapt*  raj- 
mdya£,  seven  rays  or  reins,  II, 

5,  2;— rein,  I,  141,  ri;   III,  7, 
91 ;  r/tdsya  rajmi'm,  V,  7,  3. 

rfca,sap,  I,  71,  51- 

Rdhuga^a.  plur.,  the  RahGga«as,  I, 

*  7«,  5f. 

ra,  to  give  :  rasate,  1, 96, 8  ;  rarishe, 
II,  i,  5;  rarimd,  II,  5,  7; 
rdra//a£,  a  liberal  giver,  III,  i, 
22;  IV,  1,5;  2,  10. 

rag,  to  be  king  or  lord  :  ra^antam 
adhvanfoam,  I,  i,  8;  45,  4; 
ra^asi,  1,36,12  ;  188,  i  ;  ra^an 
(conj.  ra^an),  I,  79,  61;—  vi- 
i%atha,  I,  188,  4;— ddhi  vi- 
ra^ata/b,  you  reign  high,  I,  188, 

ra>an,  king,  I,  59,  3;  5,  &c. ; 
nt^Sna  mitrzKvdruwa,  I,  71,  9*; 
ra^a  Varuwa^,  II,  i,  4;  IV,  i, 
2  ;  ra^a  vij^m,  II,  2,  8  ;  vas#m 
r^anam,  V,  2,  6', 

ritd-havya,  who  has  made  offerings : 
rata"-l>avya£,  I,  31,  13*;  — to 
whom  offerings  are  made,  IV, 

7,7- 
ratf,  gift,  I,  60,  i  ;  II,  i,  16;  111,2, 

4?  *9<  22. 

fuW  of  gifts,  III,  19,  2 :  IV, 

6,  3. 

}  pi.,  the  Ratisa*  or  *  boun- 
teous'gods,  II,  i,  13. 
rfftri,  night,  I,  94,  7; 

h,to  worship:  <iradhi,  I,  70,  82  ; — 


m&  na/>  riradha^,  give  us  not  up, 

III,  16,5. 

r^fdhas,  abundance,  wealth,  1, 94, 15 ; 

II,  9*4- 

r#dhya,  beneficent,  IV,  u,  3. 

r&nya,  night,  II,  2,8. 

raya£-kama,  desirous  of  riches,  I, 
78,2. 

ri,  to  let  loose  :  aYi«at,  III,  3, 1 11 ; — 
sva"dhiti/&-iva  riyate,  it  streams, 
V,  7, 81 ;— nf  riwati,  he  destroys, 
I,  127,4;  148,  4- 

T\k  :  ririkv&HsaA,  abandoning,  I,  72, 
53 ; — with  prd,  to  exceed  :  prd 
rirUe,  I,  59,  5  ;  prd  riy&yase,  II, 
i,  15  ;  prd  riktha£,  III,  6,  2. 

rip,  deceiver:  priydm  ripd/;  dgram, 

IH,5,5l. 
ripu,  impostor,  I,  36,  16  ;  147,  3; 

148,5;  189,  55  IV,  3,  ns;  V, 
3,  1 1  ;  ripdve  (conj.  ripava£  ?), 

Vf  12,4'. 

ririkshu,  who  tries  to  harm,  1, 189, 6. 
Tildas,  triumphant  u  ith  riches  (?), 

I,fl6,4l;  77,  41- 
rish,  to  do  harm  :  rfshata£,  I,  1 2,  5  ; 

36,  15;  mti  rishama,  may  we 

suffer  no  harm,  I,  94,   1-14  ; 

IV,  12,  5;  reshdyanti,  I,   148, 
5;  rishate,  1,189,  5;  V,  3,  12. 

rish,  harm,  I,  98,  2. 

rishawyu,  harmful  foe,  I,  148,  5. 

rih,  to  lick  :  re>ihat  sddS,  licking  and 
licking,  I,  140,  9  ;  rihanti  ffdha^, 
I,  146,  2  ; — pdri  rihdn,  licking 
everywhere,  I,  140,  9. 

ri,  see  ri. 

ru  :  r6ruvat,  roaring,  I,  140,  6. 

rukmd,  gold,  I,  96,  5';  IV,  10,  5; 
6;  V,  i,  12. 

rukmin,  with  golden  ornaments,  I, 
66,6. 

ru£,  to  shine :  ro&ite,  I,  58,  2,  &c. ; 
rurukvftn,  I,  149,  3;  su-ru&l 
nUand/;,  III,  15,  6  ;  roJata,  IV, 
i  o,  6l ;—  dti  roX*ase,  thon  shinest 
forth,  I,  94, 7  ; — pra  arolayat,  it 
filled  with  light,  1, 143,  2  ; — vi- 
r6>t.imanam,  1,  95,  2  ;  9 ;  vi* 
ro^a««c,  II,  7,  4  ;  vi-ruru/^6£, 
they  have  made  *hine,  IV,  7,  i. 

ru^,  to  break :  ru^an,  1, 7  r,  2  ;  adrim 
ru^ema,  Tr,  2,  is8;— vi  ru^a, 
destroy,  IV,  3,  14. 

Rudra,  a  name  of  Agni,  I,  27,  io8; 
IV,  3,  i1 ;  rudrdm 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


467 


III,  2,  s1 ;— Rudra,  the  father  of 
the  Maruts,  II,  i,  6 ;  IV,  3,  6 ; 
7  ;  V,  3, 3a ;— pi.,  the  Rudras,  I, 
45,1  ;  58,  3;  III,  8,  8;  20,5. 

Rudrfya,  Rudra-like :  rudrfy3,I,72, 
4  ;— P1-,  the  sons  of  Rudra,  III, 
26,  5. 

rudh :  vi  r6dhat,  he  grows  up,  1,67,9. 

rup:  rupdA?  IV,5,  7l;  8. 

rfijat,  bright,  brilliant,  III,  29,  3 ; 

IV,  3,  9;  5,  15;  11,  i;  V,  i, 
2;— red,  IV,  7,  9. 

rfijat-tirmi,with  fiery  waves,  I,  58,4*, 
ruh :    vay&fr-iva    inu    rohate,   he 

mounts  up  as  on  the  branches 

(of  a  tree),  II,  5,  41- 
rfipd,  appearance,  I,  71,  10  ;  95,  8; 

IV,  u,  i2. 

re*ku,  empty  (?),  IV,  5,  12'. 
r£k*as,  property,  I,  31,  14. 
re#,  to  tremble:  £reget&mt  I,  31, 

3  ;  re^ante,  they  roll  forward, 

1,  143,  3- 

r£tas,  seed,  sperm,  I,  68,  81 ;  71,8; 
128,  3  ;  reta£  (read  re"pa£),  IV, 
3, 72 ;  divdA  nd  re*tasa,  V,  17,  3*. 

r£pas,  sin:  re*pa£  (conj.  for  reta£), 
IV,  3,  72;  stain,  IV,  6,  6. 

rebhd,  singer,  I,  127,  ioft. 

revdt,rich  :  revin,  I,  27, 12  ; — revdt, 
with  riches,  I,  79,  5J  95,  "5 
11,2,6;  9,6;  III,  7,  10;  18, 
45  5:  23,  2;  4;  V,  23,  4. 

reshaad,  harm-doer,  I,  148,  5. 

raf,  wealth  :  r#ya£,  gen.,  I,  68,  xo1; 
y&at  ray^f  sa-rdtham,  I,  71,  6s; 
rayd£  diira£,  I,  72,  8;  rayd£ 
su-dhuraA,  I,  73,  iol;  rayd£ 
jijihi,  III,  16,  32. 

rokd,  shining  light,  III,  6,  7. 

ro&md,  light :  vuva  divd£  ro/fcana',  I, 
r 46,  i  ;  111,12,9;  divd£  rofcme*, 
III,  6,  8;  tn  ro>tanani,  I,  149, 
4;  ut-tam£6  ro/tan^nam,  III, 
5,  10 ;  roytene"  sOiryasya,  III, 
22,  3. 

ro^ana-sth^,  dwelling  in  light,  III, 

2,  14. 

roll's,  splendour,  V,  26,  J. 

r6dasi,  du.,  the  two  worlds,  Heaven 
and  Earth,  I,  31  3,  &c. ;  I,  59, 
2;  4';  I1I,7,95;  V,  i6,48. 

r6dhas,  bank,  IV,  5,  i*. 

r6man,  hair,  I,  65,  8. 

r6hita,  red  (horses^  J,  94,  10;  II, 
10,  2  ;  III,  6«6;  IV,  2,  3;  6,  9. 

H 


rohit-ajva,  lord  of  red  horses,  I,  45, 
2  ;  IV,  i,  8. 
i 

loki,  world:  loklm  ^amfm,  III,  2, 
94;— sveu  loke,  space,  111,29, 
8 ;— surabha6  u  lok^,  in  the 
sweet-smelling  place,  V,  i,  6  ; 
lokim  syondm,  pleasant  free- 
dom, V,  4,  u. 

vdktva,  (speech)  to  be  uttered,  III, 
26,  9. 

v£kvan?  I,  141,  7'. 

vdkvara,  moving  crookedly :  va*kvari 
fti,  I,  144,  6l. 

vaksh,  to  grow:  ukshita*,  I,  36,  19 ; 
II,  3,  6  ;  V,  8,  7  ;  uksh&nawam 
ra^-asi,  II,  2,  4;  vavakshe,  III, 
5,  8 ;  vavdksha,  IV,  7,  1 1 ;— dti 
vavakshitha,  III,  9,  3*; — abhf 
vavakshe,  he  has  grown  up,  I, 
146,  2. 

vakshawe-sM?  V,  19,  s1. 

vaksh  At  ha,  growth,  IV,  5,  i. 

vakshl'?  V,  19,  s1. 

va>t, '  to  pronounce  (a  prayer)  : 
voJema,  I,  74,  i ;  75,  2  ;  va*- 
y£te,  I,  142,  42;— a"nu  v6>fat 
brahma/;i,  II,  5,  i1 ; — with  prd, 
to  announce  :  pr£  \okab,  I,  27, 
4;  pra-v6*ati,  V,  27,  45  pr* 
vava^a,  he  indicates,  I,  67,  8. 

v&as,  word  :  va>a£,  instr.,  I,  26,  22; 
adrogh^wa  vd^asi  satyim,  ac- 
cording to  thy  guileless  word, 
III,i4,6;~prayer,  I,  26,10, &c. 

va£asy#,  eloquence,  II,  10,  6. 

va£as>u,  eloquent,  V,  14,  6. 

vaflJ,  to  sttr :  va£}£mana,  III,  6, 
i ;  vaJya'ntam,  'may  they  move 
along,  III,  6,  2. 

vat :  dpi  vatayamasi,  we  render 
attentive,  I,  128,  2 *. 

vatsd,  calf,  I,  72,  21;  95,  i1 ;  4?; 
146,  3;  II,  2,  2. 

vadha",  weapon,  I,  94,  9;  V,  4,  6. 

van,  to  accept:  vanoshi,  I,  31,  13*; 
vanish?sh/a,  I,  127,  7  ;  vaner  fti 
vaneA,  II,  6,  i;  vanv«in;i/:>,  III, 
8,  2  ; — to  gam/ win :  van6shi,  I, 
31,  i4l;  vavne,  I,  36,  17; 
vanema,  I,  70,  i2;  II,  5,  7; 
vanvdnta/',  attaining  (their  aim), 

II,  4,  9  ;  vanate,  may  he  obtain, 

III,  19,  i ;  V,  4, 3 :-- to  conquer, 
overcome :  vanuyama,  I,  73, 9 ; 

h  2 


468 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


vanavat,  V,  3,  5  ;  vanuyima,  V, 

3,  6  ; — vanushaA,  addicted  to, 

onper,  I,  150,  3;  III,  27,  u  ; 

.  a*na;&,  thou  wilt  hold  dear, 

,  n,  a  ; — to  grant :  'vanate, 

v ,  3, 10 ;— it  vanase,  win  thou,  i, 

140,   ii ;— sdm  va'namahe,  we 

get  together,  V,  7,  3. 

va*na,  forest « fuel,  wood,  I,  58,  5*; 
11,4,  6l;  III,  i,  I31;  9,2;  23, 
jl ;  va*ne  &  vita*m.  IV,  7,  61  ;— 
tree:  gaYbhaA  vanSnam,  I,  70, 
3 ;  9  ;— forest :  vdni-iva  ya*t  sthi- 
ram,  1, 127,  35;— -I,  128,  3',  &c. 

van£d,  eater  of  the  forests,  II,  4,  5*. 

vanargti,  walking  in  the  forest,  I, 

145,  51-' 

va'naspa'ti,  lord  of  the  forest,  tree  (i.e. 
sacrificial  post),  1, 13,  ii1 ;  142, 
ii1 ;  188,  10 ;  II,  3,  10 ;  III, 

4,  lo1;  8,  i1;    3;  6;    ii  ;  V, 

5,  10  ; — va'naspa'tm  prd  minati, 

V.7,4- 

\anitr/,  winner,  III,  13,  3. 
vanfn,  wooden  stick,  1, 58,  4  ;— tree, 

1,94,  10  ?  MO,  2. 
vand, to  worship,  salute:  vandadhyai, 

I,  27,  i  ;  III,  4,  3. 
vandaVu,   reverer,    I,    147,   2  ;    V, 

1,    13. 

vandya,  venerable,  I,  31,  12  ;  79,  7  ; 

11,7,4- 

vandhura,  chariot -seat :  vandhure- 
iva  (conj.  for  vandhura-iva), 

III,  14,  34. 

vap  :  #  upishe,  thoupourest  forth,  I, 

3J»  9' 

vapu£-tara,  very  marvellous,  II,  3,  7. 

vapusha  :  viptishtya  darjat£m,  won- 
derful to  behold,  III,  2,  15. 

vapushy,  to  wonder :  vapushyan,  III, 

i,  4. 
vapushya,  of  marvellous  appearance, 

IV,  1,8;  12;  V,  1,9. 

vapus,  a  wondrous  sight,  wonder,  I, 
141,  i;  IV,  7,  9;  wondrous 
body,  wonderful  shape,  I,  141, 
22;  144,  3;  M8,  i;  HI,  i,  8; 
18,5. 

vaya^-knt,  giver  of  strength  :  vaya£- 
kr*t,  I,  31,  10. 

vaya£-dha/,  giving  vigour,  I,  73,  i  ; 
U,  3,  9J  IV,  3,  10. 

vaya£-vr;db,  increaser  of  vital 
strength,  V,  5,  6. 

va"yas,  vigour,  strength,  vital  power, 


I,  66,  4,  &c. ;  vdya£-vaya£,  life 

afterlife,  V,  15,4. 
vaydf,  branch,  I,  59,  i ;  II,  5^  ?\  V, 

i,  i.  , 

vayf, weaver  (?) :  vayya*-iva,(II,3,6^). 
vay6na,  established  order,  rule :  vid- 

v#n  vay6nani,  I,  72,  71 ;  189,  i ; 

III,  5,  6;  vayuna  na*v£  adhita, 
I,    M4.   58;  H5,  5  J  vayunam 
vSghdtlm,  III,  3,  4a;   vayune, 
in  the  due  way,  III,  29,  3s ; — 
k#  vayuna,  what  are  the  objects, 

IV,  5,  13- 

v£ra,  wish :  m^nasa^  vaYaya,  to  thy 
mind's  taste,  1, 76,  i1 ;  a^ choice 
boon,  I,  140,  13  ;  tisri-bhya£ 
a  vdram,  according  to  the  wish 
of  the  three  (sisters),  II,  5,  5  ; 
desire,  II,  10,  6. 

v£ra,  the  holding  back  :  nd  vdraya, 
he  is  not  to  be  kept  back,  I, 

'43,  5- 

v^rivas,  wide  space,  I,  59,  5. 

Vdru«a,  I,  26,  4  ;  36,  4  ;  44,  14  ;  79, 
3;  94,  I21;  16;  95,  "J  9«,  3J 
128,  7;  141,  9;  143,  4;  II,  i, 

4  ;  HI,  4,  2  ;  6;  5,  4;  14,  4; 
IV,  1,2-5;  18;  2,4;  3,,5;  13, 
2  J  V,  3,  i;  5,  ii  ;  26,  9. 

vaYGtha,  shelter,  I,  58,  9;  148,  2; 

189,  6. 

varuthya,  protecting,  V,  24,  i. 
va"re»ya,  elect,  desirable,  excellent, 

I,  26,  2  ;  3  ;  7,  &c. 
vaY^as,  splendour,  III,  8,  3;  22,  2  ; 

24,  r. 
var«a,  colour,  I,  73,  7 ;  II,  i,  12  ;  4, 

5  ;— (bright)  colour,  splendour, 
n,5,5l  IV, 5, 1 3;— appearance, 
!>  96,  5;— race,  11,  3,  51- 

vartanf,  way :  variant  (Pada :  var- 

tanf^),  I,  140,  9s ;— III,  7,  2. 
vdrdhana,    increaser :     vdrdhanam 

pit6^,  I,  140,  3*. 
vaVpas,  sight,  shape,  I,  140,  s1;  7; 

141,  3. 

vdrman,  armour,  I,  31,  15 ;  140,  10. 
varshci-nirni^,  clothed  in  rain,  III, 

26,5. 
va*rshish/£a,  most  powerful,  III,  13, 

7;  16,  3;  26,8;  V,  7,  i. 
vdrshman,  summit :  vaVshman  diva"6, 

111,5,9;  vaYshman  p/vthivya^, 

HI,  8,  3. 

vav^tta,  a  favourite  wife,  IV,  4,  8. 
vavra*,  prison,  IV,  i,  13. 


INDEX   OF   WORDS. 


469 


vavrf,  cover,  V,  19,  r. 

vaj,  to  be  willing,  long^for,  love: 
ujat£6, 1, 1 2,  4 ;  ujatfe  u/dntam, 
I,  71,  i;  ujatdA  (read  ujate?), 
I,  71,  6>2;  ujmdsi,  I,  94,  3; 
matto,  I,  145,  46;  II  4,  3; 
vakshi,  III,  i,  i1 ;  ujantam 
uAn£J>,  III,  5,  7;  vlvajan&fr, 

III,  20,  i ;  vavajina,  III,  22,  i  ; 
ujatf,  loving,    IV,   3,  2  ;— £nu 
vash/i,  I,  127,  i ;— abhf  vashfi, 

IV,  i,  8. 

vaj&,  heifer,  II,  7,  5. 

vajfn,  lord,  III,  23,  3. 

vlshaf-kr/ti,  the  word  Vashaf,  1,31,5. 

vas,  to  shine:  u^Mntim,  I,  71,  i  ; 
ushu£,  III,  7, 10 ;  r/tdm  avasran, 
IV,  2, 191. 

vas,  to  clothe :  vasishva,  I,  26,  i ; 
v^saya  (SawhitI :  vasayfc), 
clothe,  or  I  clothe,  I,  140,  i1; 
jn'yam  vasana£,  II,  10,  i  ;  jukr& 
v£san3£,  arraying  themselves  in 
brightness,  III,  8,  9;  rujat 
vasanaA,  clothed  in  brilliancy, 

IV,  5,  15; — pdri  v&sana£,  III, 

1.51- 

vas,  to  dwell :  avasayat,  he  has 
made  depart,  III,  7,  3  ;— pra"ti 
avasa>  a£,  tfhou  hast  harboured, 
111,1,17 ;— <-sam- vasana£,  d  well- 
ing together,  IV,  6,  8. 

vas,  dwelling  (?) :    vasjKm  raV^nam, 

V,  2,  6*. 

vasatf,  dwelling,  I,  31,  15 ;  66,  9'. 

vasana,  garment,  I,  95,  7. 

vasavya,  wealth,  1 1,  9,  51. 

v6sish/£d,  the  highest  Vasu,  II,  9,  i. 

vdsu,  excellent :  vdsvibhi/>  dhiti-bhi£, 
III,  13,  51 ; — wealth,  treasure, 
goods,  1, 27, 5,&c. ;  vfjva/6  vdsu£ 
(conj.  vfjva  vdsfi),  I,  128,  6s; 
v^svaA  rSfg-ati,  I,  143,  -4  ;  vdsu 
rdtnlf  III,  2,  ii ;  goods,  or 
Vasus,  III,  19,  a2;— see  vasyas. 

Vasu,  ep.  of  Agni,  I,  31,  3 ;  44,  3 ; 
45,  95  60,  4;  79,  5;  127,  i1; 

11,7,  i;  ni,  4,  i*;  15, 3 ;  i», 

2;  19,  3?  ai,5J  IV, 5,  15;  V, 
3,  10 ;  la  ; ,  6fi;  a;  a4,  a  ;  25, 
i :  vasuA  vasflnftm  asi,  1, 94, 1 3 ; 
vfcu£  vdsu-bhi^,  I,  143,  6;— 
pi.,  the  Vasus,  a  class  of  gods,  I, 
45,  x;  58,3;  I43,i;  H.3,41; 
III,  8,8;  19,  a»;  20,  5;  IV, 
ia,  6;  V,  3,8. 


v£su-davan,  giver  of  goods,  II,  6,  4. 
vasu-dhiti,  dispenser  of  goods,   I, 

128,  8. 

vasu-dhiti,  place  of  wealth,  IV,  8,  a1. 
v£su-pati,lordof  wealth,  II,  i,  11 ;  6, 

4J  V,  4,  i. 

vasu-y8,  desire  for  wealth,  I,  97,  a. 
vasu-yu,  desirous  of  goods,  I,  128, 

8;  111,26,  i;  V,  3,6;  25,9. 
vasuvit-tanm,  the  greatest  acquirer 

of  wealth,  I,  45,  7. 
v£su-jravas,  renowned  as  Vasu  (or, 

as  goods),  V,  24,  a. 
v£stu,  daybreak  :  vasto£  ushasa£.  I, 

79,  6- 
vastri,  illuminator :    kshap&n  vastff, 

,      (I,  ',  71)- 

vastra,  clothing,  I,  26,  i. 

vdsman,  cloth,  IV,  13,  4. 

vdsyas,  better  things,  I,  31,  18; — 
bliss,  I,  141,  12  ;  welfare,  II,  i. 
16 ;-— greater  wealth,  II,  9,  2  ;  — 
wealthier,  IV,  2,  20. 

vah,  to  carry:  v£kshi,  (III,  i,  i1) : 
havyjKya  v6/£ave,  I,  45,  6 ;  HI, 
29,  4 ;— abhf  vakshi  vaj' am,  III. 
*5>  5a»~^  vakshati,  may  he 
conduct,  I,  i,  2  ;  £  vakshat,may 
he  carry  hither,  Ifl,  5,  9  ;  a 
vakshi,  bring,  III,  14,  2 ;  A- 
vdhantT,  carrying  (bliss),  IV, 

M,  31. 

vah^t,  stream,  III,  7,  42. 
vahish/Aa,   (horses)  most  ready  to 

drive,  IV,  13,  4;  14,4. 
vahni,  driven  (on  a  chariot) :  vlhni- 

bhiAdevai/^,  1, 44,  i3l ;— carrier 

(of  the  gods),  I,  60,  i ;  1 28,  4" ; 

III,  i,  i  ;  5,  i;  11,  4l;  20,1';— 
carrying:  v£hni£  as^f,  I,  76,  41; 
— horse :  v^hnaya>&,  111,6,  22  ;— 
vahni  and  v8has,  (I,  127,  81). 

v^hni-tama,best  carrier  (of  the  gods); 

IV,  i,  4. 

vt,  to  blow :  vgitaA  £nu  vati,  I,  148, 
4  ;— dva  vati,  he  blazes  down,  I, 

58,5- 

vl:  vivisasi,  thou  winnest,  I,  74,  9 ; 
— a-vivasati,  (who)  invites,  1, 12, 
9 ;  58,  i ;  a-vivasasi,  thou  in- 
vitest,  I,  31,  52;— £  vivasanti, 
they  seek  to  win,  IV,  11,  5. 

va*,  to  weave :  sawvayanti  iti  sam- 
vlyantr,  II,  3,  6. 

vaghdt,  worshipper,  I,  31,  14;  36, 
1 J2J  58,  7  ;  IV,  2, 13  ;  invoking 


470 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


Ill,  a,  i ;  3,  8;  8,  10;  sacri- 
ficer,  III,  3,  4- 

v&,  word,  I,  79,  *o. 

va>a,  strength,  I,  27,  81,*;  n  ;  77, 
5  ;  II,  i,  iol;  12  ;  a,  7;  4,  8; 
6,5;  III,  10,6;  n,  9;  19,  i; 
22,  i  ;  25,  2;  3;  27,1;  ii ;  29, 
9;  va>asya  pati£,  I,  145,  i  ;— 
deed  of  strength,  HI,  12,  9  ; 
—booty,  I,  27,  5,  &c. ;— prize, 
gain,  III,  2,  31;  4,  &c.;  abhf 
vakshi  va^am,  III,  15,  5*  ; — 
race  (striving  for  gain,  contest 
for  booty),  I,  27,  71  J  91  J  3** 
2;  III,  27,  7;  V,  23,1. 

Va>a,  pi.,  the  Va^as,  III,  26,4'. 

va#a-£a/£ara,  with  booty  in  its  belly, 
V,  19,  4. 

vifea-pati,  lord  of  booty,  IV,  15,  3. 

vifca-prasfita,  bent  on  the  prize,  I, 

77,  4a- 

vagam-bhara",  winning  the  prize,  I, 
60,  5  ;  winning  booty,  IV,  1 1,  4. 

va^ay,  to  run  a  race :  vagaydn-iva, 
II,  8,  i1  ;— to  further  strength  : 
va^dyanti  fti,  III,  14,  31 ;— to 
drive  forward:  va^ayate,  IV, 
7, 1 1 ;— to  strive  for  gain :  va^a- 
y*nti,  V,  i,  3  ;  v&a-ya'nta*,  V, 

4,  i. 
va^a-yu,  bent  on  victory,  V,  10,  5  ;— 

eager  for  the  race,  V,  19,  3. 
v8^a-vat,  bestowing  strength,  I,  31, 

18. 
vaVa-jravas,  renowned  for  strength, 

111,2,5. 
va^a-Siitama,  highest  winner  of  booty, 

1,78,  3J  HI,  12,4;  V,  13,  5; 

20,  I1. 

vt(ga-sati,  winning  of  the  prize,  III, 
2,  71. 

va.g-in,  strong,  II,  2,  n  ;  111,6,  i  ; — 
the  strong  horse,  racer,  I,  66, 
41,  &c.;  H,  5,  i4;  III,  27,  3l  J 
ajva/f>  nd  vag-i,  III,  29,  6. 

v%ina,  strength,  III,  20,  2. 

v&tfi,  sound  :  sapta  vifoiA,  III,  i,  61 ; 

7,  i1. 
vffta,  wind,  I,  79,  i ;  148,  4  ;  IV,  7, 

10 ;  ii  ;  vtKtai^  arvwate,  II,  i, 

6;  v&asya  pathyabhi/>,  III,  14, 

3  ;  v&asya  saYga£,  III,  29,  n2 ; 

v£tasya  pdtman,  V,  5,  7 ;  Vata, 

the  god,  IV,  3,  6. 
v&a-todita,  stirred  by  the  wind,  I, 

58,4;  141,7. 


stirred  or  driven  by  the 
wind,  I,  58,  4  ;  65,  8  ;  94,  10  ; 

140,  4- 
vama,  happy,  I,  141,  12; — pleasant 

(wealth),  IV,  5,  13. 
VSyu,  the  god,  I,  142,  I21;— vayu, 

wind,  V,  19,  5. 
vaY,  water,  II,  4,  6  ;  usrfya«am  va^- 

iva,  IV,  5,  8. 

vaYa,  treasure,  I,  128,  6;  V,  16,  2. 
vara,  tail,  II,  4,  4. 
vara/jd,  stubborn,  I,  140,  2. 
vaYa-vat,  long-tailed,  I,  27,  i. 
varya,  excellent  wealth,  treasure,  I, 

26,8;  111,8,7;  V,  16,  s1;  17, 

5  ;    desirable  boon,  I,  58,   3  ; 

III,  21,2  ;  V,  23,  3  ;  best  gifts, 
I,  149,5;  HI,  "i  9- 

vaj,  to  roar,  low:  avajaya>&,  1,  31, 
41;  vavajanDLfc,  1, 73, 6 ;  vavajire, 

11,2,2. 

vsbra*,  lowing,  I,  95,  6. 

vdlhas,  vehicle,   (I,    127,   81) ;    III, 

ii,  7l- 

vahish//&a,  which  may  best  bring,  V, 

25,  7- 

vi,  to  weave.    See  va. 
vf,  bird:  ve>  fti  ve*£,  I,  72,  91 ;  96, 

62;  III,  5,  51;  6;  III,  7,  7l; 

IV,  s,  8*;    vaya>&,   I,   141,  8; 
vayya-iva?  II,  3,  61. 

vf,  away  from,  I,  150,  2. 
vf-adhvan,  straying  everywhere,  I, 

141,7. 

vi-ush,  the  break  ot  dawn,  V,  3,  8. 
vf-ush/i,  dawning  :  vi-ush/ishu,  I,  44, 

3;  4  ;  8;  III,  20,  i  ;  ush£sa£ 

vi-ush/au,  at  the  break  of  dawn, 

III,  15,  2  ;  IV,  i,  5;  14,4. 
vf-oman,  heaven  :  parame  vi-omani, 

I,  143,  2  ;  V,  15,  2. 
vi-gaha,  divert  III,  3,  5. 
vi->taksna»a,  far-seeing,  III,  3,  10. 
vf-£arsha;zi,     dwelling    among    all 

tribes,  1,31,6*;  78,1;  79, 12; 

111,2,8;  n,  i. 
vi-^etas,  wise,  I,  45,  2;  II,  10,  i; 

2  J  IV,  5,  2  ;  7,  3- 
\\g :  vevi^e"  fti,  they  are  affrighted, 

I,  140,3. 
vi^a-van,  continuing  our  race :  stinu£ 

tdnaya£  vi^-va,  III,  i,  23. 
vid,  to  find :   ve*vidana£,  acquiring 

^or, exploring?),  1, 72, 4 ;  avidan 

(conj.  dvidan),  I,  72,  6l. 
vid,  to  know :  y£tha  vide,  as  it  is 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


471 


known,  I,  127,  4;  vidvftn, 
knowing  (with  gen.  and  ace.), 
V,  i,  nl;-~pdriveda,  I,3i,5l; 
— vf  vidvan,  distinguishing,  I, 

189,  7- 

vfd,  knowledge:  vid#,  I,  31,  18. 

vidatha,  sacrifice,  I,  31,  62;  60,  i2; 
143,  7;  III,  i,  i2;  18;  3,  3; 
4,5;  8,  5;  14,  i1;  27,  72;  IV, 
6,  2  ;  tr/tfye  viddthe,  II,  4,  81 ; 
— vidatha,  sacrificial  ordinances, 
III,  i,  23 ;  26,  62; — sacrificial 
distribution,  III,  28,  4;  vidd- 
theshu  dhnam,  V,  3,  61  ;— 
assembly,  II,  i,  43;  i62. 

vidathya,  influential  in  council,  (I, 
31,  6'). 

vidfi£-tara£,  the  greatest  sage,  I,  31, 

M;  n,  3,7. 

vidus,  possessed  of  knowledge,  I,  71, 
io1. 

vidman£-apas,  active  in  wisdom,  I, 
31,  i1. 

vi-dyut,lightnin£,III,i,i4;  V,ro,  5. 

vidyfit-ratha,  whose  chariot  is  light- 
ning, III,  14,  i. 

vidh,  to  worship :  vidhema,  I,  36, 
2;  vidhatd£,  I,  73,  i,  &c. 

vidh,  vyadh,  to  pierce,  to  shoot: 
vidiiya,  IV,  4,  i. 

Vidhartr/,  he  who  keeps  asunder 
all  things,  II,  i,  3*. 

vf-dharman,  sphere,  III,  2,  3  ;— dis- 
poser, V,  17,  21,8.  • 

vip,  to  tremble  :  prd  vepayanti,  they 
make  tremble,  HI,  26,  4. 

vfp,  prayer,  III,   3,   i1;   7;  vip&n 
y6tiwshi,  III,  io,  5. 

,  knowing  prayers,  III,  3, 
41 ;  26,  9;  27,  2. 

vipanyft :  vipnnydya,  in  thy  admirable 
way,  III,  28,  5;  vipanyjK,  won- 
derfully, IV,  i,  12. 

vipanyu,  full  of  admiring  praise,  III, 
io,  9. 

vfpra,  priest,   I,  27,  9,  &c. ;  saptd 

vfpraAIII,7,7;  IV,  2,  is1, 
vi-bhaktri,   distributor:    vi-bhakta', 

I,  27,  6. 

vi-bh&tf,  resplendent,  III,  6,  7. 
vibh&-van,  resplendent,  I,  58, 9  ;  59, 

7J    66,    2;    69,  9;     148,   i; 

4;  111,3,9?  IV,  1,8;  12;  V, 

I,  9;  4,  2. 

vibha-vasu,  rich  in  splendour,  I,  44, 
io ;  111,2,2;  V,  25,  2;  71. 


vi-bh6,  mighty,  I,  31,  2;   141,  9; 

III,  6,  95  V,  4,  2;  5,  9;  vi- 
bhv&  (d6ra£),  I,  188,  51;— far- 
extending,  1,65,10 ; — spreading, 

IV,  7,  i. 

vf-bhr/tra,  widely-spread,  I,  71,  3- ; 

95,  2  ;  wide-ranging,  II,  io,  2. 
vf-bhrash/i,  shine,  I,  127,  i. 
vibhva-sdh,     overpowering     skilful 

men,  V,  io,  7. 

vi-mtfaa,  measure,  III,  3,  42. 
vf-yuta?  IV,  7,7'. 
vi-ra#,  Prince,  I,  188,  5. 
virukmat,  shining,  I,  127,  3. 
vf-rflpa,  of  different  shapes  or  forms, 

4,  6  ;  —of  different  colour,  V,  i, 

41- 

Vfrfipa  :  virfipa-vdt,  I,  45,  3. 

vi-rokd,  the  bursting  forth  :  ushlsa£ 
vi-roke*,  III,  5,  2. 

vivdsvat,  irradiating:  vivasvat  (conj. 
vivdsvan),  I,  44,  i1;  vivasvati 
Jdkshasa,  I,  96,  23. 

Vivdsvat,  N.  pr.,  I,  31,  3;  58,  i1,1; 
^IV,7,4;  V,ii,3a. 

vivdsvan,  the  shining  forth :  vivasvat 
(conj.  vivdsvan)  ushdsaA,  at  the 
rising  of  the  dawn,  1. 44,  i1. 

vfvLH,  separating,  V,  8,  3\ 

vis,  house,  clan,  tribe :  vije"-vijc,  I, 
27,  io2,  &c.  ;  vi/Sm  nd  vfjva£, 
I,  70,  4>2 ;  m^nushi  vf/,  I,  72, 8  ; 
rtfca  \\Am,  II,  2,  8;  vi&rn 
kavim  vijpatim,  III,  2,  io; 
pura^-eta7  vijSm  mSnushiwam, 
III,  n,  5  ;  vija£  mdrtan,  IV,  2, 
3s;  vijd/j  dtithi/j,  V,  18,  i ;  de- 
vasa/j  sarvaya  vija,  the  gods 
with  all  their  folk,  V,  26,  9. 

vi-jfkshu,  a  hewer,  II,  i,  ioj. 

vbpdti,  lord  of  the  clans,  I,  12,  2; 
26,  7;  27,  12;  31,  ii ;  60,  2; 
128,7;  H,  1,8;  III,2,io;  3, 
8;  13,5;  v,  4, 3;  6,5. 

vijpdtni,  housewife,  III,  29,  i*. 

vijpiK,  lord  of  clans,  (I,  70,  4"). 

vi'jva,  every  one :  vijam  nd  vfjva^ 
I,  70,  42;  vfjvam  iddm,  this 
whole  world,  I,  98,  i ;  vfjve 
dev&>,  II,  3,  4!;  V,  3,  i;  26,4; 
vfjvam  ft  vidu^,  III,  29,  15*. 

vijvd-apsu?  I,  148,  ia. 

vijvd-iyu,  having  a  full  life,  or,  in 
whom  all  life  dwells,  I,  27,  3  ; 
67,6;  io; 


472 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


(conj.  vijv£4yo£),  I,  68, 


vuvd-lyus,    adv.,    eternally  (?),    (I, 

68,  5'). 
virvd-kr/sh/i,    extending    over    all 

dominions,  I,  59,  7  ;  belonging 

to  all  races  of  men,  III,  26,  5. 
vifvd-£arsha;ii,  dwelling  among  all 

tribes,  I,  27,  9*;  III,  2,  15;  V, 

6,35  14,6;  23,4. 
vLrva-#anya,  encompassing  all  people, 

111,25,3. 
vijvata£-mukha,  whose  face  is  turned 

everywhere,  I,  97,  6  ;  7. 
vbvd-ttirti,  all-victorious,  II,  3,  8. 
vjjvd-tht,  everywhere,  I,  141,  9. 
vijvd-darrata,  visible  to  all,  I,  44, 

10  ;  146,5;  V,8,  3. 
vbvd-deva,    accompanied    by    the 

Vbve  deva£,  I,  142,  la. 
vuvd-devya,  belonging  to  all  gods,  I, 

148,  i  ;  united  with  all  the  gods, 

111,2,5. 
vLrvddha,    everywhere,    I,    141,   6  ; 

always,  V,  8,  4. 
vijvd-dhayas,   possessing  every  re- 

freshment, I,  73,  3  ;  V,  8,  i. 
vijvd-bharas,  supporter  of  every  thing, 

IV,  i,  19'. 

vijvd-bhanu,  all-brilliant,  IV,  i,  3. 
vuvam-invd,  all-embracing,  I,  76,  2  ; 

—  all-enlivener,  III,  20,  3. 
vinrd-rfipa,  all-shaped,    I,    13,   10; 

assuming  every  shape,  III,  i,  7. 
vLrvd-vaYa,  rich  in  all  boons,  III,  4, 

3;  giver  of  all  treasures,  III, 

17,  i  ;  with  all  goods,  V,  4,  7  ; 

rich  in  all  treasures,  V,  28,  i. 
vijva-vfd,  all-knowing,  III,  19,  i  ;  — 

omniscient,  III,  29,  7  ;  V,  4,  3. 
vuvd-vedas,  all-possessor,  possessor 

of  all  wealth,  I,  12,  r  ;  36,  3; 

44,  7;  128,  8;  143,  4;  147,  3; 

III,  20,  4;  25,  i;  26,  4;  IV, 

8,  i. 
vuvd-jrush/i,    always    listening,    I, 

128,  • 

Vir  va-saman,  *V,  22,  i. 
VLrv&nitra,  pi.,  the  Vijyamitras,  III, 

i,ai  ;  18,  4. 
virvjtyu-poshas,  lasting  all  our  life, 

f  l>  79,  9a- 

virvrfhi,  day  by  day,  HI,  16,  a. 
vish,  to  accomplish:  viviV^i,  I,  27, 

10  ;    vgvishat,    busy,    III,    2, 

10, 


vfshuwa,  manifold,  IV,  6, 6;— turning 

oneself  from  one,  V,  12,  5'. 
vfshur-rtipa,  in  manifold  shapes,  V, 

15,  4- 
vish/d?  I,  148,  i1. 

Vfshmi,II,i,3;  IV,  3,  7;  V,3,  3. 

vishpir,  descrier  :  visiipd/,  1, 189,  61. 

vfshvak,  in  all  directions,  I,  36,  16; 
IV,  4,  2. 

vi-slrd,  expanse,  I,  79.  i1. 

vi-st(r,  laid  out :  vi-stira£,  I,  140, 71. 

vi-havd,  the  emulating  call,  III,  8, 10. 

vf-hiyas,  far-reaching,  I,  128,  61 ; 
whose  energy  expands  round- 
about, IV,  u,  41. 

vi,  to  accomplish,  pursue,  perform 
eagerly:  viv££  rdpawsi  (rather 
viver  apawsi),  I,  69,  8* ;  v6shi 
(hotrdm),  I,  76,  4;  ve*£,  11,5, 
32 ;  IV,  -7,  8  ; — to  come  or 
approach  eagerly,  to  move : 
v&hi,  I,  74,  4;  189,  7;  IV,  9, 
5;  6;  vc^ he  repairs,  I,  77,  2; 

IV,  7,  7;  vetu,  1,77,4;  ve*ti,  I, 
141,  6;  vitAye,  that  they  may 
eagerly  come  or  partake,  I,  74, 
6;    II,  a,  62;  see  also  vitf;— 
vihf,  accept  eagerly,  III,  28,  3 ; 
— vydnta^,  tending  to,  I,  127, 
5  ;  vyantu,  may  they   eagerly 
seek,  III,  8,  7;  vmf  mr/7ika*m, 
love  mercy,  IV,  1,5;  miK  ve£, 
reauirenot,IV,  3,13;— 8  dfityam 
vivaya,  he  has  undertaken  the 
messengership,  I,  71,  48;— upa 
vetu,  may  he  come,  V,  n,  4  ; 
— prd-vita,    having   conceived, 
III,  29,  3  ; — priti  vihi,  accept 
eagerly,  III,  21,  5.    ' 

vi,  to  envelop.  See  vya*. 
vY,  eager  :  vfo,  I,  143,  6. 
vi/6,  strong,  safe,  I,  127,  3  ;  5  ;  IV, 

3,  14;— fortress,  I,  71,  2. 
vi/u-^ambha,  with  strong  jaws,  III, 

29, 13- 

vitd,  straight,  IV,  a,  11. 
vitf,  (sacrificial)  feast :  vftdye,  1, 13, 

a;  74,4;  143,13;  III,i3,4; 

V,  26,  a. 

vitf-hotra,  offerer  of  a  feast  (to  the 
gods),  III,  24,  a ;  V,  a6,  3. 

vird,  hero,  a  manly  son,  I,  73,  3,  &c. 

vird-pejas,  adorned  with  heroes,  IV, 
n,  3l- 

vird-vat,  with  valiant  heroes,  I,  la, 
ii ;  96,8;  111,24,5;  V,4,ii. 


INDEX   OF  WORDS. 


473 


vfrivat-tama,  high  bliss  of  valiant 
offspring,  I,  ip  3. 
,  plant,  I,  67,  9  ;  141,  4  ;  ga>- 


,  - 

m,  II,  i,  14. 
vh-ya,  mighty  deed,  III,  12,  9;  — 

heroic  power,  III,  25,  2. 
vri,  to  choose:  vrrnimahe,  I,  12,  i, 
Ac.  ;  wrote1,  he  demands,  1,  67, 
i;  —  uiin&fr,  choosing,  III,  19, 
a  ;  IV,  6,  3  ;  chosen,  IV,  6,  4  ; 

7|  8-  r 

vri;  to  hold  back,  hinder  :  varate,  I, 
65,  6  ;  vdranta,  IV,  6,  6  ;  ivari, 
IV,  6  ,7;-apayridhi,open,II, 
a,  7  ;  apa  avar  Ity  avaA,  he  has 
opened,  III,  5,  i  ;  apa  vrin,  they 
have  uncovered,  IV,  5,  8  ;  &pa 
vran,  they  disclosed,  IV,  a,  16  ; 
—  kffmam  i-v&rat,  would  he 
fulfil  our  desire,  I,  143,  6;— 
pfri-vrita,  hidden,  I,  144,  2; 


vrikti-barhis,  having  spread  the  sacri- 
ficial grass,  I,  12,3*;  III,  a,  5  ; 
6  ;  V,  23,  3  ;—  where  they  spread 
sacrificial  grass,  V.  9,  a. 
ana,  settlement,  I,  60,  3*;  73, 
a1;  II,  a,  f';  9  ;—  enclosure,  I, 
118,  7  ;—  masc.  ?  I,  189,  8*. 

vrjgina1,  wrong,  dishonest,  IV,  i,  17  ; 

V,  3i  i'J  «i5- 

vn^-ini-vartani,  following  crooked 
ways,  I,  31,  6V- 

vri#gtto  trim  :  vriflfgl,  1,  143,  5';  — 
to  turn  ;  vrmikti,  IV,  7,  10  ;  —  % 
vrikshi,  may  I  draw  on  myself, 
(I,  «7,  i3');-pari  vriiiakti,  he 
spares,  III,  29,  6. 

vritri,  foe,  I,  36,  81. 

vjrtra-hitha,  the  killing  of  foes,  III, 
16,  i. 

vritra-hdn,  slayer  of  foes  or  of 
Vritra,  I,  59,  61  ;  74,3;  H,  i, 
u  ;  III,  i  a,  4';  20,4". 

vritnhan-tama,  the  greatest  de- 
stroyer of  enemies  (or  of 
Vritra),  I,  78,  4- 

vritha,  lightly,  I,  58,  ^-wildly,  I, 
MO,  5- 

vriddhJ-jutis,  mightily  brilliant,  V, 
16,3. 

vridh,  to  increase,  grow,  &c.  :  vlr- 
dhamSnam,  increasing,  1,  i,  8, 
ftc.  ;  vavridhasva,  be  magnified, 
I,  31,  18;  vridh^,  for  welfare, 
prosperity,  III,  3f  8;  6,10;  IV, 


a,  18;  vriddhi,  grown  full  of, 
V,  20,  a1; — vfrdhanti,  they 
nourish,  I,  65,  4;— vardhaya1- 
masi,  we  extol,  I,  36,  1 1 ;  var- 
dhaya  gfraA,  make  prosper,  111, 
29,  10; — vi  vavrvdhe  (conj.  \i- 
vavridhe*),  I,  141,  5*. 

vridh,  furtherer,  III,  16,  2*. 

vridhd,  helper,  furtherer,  (III,  16, 
2");  IV,  2,  10. 

vr/'dhasand,  growing  :  vridh asan&sii, 
In  the  growing  (plants),  II,  2,  5'. 

vr/dna-snu,  mighty,  IV,  2,  31. 

vrishan  manly,  bull,  1,36,  82.;  lo1, 
ftcV;  III,  29, 9l ;  ritisya  vrishne, 
V,  la,  z1;  anishfisya  vrtshnafo, 
V,  12,  2». 

Vrishan,  N.  pr.,  I,  36,  to1. 

vrishabhi,  bull  (Agni),  I,  31,  5,  &c. ; 

1,  141,  a";  IV,  i,  ii1;  ia";  V, 

2,  I21;  krishna^  vrishabha/&,  I, 
79,  aa. 

vrishay !  vr/sha-y£se,  thou  rushest  on 
(ace.)  like  a  bull,  I,  58,  43J- 
vrisha-yinte,  they  are  full  of 
(sexual)  desire,  III,  7,  9. 

vrish/i,  rain,  II,  5,  6;  6,5. 

vedas,  property,  I,  70,  10 ;  99,  i  ; 
V,  a,  12. 

vedi,  sacrificial  altar :  vedi  fti  asySm, 
II,  3,  4. 

vedi-s^d,  sitting  on  the  sacrificial 
bed,  I,  140,  i. 

ve*dya,  well  known  :  ra'tham-iva  ved- 
yam,  II,  2,  3* ;— renowned,  V, 
15,  i. 

vedha/p-tama,  best   worshipper,   I, 

75,  a- 

vedhas,  worshipper,  1, 60,  a  ;  65, 10 ; 
69,3;  72,  i1;  73,  10;  III,  10, 
5;  14,  i  ;  IV,  a,  15;  20;  3, 
3;  16;  6,  i ;— helpful,  I,  128, 
4  (bis). 

vlpas,  trembling,  IV,  1 1,  a. 

vej4,vassal?IV,  3,  13. 

veshana,  officiating,  V,  7,  5. 

Vaijvanara,  I,  59,  i-7  }  9»,  »~3 
HI,  a,  i  ;  n  ;  12;  3,  i ;  5 
10 ;  ii ;  26,1-3;  IV,  5,  i;  a 
V,27,  i1;  2. 

v6/£ri,  draught-horse,  I,  144,  3. 

vyfrasvat,  far-embracing,  II,  3,  5. 

vya>ish/Aa,most  capacious,  II,  10,  4. 

vyathis,  track,  IV,  4f  3- 

vyadh,  see  vidh. 

vyft  (vi),  to  envelop :  ava-vyiyan,  re- 


474 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


moving,  IV,  13,  4; — &  vitdm, 
enveloped,  IV,  7,  61;— pari- 
vfta,  dressed  (in  offerings  and 
prayers?),  IV,  3,  22. 

vy6man,  see  vi-oman. 

vraj>,  to  go:  vavra^a,  III,  i,  6; — 
abhi-vra^an,  proceeding,  I,  58, 
52 ;  abhivrdg-at-bhi/6,  approach- 
ing, I,  i44,  53. 

vra^d,  stable,  IV,  i,  15  ;  V,  6,  7. 

vrat£,  law,  I,  31,  i ;  2;  12;  65,  3; 
69,  75  II,  8,  3?  HI,  3,  9J  4, 
7J  6,5;  7,7;  IV,  13,  2;  vrata 
dhruv8,  I,  36,  5l;  II,  5,  4; 
daivyani  vratlK,  I,  70,  2 ;— a*nu 
vratim,  according  to  his  will,  I, 
128,  i ;— duty,  I,  144,1. 

vrata-pjS(,  guardian  of  the  law,  I,  31, 
10 ;  111,4,7;  V,  2,  8s. 

vraj£ :  ma^yiKy asaA  jdwsam  3  vr/kshi, 
may  I  not  fall  as  a  victim  to  the 
curse  of  my  better,  I,  27,  i32 ; 
vr/k»2isa^,  hewn,  III,  8,  7. 

vr£,  host,  IV,  i,  i62. 

vr£ta,  host:  vnitam-vratam,  III, 
26,  6. 

vradh :  vradhanta,they  have  boasted, 
V,  6,  7. 

vrKdhan-tama,  most  powerful,  I, 
'50,  3- 

vrfj,  finger:  da*ja  vnja£,  I,  144,  s1. 

jaws,  to  recite :  djawsan,  I,  67,  4 ; 
mdnnu  ja*zsi,  II,  4,  8  ; — to 
teach:  ritdm  jdwsanta^,  III, 

4,  7- 

ja^sa,  curse,  I,  27,  i32;  94,  8;  III, 
1 8,  2  ;  jdwsat  agha%  from  evil 
spell,  I,  128,5  ;— praise,  I,  141, 
6*  ;  ii  ;  jdwse  nr/mfrn,  III,  16, 
4;  ubhdt  jdwsa*,  IV,  4,  141 ; 
jdwsam  ay6>6,  IV,  6, 1 12;  V,3,42. 

jak,  to  be  able:  jaknavama,  I,  27, 
13  ;  jakema  yamam,  1, 73,  10' ; 
II,  5,  i4;  III,  27,  3;  jakema 
sam-idham,  I,  94,  3  ; — to  help 
to:  jagdhi  (with  gen.),  II,  2, 
12 ;  III,  1 6, 6 ;  jagdhi  svastdye, 

V,  17,  5- 

jdkti,  skill:  jdkti,  I,  31,  18. 

jagma*,  mighty,  I,  143,  8. 

ja^i-vat,  full  ot  power,  III,  21,  4. 

jata,  hundred :  jat^i  ^a  vimjatnn  /^a, 
V,  27,  a1. 

jata*-atman,  endowed  \\ith  hundred- 
fold life,  I,  149,  3. 


jutadiivan,  giver  of  a  hundred  (bulls), 
V,  27,  6. 

jati-dhara,  with  a  hundred  rills,  III, 
26,9. 

jatd-valja,  with  a  hundred  branches, 
111,8,  ii. 

jata-se"ya,  attainment  of  hundred- 
fold blessings,  III,  18,  3. 

jatd-hima,  living  a  hundred  winters, 

II,  i,  ii. 

jatd-hima,  pi.,  a  hundred  winters,  I, 

jatfn,  hundredfold,  I,  31,  10 ;  II,  2, 
9  ;  jatmibhi/6,  \\  ith  his  hundred- 
fold blessings,  I,  59,  7. 

jdtru,  enemy :  jdtrum  a-dabhuA,  III, 
1 6,  2*. 

jatru-ya*t,  being  at  enmity,  V,  4,  5  ; 
28,3. 

jad,  to  be  glorious  :  jajadre",  1, 141,9. 

japha",  hoof,  V,  6,  7. 

jam,  to  toil  (esp.  in  performing 
worship) :  jaja,mand,  who  has 
toiled  hard,  I,  141, 10  ;  142, 2  ; 

III,  18,    4;    IV,   2,   9;    13; 
ajamishf/6a£,  HI,  29,  16;  aja- 
mish/a,  he  toiled,  V,  2,  7. 

ja*m,  bliss,  luck  :  /am  >6/>,  with  luck 
and  weal,  1, 189,  2  ;  III,  17,  3  ; 
18,4  ;  IV,  12,  5  ;  jam  nth  jo£a, 
III,i3,6;  jamkr/dhi,  IV,  i,  3  ; 
jdm  dsti,  he  satisfies,  V,  7,  9; 
jdm  hr/d6,  V,  ii,  5. 

jamay,  to  toil:  jam-ay^,  III,  i,  i. 
i,    toiling,    (sacrificial)    work : 
jdmya,  II,  i,  91 ;  jdmyai  (read 


jamitri,  the  sacrificial  butcher,  or 

slaughterer,  (I,  13,  i2l) ;  II,  3, 

10;  111,4,  10. 
jam-gayd,  bringing  happiness  to  our 

home,  II,  i,  6. 
jdm-tama,  mobt  agreeable,  beneficial, 

blissful,  I,  76,  i1;  77,  2;  128, 

7J  111,13,4. 
•Sdmbara,  I,  59,  6. 
jam-bhu,  refreshing,  1, 65, 5 ;  bringing 

luck,  III,  17,  5. 
jayfi,  reposing,  I,  31,  2. 
jard«i,  fault  (?),  I,  31,  i6J. 
jardd,  autumn :  tisrd£  jardda£,  I, 

72,  3- 

jdru,  weapon,  IV,  3,  7. 
jdrdha,  host,  I,7i  8to;  IV,  i,  i21,§; 

jdrdhava  maratam,  IV,  3,  8. 
jdrdhas,  host :  jdrdha/^  mKrutam,  I, 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


475 


127,  6;    II,   i,  6;   IV,  6,  10; 

marutam  jardha£,    II,    3,    3; 

narffm  jardha£,  1 1,  i,  5* ;  jardha£ 

divyam,  III,   19,  4; — jardha/r, 

m.  or  n.?  IV,  i,  la1,8- 
jarman,  shelter,  protection,  1,58,  8, 

&c. ;  jarmaai  syam,  III,  15,  i ; 

a^ybidra  j*rma,  III,  15,  5l. 
sarma-sad,  sitting  under  shelter,  I, 

73,3- 

jarya,  arrow,  I,  148,  4. 

javas,  strength,  might,  power :  jdvasa 
(conj.  javasaA),  I,  27,  a1,  &c.; 
javasa/;  jushmi»a£  pati£,  I,  145, 
i  ;  javasa£  pate,  V,  6,  9. 

javishfAa,  most  powerful,  I,  77,  4 ; 
mightiest,  I,  127,  n. 

jlrvat :  jlrvata  tana,  constantly,  I, 
26,  61 ;  jijvati^,  constant,  1,  27, 
7  ;  ^anaya  j&vate,  all  people,  I, 
36, 19 ;  j'ajvata£,  many,  1, 72,  i1. 

jajvat-tamam,  for  ever,  III,  i,  23. 

jasti,  hymn,  praise,  IV,  3,  3;  15. 

ja,  to  sharpen,  further  :  ji/ihi,  III, 
1 6,  31;  24,  J1;  jfjite,  V,  2,  9; 
9,  5  ;— ati  ji'jite,  I,  36,  16  ;— ni- 
jfshat,  he  stirs  up,  IV,  a,  7l. 

jaka",  powerful,  V,  15,  a1. 

Sata-vaneya*,  N.  pr.,  I,  59,  7. 

jas,  to  teach,  instruct :  jajSsu^,  III, 
i,  a;  IV,  2,  12; — anu-jishfa, 
instructed,  V,  2,  8  ; — pra*  jassi, 
thou  instructest,  I,  31, 14  ;  pra- 
jtKsat,  commanding,  I,  95,  3. 

jas,  command,  I,  68,  9. 

jtKsana,  command,  III,  7,  5. 

jalsani,  teacher,  I,  31,  n. 

jKsus,  command,  instruction,  I,  60, 

a;  73»  i. 

jasya,  governable,  I,  189,  7*. 

jik  van,  plur.,  locks  of  flames,  I,  i4i,81. 

jiksh,  to  help  one  to,  to  iavuur  with 
a  thing  (gen.) :  jfksha,  I,  27, 
5;  III,  19,  3  ;  ya7>  te  jfkshat, 
who  does  service  to  thee,  I, 
68,  6l. 

jikshu,  rich  in  favours:  jiksh6/^ 
(conj.  jiksho),  III,  19,  jl. 

jiti-pr/sh/M,  white-backed,  III,  7,  i1. 

jfmt-vat,  powerful  (?),  I,  141,  13'. 

jfriwa?  II,  10,  33. 

jiva*,  kind,  bounteous,  gracious, 
blessed:  I,  31, Ni;  79,  2;  143, 
8;  III,  i,  9;  19;  IV,  10,  8; 
n,  6;  V,  24,  i. 

jfju,  the  young  one :  paju£ 


like  a  pregnant  cow,  (I,  65,  iol) ; 
young  calf,  1, 96, 5* ;  the  young 
child  (Agni),  I,  140,  3;  145,  3; 
V,  9,  3;  a  foal, III,  1,4;  diva* 
jfjum,  (Soma)  the  child  of 
heaven,  IV,  15,  62. 

jfju-matf,  the  mother  of  the  young 
child,  I,  140,  jo1. 

jfjvan  (?),  young  :  pajfi£  nd  jfjvi,  I, 
65,  lo1. 

jir^,  sharp,  III,  9,  8. 

jukrd,  bright,  1, 12, 12,  &c.; — bright- 
ness: jukrg  vasana^,  III,  8,  9. 

jukra-varna,  whose  colour  is  bright, 
I,  140,  i  ;  143,  7. 

jukra-jo>Hs,  brightly  shining,  II,  2, 3. 

ju£,to  shine  forth, flame  up :  j6£asva, 

1,  36,  9 ;  jujukvaX  flaming,  I, 
69,    i ;    ju^ayanta/>,    the    re- 
splendent ones,  1, 147,  i  ;  juju- 
Mn^,  I,  149,  4 ;  j£m  nab  jo^a, 
III,  13,  6;  ajoJat,  III,  29,  14; 
ju*adhyai,IV,  a,  i1;— to  kindle: 
ju^anta^  agnfm,  IV,  2,  17; — 
apa  na/>  j6ju^at  agham,  driving 
away  evil  with  thy  light,  I,  97, 
1-8  ; — jiuugdhf  #  rayim,  shine 
upon  us  with  wealth,  I,  97,  i ; — 
vf  j6su£ana£,  flaming,  HI,  15,  i. 

ju£,  flash  :  ju/^a^juH,  flash  by  flash, 
III,  4,  i. 

ju£i,  brilliant,  bright,  I,  31,  17,  &c. ; 
V,  7,  81 ;  ju^im  Ju/^aya/6,  I,  73, 
31;  ju/ti  ft  (for  ju*im  ft?),  IV, 

2,  i62. 

ju/ti-^anman,  whose  birth  is  bright, 

I,  141,  7. 

ju^i-^ihva,  pure-tongued,  II,  9,  i. 
juX'i-dant,  with  brilliant  teeth,  V,  7,7. 
ju>fri-pe>as,  brightly  adorned,  1, 144,  i. 
jMi-pratika,  whose  face  is  bright,  I, 

143,  6. 
ju^i-bhra^as,  brightly  resplendent,  I, 

79»  i. 

j&H-varwa,  brilliant-coloured,  V,  2,3. 
SunaA-je'pa,  V,  2,  7. 
jun£m,  prosperously,  IV,  3,  1 1. 
jubh,to  adorn,  beautify :  jumbhanti, 

V,  10,  41;  22,  4. 
jubh,  a  triumphal  procession,  I,  127, 

6;  III,a6,4:f. 
jubham-y2(,  going  in  triumph,  IV, 

3,6*. 

jubhra,  beautiful,  III,  26,  2. 
jurudh,  gift,  I,  72,  72. 
jush,  see  jvas. 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


jflshka,  dry  (wood),  I,  68,  3. 
jfishma,  roaring,  iy,  10,  4  ; — power, 

V,  10,  4;  16,  3. 
jushmm,  mighty,  powerful,  I,  145, 

i  ;  III,  16,  3;  V,  10,  4. 
jushmfn-tama,  strongest,  I,  127,  9. 
jflfra,  mighty,  I,  70,  u  ;— hero,  IV, 

3,  15. 
jdira-sati,  strife  of  heroes :  jtfra-sSta, 

I,3i,6. 

jfisha,  song  of  praise,  III,  7,  6. 
jr/nga,  horn,  III,  8,  10;  V,  2,  9. 
jr/ngfn,  horned  animal,  III,  8,  10. 
jr/dh  :  jardha,  show  thy  prowess,  V, 

28,3. 
je"va,  a  kind  friend,  I,  58,  6  ;  69,  4  ; 

73,  2  ;—friendship,  III,  7,  5. 
j^-vr/dha,  joy-furthering,  III,  16,  2. 
jesha,  offspring,  V,  12,  6. 
j6ka,  flame,  IV,  6,  5. 

a,  whose  hair  is  flame,  I, 

45,  6;  127,  2;  III,  14,  i;  17, 

i  ;  27,  4  ;  V,  8,  2. 

sh//6a,  brightest,  V,  24,  4. 
jo£ishmat,  flaming,  II,  4,  7. 
jo&'s,  splendour,  flame,  1, 12,  12,  &c. 
j>$ut,  to  drip  down  :  j/k>tanti,  III,  i, 

8;  21,  2;  4;  5. 
.rya'va,  dark:  jyaVim  (conj.  jy8vl&?), 

I,  71,  ia;  jyav8,  the  two  tawny 

horses,  II,  10,  2. 
jyetd,  reddish,  I,  71,  4. 
jyena*,  hawk,  IV,  6,  10. 
jye*ni,  the  reddish  white  one,  1, 1 40, 9a. 
jrath,  to  let  loose :  jijrathat,  I,  128, 

6  ; — vf  jijrathat,  release  from, 

IV,  12,4. 

jram  :  jajramaad/b,  toiling,  IV,  12,  2. 
jramayti,  wearying  oneself,  I,  72,  2. 
/ravaydt-pati,  who  brings  renown  to 

his  lord,  V,  25,  s1. 
jravas,  glory,  renown,  I,  31,  7,  &c. ; 

jrdvase,  I  73,  5*. 
jravasya,  glorious,  II,  10,  i. 
jravasya"t,  aspiring   to    renown,    I, 

128,  i. 
jravasyS,  desire  of  glory,  I,  128,  6; 

149,  5- 

jravasyti,  glorious,  V,  9,  2. 

jravftyya,  glorious,  celebrated,  I,  27, 
8;  3i,5;  V,  20,  i. 

jri,  see  jr!. 

jri,  to  rest*  abide  :  asi  jrit&&,  I,  75, 
3  ;  III,  9,  3  ;  juriyind,  dwelling 
here  and  there,  V,  1 1,  6 ; — a/ret, 
he  has  spread  forth,  established, 


III,  14,  i;  19,  2; — to  send: 
firdhva'm  ajret,  he  has  sent  up- 
wards, IV,  6,  2  ;  13,  2  ;  14,  2  ; 
ajret,  he  has  sent,  V,  i,  12  ;  28, 
i  ; — ut  jrayasva,  rise  up,  III,  8, 
2 ; — with  vf,  to  open  (intr.) :  vf 
jrayantlm,  1, 13, 6 ;  142,6;  II, 
3,5;  vi'jrayadhvarn,V,5,5. 

jri,  to  cook  :  jri»a*n,  1, 68,  i1 ;  jijrttd, 
he  has  ripened,  I,  149,  2;  jri- 
»ishe,  thou  warmest,  V,  6,  9. 

jrT^  splendour,  beauty,  glory,  I,  72, 
ioa,  &c. ;  /rfyam  va*sanaA,  II, 
10,  i ;  jriye*,  gloriously,  IV,  5, 15. 

jru,  to  hear :  jrudhi,  I,  26,  5,  &c. ; 
jrtivat  (conj.  sruvat),  it  melts 
away,  I,  127,  3*  ;  jr6shama*wa£, 
hearing,  III,  8,  10 ; — vf  srin- 
vire,  they  are  renowned,  IV, 
8,6. 

jruti,  glory,  II,  2,  7. 

jrut-kar»a,  with  attentive  ears,  1, 44, 

13;  45,7- 

jrtftya,  glorious,  I,  36,  12. 
jrush/f,  obedience,  I,  67,  i*  ;  111,9, 

8  ; — hearing,  readiness  to  hear, 

!,  69,  7;  II,  3,9;  9»  4- 
jrush/i-va'n,  reacly  to  listen,  hearing, 

I,  45,  2  ;  III,  27,  2  ;— obedient, 

I,  127,  9» 

jre«i-jls,  in  rows,  III,  8,  9. 
jvas,  to  hiss :  jvasiti  ap-su,  I,  65,  9 ; 

— abhi-jvascin,  panting,  I,  140, 

5  ;— irusha»^,  aspiring  after,  I, 

147,  i;  IV,  2,  14;  16. 
jvasivat,  mightily  breathing,  I,  140, 

10. 

jvatrd,  power  (?),  I,  31,  42. 
jv£nt£?  I,  145,  4*. 
jvetd,  white  (horse?),  I,  66,  61 ; 

jvet£m  ^a^an^m,  who  had  been 

born  white  (Agni),  III,  i,  4. 
Svaitreya*,  V,  19,  3\ 

sawy^t-vira,  witi»  a  succession  of 
'  valiant  men,  II,  4,  8. 

sawvatsara",  year:  sa*»vatsar6,  after 
a  year,  I,  140,  28. 

sdkrnan,  company :  s£kman  (loc.),  I, 
31,  6*. 

sa-kshita,  dwelling  together,  1, 1 40,  3. 

sdkhi,  friend,  I,  31,  i;  75,  4 ;  III, 
9,  i1;  sakhasakhyfe,  1,  26,  3; 
III,  1 8,  i;  sakha  sikhyu^  ni- 
mfslii  ra*kshama»H&,  I,  72,  5*: 
guhl  s£khi-bhiA,  III,  i,  93. 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


477 


sakhi-ydt,  wishing  to  be  a  friend,  I, 
128,  i. 

sakhyd,  friendship,  I,  26,  5;  71, 10; 
94,1-14;  III,  9,  3;  IV,  10,8. 

sagh,  to  sustain  :  dsaghno£,  I,  31,  3. 

sa£  (saj£),  to  be  united  with,  ac- 
company: sd^asva  na£,  stay  with 
us,  I,  i,  9 ;  satese,  II,  i,  3 ; 
satire,  II,  i,  13; — to  attend, 
worship :  sa^anle,  I,  59,  6  ;  sd- 
Janta,  I,  73, 4  J  saJantam,  I,  98, 
3  ; — to  follow :  sa&inte,  I,  60, 
2  ;  sisakshi,  I,  73,  8;— to  hold, 
cling,  adhere:  sisakti,  I,  66,  2; 
safote  (krdtva),  I,  145,  2  ;  sd- 
4ante,  III,  13,  2  ;  sajJata,  III, 
1 6,  2  ;— sa&inta,  they  have  at- 
tained, V,  1 7*  51 ; — anu  sa£ate 
vartani!6,  she  follows  her  ways, 
I,  140,  93;— dpa  satire,  they 
turn  away  to  encounter,  V,  20, 
2  ;— abhi  sa^ante,  go  towards,  I, 
71,  71 ; — a  s&tyam,  whom  men 
should  attach  to  themselves,  I, 
140,  3. 

sa-^anas,  graciously  united,  1,127,11. 

sa>a,  together  with :  sd£a  san,  being 
attached,  I,  71,  4  ; — III,  12,  2  ; 
IV,  5,  10. 

sa-^atya,  relationship,  II,  i,  y. 

sa-^-ftvan :  sa-#i'tvana,  united  con- 
querors, III,  12,  4. 

sa-#ush,  united  with :  sa-g-CLk,  I,  44, 
2;  14. 

sa-£6sha,  unanimous,  concordant,  I, 
65,  2;  72,  6. 

sa-^shas,  in  concord  with,  unani- 
mous, III,  4,  8  ;  8,  8;  20,  i ; 

22,  4;  IV,  5,  i;  V,  4,  4;  21,  3; 

23,  3- 

saw^wata-rupa,  of  familiar  form,  I, 

69,  9. 

sattr/,  sitting  down,  III,  17,  5. 
sdt-pati,  lord  of  beings,  II,  i,  4; — 

a  good  lord,  V,  25,  6;  27,  i. 
satyd,  true,  truthful,  I,  i,  5;  73,  2  ; 

79,  i  ;  98,  3 ;  kr/«vdn  satyjf,  I, 

70,  8  ;  satydm,  true  (fulfilment), 
IV,  i,  1 8  ; — satydm,  verily,  I,  i, 
6  ; — efficacious,  I,  67,  5  ; — real, 
IV,  i,  10. 

satyd-gir\  ahas,  truly  carried  by  pray- 
ers as  by  a  vehicle,  I,  127,  S1. 
satyd-tara,  highly  truthful,  I,  76,  5  ; 

111*4.  I0- 
satyd-titi,  truth,  IV,  4,  14. 


satyd-dharman,    whose    ordinances 

are  true,  I,  12,  7. 
satyd-manman,  truthful,  I,  73,  2. 
satya-yd^,  truly  sacrificing,  IV,  3,  i. 
satya-va£,  truth-speaking,  III,  26,9. 
satyd-jushma,  truly  strong,  I,  59,  4 ; 

IV,  n,  4. 
satra,  altogether,  1,71,9 ;— together : 

j>atr&  *akra»d£,  I,  72,  i. 
satra-sdha,    always    conquering,    I, 

79,7- 

sdtvan,  warrior,  1, 140,  9  ;  IV,  13,  2s. 

sad,  to  sit:  upa  sidan,  they  rever- 
entially approached,  I,  72,  5; — 
pari-sddanta^,  besieging,  IV,  2, 

17*. 

sddana,  (priestly)  seat,  I,  31,  17; — 
seat,  abode,  I,  95,  8  ;  96,  7. 

sa-drw,  of  like  appearance,  I,  94,  7. 

sddman,  seat,  I,  67,  10;  the  (sacri- 
ficial) seat,  I,  73,  i;  IV,  i,  8 ; 
9i  3J  V,  23,  3. 

sadyd£-artha,  immediately  success- 
ful, I,  60,  i. 

sadyds,  instantly,  I,  27,  6,  &c. ; 
quickly,  I,  71,  9l. 

sadhani-tvd,  companionship,  IV,  i,  9. 

sa-dhanf,  companion :  sa-dhanya£, 
IV,  4,  14. 

sadha-mSfd,  rejoicing,  V,  20,  4. 

sadha-ma'dya,  sharing  in  rejoicings, 
IV,  3,  4- 

sadhd-stuti,  song  of  praise,  V,  18,  s1. 

sadhd-stha,  abode,  II,  9,  3;  III, 6, 
4;  7,  4;  12,  8;  23,  i;  25,  5; 
apam  sadhd-sthe,  I,  149,  4;  II, 
4,  2  ;  tn  sadhd-stha,  III,  20,  2. 

sadhrya&fr,  together,  IV,  4,  12. 

san,  to  win  :  san&na,  I,  73,  5  ;  189, 
8 ;  sanishydn,  sanishydnta^,  de- 
sirous of  winning,  III,  2,  3l ; 
4  ;  13,  2  ;  sanishamahe,  III,  n, 
9  ;  sasa-van,  having  obtained, 
I II,  22,  i ;  sasa-viK»jsaj&,  success- 
ful, IV,  8,  6;  san ishanta,  they 
were  successful,  V,  12,  4  ; — 
see  also  sa. 

sdna,  old,  I,  (27,  I31);  95,  10  ;  III, 
i,  6  ;  20. 

sanak^t,  from  of  old,  III,  29,  14. 

sandta,  from  of  old,  II,  3,  6  ;  III, 

3,  I- 

sandya,  ancient,  III,  20,  4. 
sdnara,  united  with  strong  men,  I, 

96,  8l. 
sdna-jruta,  old-renowned,  III,  n,  4. 


478 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


san£-£u;  inciting  from  old,  1, 141,  5s. 

sanf,  efficient,  I,  27,  4  ;— sanf,  gain : 
sandy  e,  I,  31, 8  ;  sanfm  g6£,  the 
acquiring  of  the  cow,  III,  i, 
23  ;  sani'm  yate,  V,  27,  4. 

sdnitr/,  a  gainer,  winner:  sdnita*,  I, 
27,95  3<5,i3j  sanitu£,V,  12,  3. 

sd-mVa,  dwelling  in  the  same  nest, 
I,  69,6;  71,  i. 

sanutdr,  far,  V,  2,  4. 

sdnemi,  entirely,  IV,  10,  7. 

santya  (voc.),  good,  I,  36,  2  ;  45,  5 ; 
$;  III,  21,  3. 

sap,  to  serve,  worship :  r/ta'sdpanta£, 
I,  67,  8  ;  68,  4  ;  sapema,  IV,  4, 
9  ;  sapami,  V,  12,  2  ;  sdpati 
(Pada:  sa*  p3ti),  V,  12,  61;— 
to  attach  oneself:  sapanta,  V, 

sapdtni,  the  two  wives,  III,  i,  io8 ; 
6,  4. 

sapary,  to  worship,  do  service: 
saparydti,  I,  12,  8;  saparya'mi 
prdyasa,  I,  58,  7' ;  saparyan,  I, 
72,  32;  saparydta£,  I,  144,  4; 
sapary 6ma  saparydva£,  II,  6,  3  ; 
saparyata,  III,  9,  8 ;  V,  14,  5; 
25,  4;  asaparyan,  III,  9,  9J 
saparydnta£,  V,  21,  3; — £  sa- 
parydn,  IV,  12,  2  ; — vf  saparyan, 
I,  70,  io. 

saparytj,  devoted  servant,  II,  6,  3. 

saptd-^ihva,  seven-tongued,  111,6, 22. 

saptd-dhatu,  consisting  of  seven 
elements,  IV,  5.  62. 

saptdn,  seven:  sapta  £iihva£,  I,  58, 
7;yahvft,  I,  71,  7;  72,  8l;  III, 
i,  41 ;  rajmdya£,  II,  5,  21 ;  v&tfc, 

III,  i,  61;  7,  i1;  hotrfcii,  III, 
4,    52;    prikshfea*,    III,  4,   7'; 
vipra£,  III,  7,  7;    IV,  2,  15'; 
h6tr/-bhiA,  III,  io,  41 ;  priyasa/b, 

IV,  i,  12;   dharna-bhi*,  IV,  7, 
5l ;  rdtna,  V,  i,  5  ;— tri^  saptd, 
I,  72,  61;  IV,  i,  i6\ 

saptd-ra/mi,  having  seven  rays  (or 
reins),  I,  146,  i1. 

saptd-jiva :  saptd-jivasu,  read :  saptd 
.  jiva'su,  1, 141,  23. 

saptd-j'irshan,scven-headed.I  II,  5, 5H. 

saptd-hotr/,  the  god  of  the  seven 
Hotr/S  III,  (io,  41);  29,  14. 

sdpti,  racer:  atyam  nd  sdptim,  III, 
22,  i1. 

saprdtha^-tama,  most  widely  ex- 
tended, I,  45,  72;  most  widely- 


sounding,  I,  75,  i1 ;  most  wide- 
reaching,  I,  94,  13. 
sa-prdthas,  widely  extended :  jdrma 

sa-prdtha£,  a  big  shelter,  1, 142, 

5;— V,  13,  4. 

saba^-dugha,  juice-yielding.  III,  6, 4*. 
sdbandhu,  bound  in  kinship,  HI,  i, 

TO. 
sa-bgdh,  pressing:  sa-baMha£  £  £a- 

kru£,  III,  27,  61. 
sa-bS(dhas,  urgent,  V,  io,  6. 
sabha'-vat,  with  (brilliant)  assemblies, 

IV,  2,  5. 
sdm,  together :  yajdsaA  sdm  hf  pflr- 

VL6,  many  glorious  ones  have 

come  together,  III,  i,  iis, 
sama,  every,  V,  24,  3. 
samdd,  contest :  tveshd^  samdt-su,  I, 

66,  6  ;  70,  ir. 

sd-manas,  one-minded,  V,  3,  2. 
samana',  alike,  IV,  5,  7. 
sdm-antam,  in   the  neighbourhood 

of,  V,  i,  ri. 

sa-many6,  concordant,  IV,  i,  i. 
samaya,  through  the  midst,  I,  73,  6. 
sa-maryd,  assembly,  III,  8,  5  ; — con- 

test,  V,  3,  6. 
samand,    companion,    I,   69,  81 ; — 

common,  I,  127,  8,  &c. ;  samS* 

ndm  drtham,  I,  144,  3*. 
sdm-iti,  meeting,  I,  95,  8. 
sam-ithd,  battle,  I,  73,  5  ; — assembly, 

III,  i,  12. 
sam-fdh,  log  of  wood,  fuel,  I,  95,  i  r ; 

II,  6,  i;  III,  i,  2;  io,  3;  IV, 

4,  15;  V,  i,  i;  4,  4;   6,  42; 

tisrd£    sam-fdha£,    III,   2,   9; 

samft-samit,   log  by  log,    III, 

4,  i1. 

samudrd,  ocean,  I,  71,  7  ;  95,  3l. 
sdm-r/ti,  battle,  1,31,6 ; — onslaught, 

I,  127,  3s;  V,  7,  a1. 
sdm-okas,  d welling  together,  1 ,  1 4 4 , 4. 
sam-gamana,  assembler,  I,  96,  6. 
sam-tarutra,  victorious,  III,  i,  19. 
sam-dr/.f,  the  sh'nc  (of  the  sun),  I, 

66,  i ;—  appearance,  aspect,  II, 

j,   12  ;    III,  5,   2;    IV,    i,   6; 

6,  6. 
sam-dr/'sh/i,  aspect,  I,  144,  7;  II, 4, 

4?  IV,  io,  5. 

sam-bh^a,  enjoyment,  (II,  i,  41). 
sdrn-mijla,  united,  III,  26,  4*. 

, turned  towards  each  other: 
fti  sam-Ui',  I,  69,  i ;  96, 


INDEX   OF   WORDS. 


479 


urn-Ufa,    III,   99,   13;   sam- 

ytoiam,  V,  7,  i. 
sun-yit:    kshapa6  sam-vita^,   on 

continuous  nights,  II,  2,  2a. 
sam-rfy,  the  Sovereign,  I,  188,  5; 

HI,  10,  i. 
sam-rfyat,  king:  sam-ra^antam,  I, 

27,  i. 

sam-vat,  space,  V,  15,  3. 
sam-sad,  companionship,  I,  94,  i ; — 

assembly,  IV,  i,  8. 
sam-stir,  laid  together:  sam-stfraA 

vi-stfra6,  I,  140,  71. 
sam-stha1,  abode,  V,  3,  8. 
sam-hlt,  a  compact  mass,  III,  i,  7 
sayffvan,  accompanying,  I,  44,  13. 
saVyoni,  having  the  same  origin,  III, 

1,6. 

sarany,  to  speed:  saranyin,  III,  i,  19, 
sa-rStham,  on  one  chariot  with,  I, 

71,  6a;    III,  4,  u;    6,  9  ;  V, 

IT,  2. 

Sarama,  I,  72,  8. 

Sarasvali,  N.  of  a  goddess,  I,  13,  91; 

142,9:  188,  8;  II,i,  n1,2;  3, 

8;  III,  4,  8;  V,  5,  8  ;-N.  of 

a  river,  III,  23,  4. 
sari  man,  swift  course,  III,  29,  n2. 
saiga,  rush  :  valasya  sarga£,  III,  29, 

n1-, — the  letting  loose,  IV,  3,12. 
sarga-prnlakta,   urged    forward,    I, 

65,6. 
sarpfc-asuti,  drinking  butter,  II,  7, 

6;  V,7p9;  ar,  2. 
sarpfs,  butter,  I,  127,  i  ;  V,  6,  9. 
sarvd-tati,  health  and  wealth,  I,  94, 

15- 
sivana,  libation,  III,  i,  20;  triti>e 

savane,  III,  28, 5  ;  mKdhyandine 

sivane,  III,  28,  4. 
sa-vayas,  of  the  same  age,  I,  144, 

31;  4- 
Savitr'1,1,16,13;  44,8;  73,  *!  95, 

7l;  11,1,7;  HI,  20,  5;  IV,  6, 

2;  it,  a;  14,  2. 
sajJ,  sec  s.il. 

sajJat,  hindrance,  III,  9,  4*. 
sasa,  herbs,  III,  5,  6';  IV,  5,  71 ; 

7.71!  V.21,41- 
sasahf,  victorious,  III,  16,  4. 
sisni,^ victorious,  III,  15,  5. 
sa-srut,  flowing,  I,  141,  i. 
sah,  to  overcome,    be   victorious: 

sahvffn,  III,  1 1,  6  ;  sahasva,  III, 

24,   i;    dsahanta,  III,   29,  9; 

saslha,  V,  25,  6  ;— abhi  sasaliai, 


it  may  prevail,  V,  23,  i ; — nib- 
sdhamSna^,  conquering,  1,  127, 
3 ;— pra-sdkshat,  victorious,  IV( 
ia,  i. 
saha^-krita,  produced  by  strength, 

if  45, 9;  111,27, 10 ;  v,  B,  i. 

saha/6-^a,  strength-begotten,  1, 58,  i. 

sahafr-vridh,  augmenter  of  strength, 
I,  36,  a  ;  III,  10,  9. 

s&han-tama,  mightiest,  I,  127,  9. 

sahantva,  conqueror,  I,  27,  8. 

sihamana,  victorious,  IV,  6,  10. 

situs,  strength:  sahasa£  yaho  fti, 
I,  26,  iol ;  74,  5l ;  79,  4  ;  sfoio 
fti  SHhasa^,  I,  58,  8;  127,  i ; 
143,  i;  ni,i,8;  11,4;  24,3; 
35,  5J  a8,  3;  5;  IV,  2,  2;  ii, 
6;  V,  3,  9;  4,  »;  sahasa^ifya- 
manaA,  I,  96,  i1;  sahasaA  yitaA 
gam,  I,  141,  i ;  sahasaA  yuvan, 
O  young  (son)  of  strength,  I, 
141,  10 ;  sahasa£  putrifr,  II,  7, 
6;  III,  i4f  i;  4;  6;  16,  5; 
i»,  4 j  V,  3,  i;  6;  4l  6;  11, 
6  ;— sahaA,  (Agni  our)  strength, 

I,  36,  1 8  ;-sihasi,  strongly,  I, 
98,  2 ;— might,  power,  1, 127, 9i 
KO;  V,i,8;  devasya  sihasi,  V, 
3,  10 ;  abhi-mati  sdhaA  dadh£, 
V,  23.  41 ; — violence,  V,  12,  a. 

sahasani,  mighty,  strong,  I,  189,  8  ; 

II,  10,  6;  V,  25,9. 
sahasa-vat,  mighty,  strong,  1, 189,  5 ; 

III,  i,  22  ;  V,  20,  4. 
sahasin,  strong,  IV,  n,  i. 
sahasya,  strong,  I,  147,  5  J  HI  *i  "  J 

V,  22,  4. 

sahasra,  thousand:  sahasrini  jatff 
dira,  II,  r,  8  j'sahasrat  ydpat, 
V,  2, 7  ;  daja-bhiA  sahasrai^  V, 

a?,  Is- 
sahasra-aksha,  thousand-eyed,  I,  79, 

12. 

sahasra-fit,  conqueror  of  thousand 
fold  wealth,  I,  188,  i ;  V,  26,  6. 

sahasram-bhara*,  bringing  thousand- 
fold gain,  II,  9,  i. 

sahasra-relas,  with  thousandfold 
sperm,  IV,  5,  3. 

sahasra- vatf  thousandfold,  III,  13, 7. 

saha'sra-viiba,  with  a  thousand 
branches,  III,  8,  n. 

sahasra-vira,  blessing  with  a  thousand 
men,  I,  188,  4*. 

sahasra-jnnga,  with  a  thousand  horns, 
V,  i,  8. 


480 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


sahasra-sft,  a  winner  of  thousandfold 
bliss,  I,  1 88,  3. 

sahasraVitama,  the  greatest  winner 
of  thousandfold  wealth,  III, 
13,6. 

sahasrin,  thousandfold,  I,  31,  10; 
188,  2  ;  II,  2,  7. 

sa"hasvat,  mighty,  strong,  I,  97,  5  ; 
127,  10 ;  189,4;  HI,  14,2;  4; 
V,  7,  i;  9,7;  23,2. 

sahiyas,  mightier,  I,  71,  4. 

sahfiti,  joint  invocation,  I,  45,  10. 

sahvdt,  strong,  I,  58,  5. 

sfi :  sfsasanta/6,  wishing  to  acquire, 
It  146,  4- 

sa:  anava-syanta£  artham,  never 
losing  their  object,  IV,  13,  3;  — 
vf  syatu,  may  he  pour  forth,  I, 
142, 10 ;  pra-^m  vi  syatu,  may 
he  deliver  a  son,  II,  3,  9 ;  vi 
syasva,  send  forth,  III,  4,  9 ; 
vf  sahi,  disclose,  IV,  u,  2. 

satf,  acquirement  (of  wealth),  suc- 
cess, I,  36,  17;  143,  6;  V,  5, 
4  ;  9,  7- 

satu,  womb,  mother  (?),  IV,  6,  yl. 

sa*dh,  to  prosper  (intr.) :  sidhati,  I, 
94, 2 ; — s&dhate  mat  l&9  the  prayer 
goes  straight  to  him,  1, 141,  i3; 
stKdhan,  straightway,  III,  i, 
17  ; — to  prosper  (tr.),  further : 
sadhdya,  I,  94,  3 ;  pra-tara*m 
sfclhaya,  I,  94,  4;  sadhan,  I, 
96,  i ;— to  accomplish,  perform : 
sadhayanti  dhfyam,  II,  3,  8; 
sadhan,  III,  i,  18 ;  5,  3. 

sa'dhat-ish/i,  accomplishing  the  obla- 
tions, III,  2,  5  ;  3,  6. 

sa'dhana,  performer :  ya^wasya  (vida- 
thasya)  sadhanam,  1,44,  n;  III, 
3i  3  5  27,  2  ;  8 ;— giver,  V,  20,  3. 

b&dhisltt£a,  best,  I,  58,  i. 

sadhti,  good,  1, 67,  2 ;— going  straight 
(to  his  aim),  I,  70, 1 1 ;  straight- 
forward, I,  77,  3  ;  III,  18,  i;— 
real,  IV,  10,  2  ;  efficacious,  V, 

r,  7- 

sadhu-yjK,  straightway,  V,  u,  4. 
sanasi,  successful,  winning  (booty), 

I,  75,  2;  IV,  15,6. 
sanu,  ridge,  1, 128,  3  ;  diva£  nd  sSnu, 

I,  58,  2  ;  a*dni  sanushu  trishu, 

II,  3,  7  ;— surface,  I,  146,  2  ;— 
top,  III,  5,  3. 

saman,  song  :  r/tasya  sSiman,  I,  147, 
i4  j— the  Saman,  IV,  5,  3. 


sdfai-ra^ya,  sovereignty1, 1,  141,  13. 
sjfo-athi,  charioteer  (Agni),  1, 144,  3*. 
sarasvata,  beings  belonging  to  Saras- 

vatt,  III,  4,  8. 
Saha-devya",  Sahadeva's  son,  IV,  15, 

7-10. 
sbih£,  lion,  I,  95,  5  ;  III,  9,  4 ;  11  ; 

a64>  5  ;  v>  *5>  3^ 
si>t,  wing  (of  an  army):  sf/tau,  I, 

95,  72- 
si(f;)>^:  nf-siktam,  poured  down,  I, 

71,  8  ;— pari-sikta,  poured,  IV, 
i,  19. 

sit^,  bound :  padi  sit^m,  IV,  12,  6. 

sidh,  to  scare  away :  sedhati,  I,  79, 
12. 

sidhr£,  successful,  1, 142, 8 ;  effective, 
V,  15,  2. 

sindhu,  river,  stream,  I,  27,  6 ;  72, 
10 ;  73,  6;  97,  8;  99,  i ;  143, 
3;  146,4*;  HI,  5,  4J  V,  4,  9; 
#amf/&  sindhfindni,  I,  65,  7  ;  pi., 
the  Rivers,  I,  140,  13;— the 
river  Sindhu,  I,  44,  I21 ;  94, 16; 
95,  ";  98,  3;  V,  nf  5  ;  sin- 
dhu£  na  ksh6da/&,  I,  65,  61 ;  10. 

simd,  self,  I,  95,  7s;  145,  a1.     . 

siv,  see  syfi. 

su,  to  bear.    See  sti. 

su,  to  press  Soma:  sunvati6,  I,  94, 
8 ;  sunav&ma,  1, 99,  i ;  sun  vat  6, 

1,  141,  10 ;  V,  26,  5;  s6mam 
sutim.  Ill,  22,  i. 

su-agnf,  possessed  of  a  good  Agni 
(fire) :  su-agndya£,  I,  26,  7  ;  8 
(bis). 

su-&?*,  fleet,  IV,  6,  9. 

su-adhvard,  best  performer  of  wor- 
ship, I,  44,8;  127,1;  II,  2,8; 
..III,  2,  8;  9,8;  V,  9,  3  ;  28,5; 
—receiving  good  sacrifices,  I, 
45,  i1; — ya^jfce  su-adhvare,  at 
the  decorous  service  of  the 
sacrifice,  I,  142,  5; — splendid 
worship,  III,  6,  6;  29,  12  ;  V, 
17,  i. 

su-anlka,  with  beautiful  face,  II,  i, 
8  ;  IV,  6,  6. 

su-apatya",  with  good  offspring,  I, 

72,  9a;  11,2, 12;  4,  8;  9,  5 ;— 
blessed  with  oflspring,  III,  3,7  ; 
consisting  in  offspring,  III,  16, 
i  ;—good  offspring,  II!,  19,  3. 

bU-dpas,  good  worker,  IV,  2,  19 ;  V, 

2,  u. 

su-apasyft,  great  skill,  III,  3,  n. 


INDEX  OF  WORDS. 


481 


su-apaka,  most  skilful,  TV,  3,  2*. 

su-ar£fs,  endowed  with  beautiful 
light,  II,  3,  2. 

su-artha,  pursuing  a  good  aim,  I,  95, 
i ;— well-employed,  I,  141,  u. 

su-dvas,  giving  good  help,  V,  8,  2. 

su-djva,  with  good  horses,  IV,  2, 
4  ; — rich  in  horses,  IV,  4, 8  ;  10. 

su-djvya,  abundance  in  horses,  II, 
i,  5;  III,  26,  3. 

su-adhi,  of  a  good  mind,  kind,  well- 
wishing,  I,  67,  2  ;  70,  4»;  71, 
8 ; — with  good  intentions,  1, 72, 
8;  IV,  3,  4; — full  of  pious 
thoughts,  III,  8,  4  ;— longing, 
V,  14,  6. 

su-abhtf,  truly  helpful:  riy£  s'u- 
abhfivam,  V,  6,  jl. 

su-£sa,  whose  mouth  is  beautiful,  IV, 
6,  8. 

su-ahuta,  best  receiver  of  offerings, 

I,  44,  4;  6;  111,27,5- 
su-ukta,  well-spoken  (prayer),  I,  36, 

i  ;  70,  5  5  II,  *,  2. 

su-uplyand,  easy  of  access,  I,  i,  9. 

su-kdrman,  well  performing  the  acts 
(of  worship),  IV,  2,  17. 

su-kirtf,  beautiful  praise,  1, 60, 3  ;— 
glory,  V,  10,  4. 

su-krit,  well-doing :  su-kr/te  sukrit- 
tara£,  I,  31,  4;  righteous,  I, 
128,  6;  who  has  done  good 
dc  >ds,  1, 147, 32;  virtuous,  well- 
doer, IV,  13,  i;  V,  4,  8;  ii. 

su-kritd,  good  works,  III,  29,  8. 

su-ketu,  bright,  III,  7,  10. 

su-krdtu,  highly  wise,  I,  12,  x«;  128, 
4;  III,  i,  22;  IV,  4,  ii ;  V, 

II,  2;  20,  4;  25,  9;— full  of 
good-will,  I,  141,  ii ;  144,  7  ; 

III,  3,  7- 

sukratu-yft,  high  wisdom,  I,  31,  3. 
su-kshiti,  with  fine  dwellings,  V,  6, 8. 
su-kshetriyit,  desire  for  rich  fields, 

I,  97.  a- 

su-khd,  easy-going,  V,  5,  3. 
sukhd-tama,   easy-moving :   sukhd- 

tame  (rdthe),  I,  13,4.' 
su-gd,  a  good  path,  I,  94,  9  ;— going 

well,  I,  94,  ii. 
sugStu-y8,  desire  for  a  free  path,  I, 

su-g&rliapatya*,  with  a  good  house- 
hold. V,  4,  a1. 
su-£andra,  resplendent,  1, 74, 6  ;  IV, 

a,  19  5  V,  6,  5  5  9. 
[46]  I  i 


su-£etun3.  through  thy  kindness,  I, 
79,  9  i  benignantly,  I,  127,  n. 

su-^ta,  well  born,  I,  65,  4  ;  72,  3l  J 
II,  i,  15;  2,  ii ;  6,2;  III,i5, 
*J  *3,  3?  V,  6,  2;  21,  2. 

su-gihva,  with  beautiful  tongue(s),  I, 
13,  8;  142,  4. 

su-£ur«f,  glowing,  IV,  6,  3. 

su-#y6tis,  rich  in  light,  III,  20,  i. 

sut£,  the  pressed  (Soma),  III,  12, 
i;  2. 

suta*-vat,  rich  in  pressed  (Soma),  III, 
25,4. 

sutd-soma,  having  pressed  Soma,  I, 

44,  8;  45,  «;  M2,  i ;  IV,  2, 13. 
su-t6ka,  quick,  I,  149,  5.  • 
su-ddmsas,  endowed  with  wonderful 

power,  II,  2,  3. 
su-daksha,  highly  dexterous,  II,  9, 

x;  111,4,95  23,  2;  V,  ii,  i. 
sudana-tara,  more  visible,  1, 127,  5'. 
su-dg(nu,  giving  good  rain,  1, 44, 14 ; 

45,  10 ;  141,  9;  III,  26,  i;  5; 
29, 7  ; — blessed  with  good  rain, 

IV,  4,  7- 

su-d&van,  good  giver,  I,  76,  3. 
su-dfna,  auspicious  day,  IV,  4,  6 ;  7. 
sudina-tvd,  auspiciousncss  of  days, 

III,  8,  5  ;    sudina-tve  dhnam, 

III,  23,  4. 
su-dl'diti,  with  fine  splendour,  III, 

9,  i8- 
su-ditf,  resplendent,  III,  2,  13  ;  17, 

4  ;  27,  10 ;  V,  25,  2  ;— glorious 

splendour,  V,  8,  4. 
sudugha,  flowing  with  plenty,  II,  3, 

6  ;  su-dugha/j  usrai,  IV,  1,13. 
su-dnj,  full  of  beauty,  III,  17,  4  ; 

v,  3>  4l- 
su-drmka,  beautiful  to  behold,  V, 

4,  2. 

sudr/jika-rfipa,with  his  shape  beauti- 
ful to  behold,  IV,  5,  15. 

su-devd,  a  friend  of  the  gods,  1,74,5. 

su-d6gha,  rich  in  milk,  III,  15,  6. 

su-dyut,  brilliant,  I,  140,  i ;  143,  3. 

su-dyumnd,  splendid,  III,  19,  2. 

su-dy6tman,  brilliant,  I,  141,  12  ; 

II,  4,  i. 

su-dravi//as,  possessor  of  beautiful 
wealth,  I,  94,  15. 

su-dbita,  well-composed  (prayer),  I% 
140,  ii ;— blissful  gift,  III,  u, 
8  ; — well-preserved,  III,  23,  i ; 
lying  safe,  III,  29,  2  ; — well- 
ordered,  IV,  2,  i  o;— well-placed, 


482 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


IV,  6,  3  ;  well-established,  IV, 

<5,78;  V,  3,2. 

su-dhf.  wise,  IV,  2,  14. 

su-dhur,  well-harnessed:  raylfc  su- 
dhura£,  1,73,  io!;  hari  fti  su- 
dhfirS,  well-yoked,  V,  27,  2. 

suni6-m£th,  skilful  rubbing,  III,  29, 
12. 

aj-nidha',  skilful  establishing,  III, 
29,  12. 

su-nfrh$,  the  best  leader,  II,  8,  2  ; 
III,  8,  8. 

su-pdtha,  good  path,  I,  189,  i. 

su-parȣ,beautifully-winged,  1, 79,2. 

su*pani,  with  graceful  hands,  1, 71,9*. 

su-putra,  with  noble  sons,  III,  4, 1 1. 

s6-pftta,  well-clarified,  V,  12,  i. 

su-pejas,  wearing  beautiful  orna- 
ments, I,  17,7;  142,  y1;  188,  6. 

supra-ayan£,  easily  passable,  II,  3, 5 ; 

V,  5,  5- 

supra-avya,  ready,  I,  60,  i. 
su-prdtika,  whose  face  is  beautiful, 

I,  94,  7?  143,  31  HI,  29,  5; 
V,  5,  6. 

su-prattirti,     gloriously    advancing, 

HI,  9,  i. 
su-prcmiti,  a  good  guide,  I,  73,  i ; 

III,  i,  16;  15,4;  IV,  2,13. 
su-prayas,  receiver  of  good  offerings, 

II,  2,  i ;  4,  r. 

su-bandhu,  well-allied,  III,  i,  3. 

su-barhis,  possessor  of  good  sacri- 
ficial grass,  I,  74,  5. 

su-bhaga,  blessed,  I,  36,  6;  III,  i, 
4J  13;  9,  ia;  '6,  6;  18,  5; 

IV,  i,  6  ;  4,  7  ;  V,  8,  3. 
su-bhara,  rich  in  gain,  II,  3,  4  ;  9. 
sfi-bhnta,  well  kept,  II,  i,  12. 
sfi-makha,  martial,  IV,  3,  7  ;  14*. 
su-mdt,  together,  I,  142,  7s; — see 

sumat-yutha. 
su-mati,  favour,  I,  31,  18,  &c. ;  III, 

4,  i2;  V,  27,  31 ;  kindness:  su- 

matr,  IV,  i,  2s. 
suma't-yGtha,  together  with  the  herd : 

sumat-yfitham    (conj.    for   su- 

m£t  ytitham),  V,  2,  4". 
sum£t-ratha,  on  his  chariot,  III,  3, 9. 
su-manas,  gracious,  kind-hearted,  I, 

36,  2,  &c. ;— joyous,  IV,  4,  9. 
su-manman,  rich  in  good  thoughts, 

III,  2,  ta. 

su-mahas,  very  great,  IV,  n,  2. 
sftmiti,  skilful  erection,  III,  8,  3. 
$u-mr/V1ka,  merciful,  IV,  i,  20  ;  3,  3. 


su-meka,  well-established,  1, 146,  31 ; 

111,6,  io2;  15,  58J  IV,  6,  3. 
su-medhas,  wise,  II,  3,  i ;  III,  15,  5. 
sumnd,  blessing,  III,  2,  5;  3,  3;— 

favour,  grace,  V,  3,  10 ;  24,  4  ; 

— pleasant,  III,  14,  4. 
sumna-yu,  de«'~ous  of  favour,  I,  79, 

10 ;  111,27,  i;  V,  8,  7. 
su-ya£,  excellent  sacrificer,  V,  8,  3. 
su-yagv7£,  skilled  in  sacrifice,  III, 

17,  i. 
su-ydma,  well-manageable,  III,  7,  3  ; 

(4');  V,28,}'. 
su-yavasa,  good  pasture:  suyavasa- 

iva,  con},  for  svdsya-iva,  II,  4, 41. 
su-yamd,  -  ally  directing,  III,  7,  9l. 
su-yu^,  w^.l-yoked,  IV,  14,  3. 
su-raVza,  joyous,  III,  3,  9;  29,  14. 
su-ratha,  with  good  chariot :    su- 

rdthasya  (conj.  su-ratha  asya), 

III,  14,  71;— IV,  2,  4  ;— rich  in 
chariots,  IV,  4,  8. 

surabhf,  sweet-smelling,  V,  i,  6. 
su-r&dhas,  rich  in  *vealth,  IV,  2,  4 ; 

5,  4- 
su-rukm£,   adorned   with   gold,   I, 

188,  6. 
«u-r6^,  with  beautiful  splendour,  II, 

2,4;   111,2,5;    7,  5;    15,  6; 

IV,  2,  17. 

su-re"tas,  fertile,  III,  i,  r6. 
su-v«ir£as,  full  of  fine  splendour,  I, 

95,  i. 
su-viM,  adorned  with  fine  speech, 

III,  i,  19; — well-spoken,  III, 
7,  10. 

su-vtos,  fine-voiced,  I,  188,  7. 
su-vasas,   well-clothed,    III.   8,   4  ; 

IV,  3,  2. 

suvitd,  welfare,  I,  141,  12;  189,  3; 
11,2,6;  III,  2,  13;  IV,  H,  3; 

V,  n,  i. 

su-vidatra,  bounteous,  TI,  i,  8  ;  9, 6. 
su-vira,  rich  in  heroes,  in  valiant 

men,  I,  31,  10;  II,  i,  16;  3,  4; 

5;   4,  9;    III,   29,  9;— giving 

valiant  offspring,  III,  8,  2. 
su-virya,  abundance  in  heroes,  bliss 

of  valiant  offspring,  I,  36,  6 ; 

17,  &c. ;  I,  127,  ii1; — host  of 

heroes,  III,  1 6,  4. 
su-vr/kti,    praised    with    beautiful 

praise,    II,    4,    i1;  —  beautiful 

prayer,  or  praise,  III,  *,  9 ;  V, 

25,  31- 
su-ve"da,  easily  to  be  found,  IV,  7,  6. 


INDEX  OF   WORDS. 


483 


;  kind-spoken,  I,  44,  6. 
su-ja>man,  well-protecting,  III,  15, 

i ;  V,  8,  2. 

su-jastf,  best  praise,  III,  26,  6. 
su-jipra,  strong-jawed,  V,  22,  4*. 
su-jijvi,  fine  child,  I,  65,  4. 
su-je"va,  propitious,  I,  27,  2;  kind, 

gracious,  II,  i,  9;  III,  29,  5; 

IV,  4,  12;  V,  15,  i. 
su-j6ka,  with  pure  splendour,  1, 70,  i. 
su-jrf,  in  great  beauty,  III,  3,  5. 
su-sajKjita,  well-sharpened,  V,  19,  5. 
su-sanit/v,  best  gainer,  III,  18,  5. 
su-samdru,  beautiful  to  behold,  I, 

143,  3. 
su-samiddha,  well-kindled,  I,  13,  i; 

V,  5i  I- 

su-samfdh,  good  fuel,  V,  8,  7. 
su-sff,  well-bearing,  V,  7,  8. 
sti-sfita,  well-born,  II,  10,  3. 
su-stuta,  highly  praised,  V,  27,  2. 
su-stuti,  rich  in  perfect  praise,  III, 

19,  3. 
su-haVa,    easy    to    invoke,    readily 

hearing  (our)  call,  I,  58,  6  ;  III, 

6,8;  15,  i ;  IV,  1,5. 
su-havi's,  offering  good  oblations,  IV, 

2,  4. 
su-havya",  giver  of  good  oblations,  I, 

74,  5- 

su-hirawya,  rich  in  gold,  IV,  4,  10. 

sti,  to  give  birth :  suvate  fti,  th  -y 
give  birth,  V,  i,  4  ;— dsfita,  V,  2, 
2  ;  7,  8. 

su,  a  progenitor,  1, 146,  5. 

stikta",  see  su-uktl 

stid,  to  further:  sfidtyat,  I,  71,  8; 
susfida£,  I,  73,  8 ;— to  shape: 
dstidayanta,  I,  72,  3; — to  make 
ready:  susfidnti,  I,  142,  ii8;  V, 
5,  2  ;— siidayati,  III,  4,  10  ;— 
sudaya,  accomplish,  IV,  4,  14; 
— sfidayati  pra,  may  lie  make 
ready,  II,  3,  10. 

sCnu,  son,  I,  i,  9,  &c. ;  I,  59,  41 ; 
III,  i,  i22;  sfino  iti  sahasa£,  I, 
58,8;  127,  i;  III,  i,  8;  11,4; 
nftya/>  sfmii/6,  I,  66,  i1. 

sfinu-mjit,  rich  in  sons,  III,  24,  5. 

sQnr/ta-v.it,  rich  in  loveliness,  1,59,7. 

srfra,  Sun,  1,71,9;  141,13;  M9»3; 
III,  15,  2. 

sflrf,  the  rich  man,  liberal  lord  or 
patron,  I,  31,  7,  &c. ;  I,  73,  5*5 

sffrya,  the  sun,  or  Sun,  I,  59,  3  ;  98, 

I 


i;  146,  4*;  III,  14,  4;  IV,  j, 
17;  13,  i-4J  i4»  2;  V,  i, 
4  ;  4,  4 ;  £ara;?am  suryasya,  III, 
5,  5  ;  ro&m£  su'ryasya,  III,  22, 
3 ;  divf  sflryam-iva  a^-dram,  V, 
27,6. 

sn",  to  run:  sasraw££,  I,  149,  2; 
sasr/'v&»sam-iva,  III,  9,  5  ; — 
pra"  sarsrate  fti,  they  go  forth* 
1 1 1, 7,  i ;  pra"  sisrate,  they  stream 
forward, V,  i ,  i ;  pra-sarsra;/asya, 
advancing,  V,  12,  6  ;— vi  sasruy&, 
they  have  broken  through  with 
their  floods,  I,  73,  6. 

sr/£,  to  let  loose:  s^nS-iva  sr/'sh/a1, 
like  an  army  that  is  sent  for- 
ward, I,  66,  7;  143,  5l;  sr/^at 
didyum  asmai,  he  shot  an  arrow 
at  him,  I,  71,  5  ;  sr/^h/a^,  1,72, 
10  ;— Ava  sr/£a,  let  go,  I,  13,  1 1; 
ava-sr/^an,  letting  go  (the  sacri- 
ficial food  to  the  gods),  I,  142, 
ii ;  II,  3,  10 ;  mrf  dva  sr/£a£, 
do  not  deliver,  I,  189,  5 ;— upa 
sr/£a,  yield  up,  I,  188, 10  ;  upa- 
snginti,  they  pour  out,  II,  i, 
1 6  ;— vf  srigfi,  emit,  I,  36,  9  ;— 
sdw  na£  sr/^a,  let  us  be  united, 
If3i,i8;  HI,  16,6. 

Sr/%aya,  son  of  Devavata,  IV,  I5,4J. 

srtni,  sickle  :  sr/;/ya,  1,58,  42. 

sr/pr£,  mighty  (?),'  Ill,  18,  51. 

sr/prd-danu,  bestower  of  mighty 
rain(?),  I,  96,  3s. 

sena,  army,  I,  66,  7;  se"na-iva  sr/sh/a, 

I,  143,  51- 

s6tr/,  pre^ser  (of  Soma),  IV,  3,  3. 

s6ma,  Soma  (juice),  I,  44,  14  ;  45^ 
10;  99,  i1;  III,  12,  3  ;  22,  i  ; 
29,  16;  somasya  tavasam,  III, 
i,!1;  s6ma/>,  IV,  14,  4  ;  V,  27, 
51; — Soma,  the  god,  I,  65,  10; 

II,  8,  6. 

s6ma-ahuta,  fed  with  Soma,  1 , 94, 1 4. 
S6maka,  Sahadevn's  son,  IV.  15.9. 
s6ma-pati,  lord  of  Soma  (Indra),  I, 

76,3. 
s6ma-piti,  drinking  of  Soma  :  s6ma- 

pitaye,  I.  44,  9- 
soma-peya,  drink  ot  Soma,  I,  45,  9; 

in;  2S>  4. 

somyd,  one  who  offers  Soma,  I, 
31,  16. 

saubluga,  prosperity,  delight,  happi- 
ness, I,  36,  17  :  III,  8.  2  ;  3 ; 
ii ;  15.4  ;  16,  i ;  V,  »S,  3. 

1  2 


484 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


saubhaga-tva",  happiness,  I,  94, 16. 

saumanasa*,  graciousness,  I,  76,  a  ; 
kindness,  III,  i,  21. 

skambha",  pillar,  IV,  13,  5. 

stan,  to  thunder :  staniyan,  1, 58, 2  ; 
140,  5  ;  stan£yanti  abhrg,  I,  79, 
2  ;  pra~  stanayanti,  IV,  10,  4. 

stabhu-ydmaria,  firmly   fixed,    III, 

7,  4- 
sta(m)bh,  to  uphold :  tastdmbha,  I, 

67,  5J—  tit  astambhtt,  he  has 
upheld,  III,  5, 10 ; — fipa  stabha- 
yat,    he    supports,    IV,  5,   i ; 
stabhayat    upa   dyifrn,  he    has 
reared ...  up  to  the  sky,  IV,  6,  2. 

stzfyam,  stealthily :  upa  stffyam  £arati, 

conj.,  (I,  145,  48). 
stu,  to  praise :  st£vana£,  praised,  I, 

12,  ii ;  31,  8,  &c. 
stubh :    pra-stubhlna^,  incited   by 

shouting,  IV,  3,  12. 
sttibhvan,  uttering  (sacred)  shouts, 

1,  66,  4. 

str/,  to  strew:   str/«ita,  I,  13,  5; 

str/tfzm&saA  barhf£,  I,  142,  5. 
str/,  star :  pipeja  niKkam  str/bhi/j,  I, 

68,  10 ;  dyafa  nd  str/-bhi£,  II, 

2,  5  J  IV,  7,  3- 
stena,  thief,  V,  3,  n. 
stok£,  drop,  III,  21,  1-5. 

stotr/,  praiser,  I,  58,  8;  II,  i,  16; 
HI,  5,  2. 

st6ma,  praise,  song  of  praise,  I,  12, 
12,  &c. ;  st6mai£  (conj.  st6- 
mam),  IV,  10,  i8. 

st6mavahas,  (I,  127,  81). 

stha,  to  stand:  urdhva^  tfshffo,  I, 
36,  13 ;— abhf  tish/^a,  set  thy 
foot  on,  V,  28,  3 ; — %  tasthu/6, 
they  have  assumed,  I,  72,  9*; — 
6 pa  sthat,  he  has  ,,  preached, 
I,  68,  i ;  see  upa-sthiKyam ; — 
pra*-sthita,  ready,  III,  4,4s;— 
abhf  pra  asthat,  he  gains  ad- 
vantage, I,  74,  81 ;— with  vf,  to 
spread :  vf  tish/Aate,  I,  58,  4 ; 
vf  tasthe,  I,  72,  9 ;  vf  asthat,  I, 
65,  8  ;  141, 7  ;  vf  a"sthiran,  they 
are  scattered,  I,  94,  n  ;  vf 
tishf&ise,  V,  8,  7. 

sthatu,  what  stands :  sthatu£  £ara"- 
tham,  what  is  movable  and  im- 
movable, I,  58,  52;  68.  i2;  70, 
72;  (72,  62). 

sthatri,  that  which  stands :  sthatam 
£ar<Ltham,  I,  70,  3  ;  what  re- 


mains  steadfast:    sthatrfn,   I, 

72,  6*. 

sthiri,  solid:   sthir^C  Mt  dnnS,  IV, 

7,  10. 
sthtfwa,  a  column  :  sth&/a-iva  upa- 

mft,  I,  59,  i8. 
snfhiti  ?  I,  74,  28. 
snehiti,  (I,  74,  **)• 
sp^j,  spy,  IV,  4,  3J—  observer: 

splfam  vfjvasya  ^igata^,    IV, 

13,  3- 

sparh^,  desirable,  lovely,  I,  31,  14  ; 

II,  i,  12;  IV,  i,  6;  7;  12. 
spr/:    aspar    fty  aspa£,  thou    hast 

freed,  V,  15,  5  ;  —  a*va  spr/dhi, 

protect,  V,  3,  9. 

spw,  to  touch  :  spr/'/anti,  I,  36,  3. 
spr/hay£t-var«a,  having  the  appear- 

ance of  one  eagerly  striving,  II, 

10,  5. 

sphatf,  increase,  I,  188,  9. 

sphur,  to  sparkle  :  priti  sphura,  IV, 

3»  14- 

smdt-tidhnt,  with  full  udders,  1,  73,  6. 
smi,to  smile,  laugh  :  smdyamanabhi^, 

I,  79,  24  ;  sm^yamana/6  (dyauA), 

11,  4,  6s  ;    smayete    fti,    III, 
4,  6. 

syti  :  syfitdm,  well-stitched,  I,  31,  15. 
syona-krit,  making  comfortable,  I, 

3i,  15- 
syona-ji,    comfortably    resting,    I, 

73,  i2. 

srava>,  river  :  sravdta^  sapti  yahvfa, 

l,7i,7. 

sravatha^streaming,  III,  i,  7. 
sridh  :    asredhanta/>,    without    fail, 

III,  29,  9. 
srfdh,  failure,  I,  36,  7  ;  III,  9,  4  ; 

10,7. 
sru,  to  flow  :  sruvat  (conj.  for  jrti- 

vat),  it  melts  away,  I,  127,  3*. 
sru*,  sacrificial  ladle,  I,  144,  i  ;  V, 

14,  3  ;  21,  2. 
srotas,  stream,  I,  95,  ro1. 

sv£  :  tanva7>  krmvata  sv&&,  I,  72,  5*  ; 
svlsya-iva,  conj.   suydvasa-iva, 


x 

\svaA-drij,  of  sun-like  aspect,  I,  44, 
x       9  fill,  2,  14;  V,  26,2. 
sVa£-nara,  the  solar  hero,  1  1,  2,  i  ;— 

realm  of  the  Sun,  V,  18,  4. 
$va£-vat,  together  with  the  sun,  I, 

59,  4J  V,  2,  ir. 
,sva£-vfd,  finding  the  sun,  I,  96,  4  ; 

111,3,5;  10  ;  26,  i. 


INDEX  OF   WORDS. 


485 


sva-gfirta,  delightful  by  their  own 

nature,  I,  140,  13. 
svd-^enya,  noble  by  his  own  nature, 

V,  7,  5- 

sva-tavat,  self-strong,  IV,  2,  6. 

svad,  to  taste:  svadante,  II,  i,  14  ; 
asvadayat,  II,  4,  7  ;  —  to  make 
relishable,  savoury  :  sisvadat,  I, 
1  88,  10  ;  svada,  III,  14,  7. 

svi-dharman,  following  his  own 
ordinances,  III,  21,  2. 

svadhfl,  inherent  power:  svadh£bhi£, 
by  one's  self,  by  the  power  of 
his  own  nature,  I,  95,  4  ;  III, 
a  6,  8  ;  svadha*ya,  according  to 
their  wont,  II,  3,  8  ;  HI,  4,  7  ; 
by  himself,  III,  17,  5  ;  by  his 
own  power,  I  V,  1  3,  5  ;—  svadh&& 
adhayat,  he  drank  the  draughts, 
I,  144,  22. 

svadh#-vat,  self-dependent,  I,  36,  12  ; 
144,7;  M7,  2;  III,  20,  3;  IV, 
5,2;  10,6;  12,  3;  V,  3,2;  5; 
moving  according  to  one's  wont, 
I,  9*,,  ia;  moving  by  his  own 
strength,  I,  95,  4. 

sva-dhiti,  axe,  III,  2,  10  ;  8,  6  :  11  ; 
V,  7,  8X. 

svan,  to  resound  :  svanit,  II,  4,  6. 

svana,  noise,  I,  94,  n. 

sva-patya",  a  man's  own  dominion  : 
sva-paty&ni  (conj.  for  su-apat- 
yani),  I,  72,  ?. 

sv£y&ra£-tara,  highly  brilliant  by 
oneself,  V,  17,  2*,8. 

svcl-yajas,  endowed  with  his  own 
splendour,  I,  95,  2  ;  5  ;  9. 

sva-yu,  free,  II,  4,  7. 

svar,  sun,  or  Sun  :  sffra£  n£  sam-drik, 
I,  66,  i;  sva/>  drijfke,  I,  66, 
io8;  69,  10  ;  sva£  (loc.),  I,  70, 
8l;  91;  sva£  vividu£,  I,  71,  2  ; 
svaA  na,  I,  148,  r;  II,  2,  7;  8; 
io  ;  8,  4  ;  svaA  mahAt,  III,  2,  7  ; 
stire,  IV,  3,  8  ;  Mb  svab  abha- 
vat,  IV,  3,  ii8;  sfira£  vdnrena, 

IV,  5,  13;  sva/>  na  *y6ti*,  IV, 
io,  31  ;  avindat  g&&  ap&6  svifr, 

V,  Mi  4l- 

sva-i%,  king,  I,  36,  7. 
sva-i%ya,  royalty,  II,  8,  5*. 
svdru,  sacrificial  post,  III,  8,  61  ;  9  ; 

Jo;  IV,  6,  3. 
svar  nri  sun-hero:   svar*a&  (?),  (I, 


svartha,  see  su-rartha. 


svasara,  fold,  II,  2,  2. 

svdsr/,  sister,  I,  65,  7;  II,  5,  61; 
svasSraA,  I,  71,  i»;  tisra*,  II, 
5,  515  ddja,  III,  29,  i32;  dvib 
pa^a,  IV,  6, 81;  apdsi  svdsr/«am, 

III,  i,  38;  ii. 

svastf,  happiness,  welfare,  I,  i,  9,  &c.; 
svastf-bhi^,  safely,  I,  189,  2  ;— 
with  welfare,  happily,  II,  9,  6; 

IV,  n,  6;  V,4,  ii. 
svadana,  sweetener,  V,  7,  6. 
svadu-kshddman,  having  sweet  food, 

I>  31*  15- 

svifdman,  sweetness,  I,  69,  3*. 
svani,  roaring,  V,  2,  loj  25,  8  ;— 

thundering,  V,  io,  5. 
svanm,  tumultuous,  III,  26,  5. 
sv8ha,  the  word  Svlha,  1, 1 3, 1 2 ;  1 1 1, 

4, 1 1 ;  V,  5,  1 1 ;  svaM  havy^m 

kartana,  pronounce  the  Svaha 

over  the  offering,  I,  142,  12. 
svalia-kr/ta,   (offerings)   over  which 

the  Svaha  has  been  pronounced, 

I,  142,  13  ;  II,  3,  ii. 
svaliS-kr/'ti,  pronouncing  SvSha,  I, 

188,  n. 

svid,  to  sweat:  sisvidan£&,  IV,  2,  6. 
sve*da,  sweat,  V,  7,  5. 

hawsd,  swan,  I,  65,  9  ;  III,  8,  9. 

han,  to  kill,  slay:  ha*#?si,  I,  31.  6; 
^•fghimsata^,  I,  36,  15 ;  ahan 
(without  an  object),  I,  69, 8l  ;— 
-vf^ahi,  smite,  I,  36,  16. 

har:  hdryama^a,  longed  for,  III, 
*»  4  5  —  P^i  harya,  accept 
graciously,  I,  144,  7;  prati 
harya/>,  thou  acceptest,  V,  2, 1 1. 

hari,  golden,  I,  95,  i ;— bay  horse, 
fallow  steed:  hari-bhyam,  I, 
76,3;  IV,  15,  71;  harfiti,  IV, 

15,8;    V,  27,  2. 

ha>i-ke/a,  whose  hair  is  golden,  III, 
2,13. 

harft,  pi.,  the  golden  horses,  IV,  6, 
91;  harita£  saptd  yahvfe,  the 
seven  young  fallow  mares,  IV, 

13,  3« 
ha>;-vrata,  whose  every  law  is  golden, 

HI,  3,  5l- 

haryata,  delightful,  III,  5,  3. 
hava,  invocation,  I,  45,  3. 
haviMdya,  eating  the  oblation,  V, 

i,  ii ;  4,  4- 
havi£-kr/t,  preparer  of  the  sacrificial 

food,  I,  1 3,  3. 


486 


VEDIC   HYMNS. 


#,  giver  of  offerings,  IV,  3,  y1. 
havf^-pati,  master  of  sacrificial  food, 

1,  12,  8. 

havi£-v#h,  bearer  of  oblations,  1,72,7. 

havfs,  sacrificial  food,  I,  12,  10,  &c. 

havfshmat,  rich  in  sacrificial  food, 
offering  sacrificial  food,  I,  12, 
9,  &c.;  1, 128,  2*. 

hdvfman,  invocation,  I,  12,  2. 

hdvya,  to  be  proclaimed ;  bha*ga£  nd 
hdvya£,  I,  144,  38;— to  be  in- 
voked, 111,5,  3;  V,  17,4. 

havyd,  sacrificial  food :  havydfya 
v6/£ave,  I,  45,  6  ;— I,  74, 4,  &c. 

havyd-dati,  giver  of  offerings,  III, 

2,  8  ;— gift  of  offerings,  IV,  8, 
5  J  V,  26,  4. 

havya-vah,  bearer  of  oblations, 
carrier  of  offerings,  I,  12,  2; 
6,  44,  8;  67,  2;  128;  8;  III, 

2,  2;  5,  10;  10,9;  n,  2;  17, 
4J  27,  55  29,  7J  IV,  8,i;V,4, 
2  ;  6,  5  ;  28,  5. 

havya-vsQiana,  carrier  of  oblations, 
I,  36,  10 ;  44,  2;  5;  V,  8,  6; 
n,4;  25,4;  28,  6;  dev6bhya£ 
havya-vahana,  III,  9,  61. 

haskartr/,  producing  joy,  IV,  7,  3. 

ha,  to  give  (up  to) :  #ahati,  I,  95,  7. 

ha :  ut-£:hana£,  flying  up,  V,  i,  i. 

hi,  to  incite,  stir  up :  hinvatu,  I,  27, 
ii ;  hinuhi,  I,  143, 4 ;  hinvanti, 
I,  144,  5  ;  hiySnd,  driven  for- 
ward, II,  4, 4 ;  hinv£,  he  speeds 
along,  IV,  7,  n;  hinvire,  they 
drive  forward,  V,  6,  6 ;— sdm 
ahema  (conj.  for  sdm  mahema), 
we  have  sent  forward,  I,  94,  i1. 

hitd-mitra,  who  has  made  himself 
(valiant)  friends,  I,  73,  32. 

hfrajzya,  gold,  IV,  10,  6. 

hfra»ya-keja,  golden-haired,  1,79,  i. 

hfra»ya-danta,  gold-toothed,  V,  2,  3. 

hiraaydya,  golden :  hira»ydyi  fti,  I, 
144,6. 

hfra»ya-ratha,  with  the  golden 
chariot,  IV,  i,  8. 

hfowya-rfipa,  golden-coloured,  IV, 

3,  i. 

hiri-jiprd,  with  golden  jaws,  II,  2, 5*. 

hfri-jmajru,  golden-bearded,  V,  7, 7. 

hu,  to  offer,  sacrifice:  htiyate,  I,  26, 

6,  &c.;   ^uhure,  II,  9,  3;— 


&-huta£,  worshipped,  by  offer- 
ings, into  whom  offerings  are 
poured,  I,  36,  8,  &c.;  II,  7,  41J 
5;  III,  24,  3,  &c.;  a-£uhvana£, 
receiving  libations,  I,  188,  3  ; 
ji^uhota,  with  Ace.,  make  offer- 
ings in,  III,  9,  8. 

nurds,  on  a  crooked  way,  IV,  3,  13. 

hr/',  to  take:  vi-haYan,  spreading  out, 

IV,  13,  4- 

hr/jto  be  angry:  hr//iiyamana£,V,2,8. 
hrid,  heart,  mind,  I,  60,  3,  &c. 
hridi-spr/j,  touching  the  heart,  IV, 

10,  i8. 
hn'sh  :  haYshat,  joyous,  I,  127,  6;  — 

ut-harshdyanti,  they  delight,  V, 

27,5. 

hr/shi  vat,  joyful,  I,  127,  6. 
he/as,  anger,  I,  94,  I21;  IV,  i,  4. 
hemya'-vat,  well-impelled,  IV,  2,  81. 
heshd-kratu,  hot-spirited,  III,  26,  s2. 
h6tri,  the  Hotr/  priest,  I,  i,  i;  5, 

&c.;  1,94,6;  II,  9,1;  III,  17, 

5  ;   h6tara  dafvya,   I,  13,  8l; 

142,8;   188,7;  II,  3,  7;  HI, 

4,  7  ;  V,  5,  7  ;—  sapta"  h6tn*-bhi£, 

111,10,4. 
hotr/-v(3frya,  election  as  Hotr/,  I, 

3*»  3- 

hotr/-sidana,  the  Hotr/'s  seat,  11,9,  r. 

hotrd,  service  of  a  Hotr/,  the  Hotr/'s 
office,  I,  76,  4  ;  II,  i,  2  ;  III, 
17,  2  ;  sapta*  hotrOwi,  III,  4,  52. 

hotra-v^h  ,  carrier  of  offerings,  V,  2  6,7. 

h6tra,  oblation,  1,  36,  7  ;  II,  2,  8  ;— 
H6tii  Bhdrati,  I,  142,  92;  II, 
i,  1  11  ;—  the  Hotr/'s  work,  wor- 
ship, IV,  2,  iol. 

hotrl-vfd,  knowing  the  art  of  sacri- 
ficial libations,  V,  8,  3. 

hru,  see  hvr/'. 

hva>as,  tricks,  V,  20,  2. 

d,  serpent  (?),  I,  141,  71;  hvare 
(conj.  hvardm),  II,  2,  4'. 


hvr/'  :  upa  hvdrate,  he  slinks  away, 


,  141,  i1 

hve,  to  call,  invoke  :  huvema,  1,  127, 
a1  ;  iha*  huve  (read  ihd  hve  ?), 
Ill,  2o,51;-vdhniAlsa2(huve, 
I,  76,  4,  ',•  ;—  vi-hvdylmahe,  we 
call  (thee)  in  emulation  (with 
other  people),  I,  36,  13*. 


II.     LIST   OF 

THE   MORE   IMPORTANT   PASSAGES 
QUOTED 

IN    THE    NOTES. 


I,  i,  8  

RIG-VEDA. 

PAGE 

6.  10  ..... 

312 
262 
400 
26O,  3O6 
192 
122,  156 
251 

86 

327 

71 
257 
224 

73 
162 

408 
306 
69 
28,  272 
269 

112 

305 
172 

195 
257 
211 

44 
359 
40 
243 
183 
286 
312 

231 
155,  203 

62,5  

TO.  2.   .   •   .   • 

62,  Q  

I  T.  B  

64,  I  

15,  12   .... 

64,  5  

64..  o  .  .  .  • 

22,  10   .... 

64,  14  .  .  .  . 

66,  2  

26,  10  .... 
27,  10  .... 

2O   A  .    .    .        . 

66,4  

60,  2  .   .   . 

60,5  

3O  7  .    .    .    .    . 

70,  7  

71.8  

70,  10  .  .  .  . 

7  I.  I  . 

32,  14   .... 

33,4  
33,  14  .... 

71-5  

71.  A  

72    

34,3  

IA  6 

72,5  
72,8  

76,  5  

80.  4.  ...... 

-4,  10  .... 
37,3  
37,  12  .  .  .  . 
38,  T3  .... 
42,7  

81  c  .  .  . 

84,  18  .  .  .  . 
88.  \  

89,  \  

89,  10  .  .  .  . 

48,9  
48,  10  .... 

C  T   7 

92,8  

o«  \  .  .  .  .  . 

BT.  8  

95,9  
95,  10  .  .  .  . 

g6!  5  .  !  !  !  ! 

e.2.  I    .... 

52,6  
f-j  *r 

ioo,  7  .  .  .  . 
ioo,  1  6  .  .  .  . 

PAGE 
110 

106 

18 

203 

105 

90,  269 

19 

243 

380 

65 

380 

76 

78 

294 

65 

174 

66 

66 

66 

319 

177 

257 

3 

84 

134 

59 

359 

101 

168 

27 

150 

63 

101 

168 


488  VEDIC  HYMNS. 


PAGE 

PAGE 

1,  102,  I   .   . 

.   .   122 

I,  164,  6  .... 

62 

102,  8   .   . 

•   •   257 

1*4,35  •  •  • 

66 

104,4   .   . 

.   .   324 

164,51   .  .  . 

117,144,250 

105,  2   .   . 

.   .   78 

166,  2  .... 

58 

105,  12  .   . 

.   .   152,  l62 

*66,.n   ,  .  . 

294 

IQ5,  14  •  • 

.   .   I56 

166,  12  ... 

84 

109,  3  .  . 

.   .   121,  122 

167,  4  .... 

274 

109,4  •  . 

.   .   150 

168,  6  .  .  t  . 

312 

Ill,  I  .  . 

•   •   25 

1*9,  5  .... 

265 

112,15.  . 

•  •  35 

171,  i  .... 

112 

113,2  .  . 

.  .  124 

171,  2  .... 

53 

113,3  .  • 

.  .  168 

171,6  .... 

113 

"3,  15  •  • 

•  •  359 

173,  i  .... 

177 

115,1  .  . 

•  •  338 

173,  6  .... 

I84 

116,  i  .  . 

•  •  7 

179,  i  .... 

81 

116,  4  .  . 

.  .  312 

184,  2  .... 

155 

116,5  .  . 

•  •  134 

184,  4  .... 

in 

116,  6  .  . 

•  •  59 

185,  2  .   .   .   . 

58 

118,9  •  • 

.  .  59 

186,  4  .... 

69 

119,  3  •  • 

.  62 

186,  10  ... 

3" 

119,  10  .  . 

•  •  59 

188,  4  .... 

224 

120,  I   .   . 

•  •  79 

188,  5  .... 

239 

120,  2   .   . 

.  .  46 

II.  i.  i  

71 

122,  14  .   . 

.  .  71 

It  2  .   .   .   .   . 

/  * 
III 

123,9   •   • 

.  .  250 

27 

"7,5   •   • 

.  .  192 

I,  II   .... 

/ 

15* 

128,  I   .   . 

•  •  327 

I,  12   .... 

91 

129,  5  .  . 

.  .  98,  133 

2,  2  

76 

129,  ii  .  . 

•  •  133 

2,  3  

/  w 

312 

130,  3  .  . 

.  .  242 

2,6  

j  **" 
3IQ 

13°,  4  •  • 

.  .  132 

3,8  

,?*> 
1IQ 

130,  5  .  . 

.  .  162 

j  *y 
156 

130,6  .  . 

•  •  286,  370 

3,  u  .  .  .  . 

143,  238 

132,  5  .  . 

.  .  223 

134,  i  • 

.  •  144 

91  *gi 

134,  5  •  . 

.  .  58 

«,  a  

168 

135,4  •  • 

•  •  Z33 

76 

.  .  310 

a.  7  

/  ** 

71 

139!  i  .  • 

.  .  223 

II,  13  .  .  .   . 

/  * 
71 

I39,a  .  . 

•  •  35 

14,  2   .  .   .  . 

132 

139,4  •  • 

.  .  269 

14,  II  .... 

216 

142,7  • 

.  .  239 

16,  I  .   .   .   . 

214 

M3,5  •  • 

.  .  97 

16,  3  .... 

402 

143,  7  •  • 

.  .  184 

17,  4  •  •  .  • 

315 

M4,  i  •  • 

•  •  245 

17,  7  •  .  .  . 

145 

146,  i  .  . 

.  .  207 

18,1  .  .  .  . 

191 

147,3  •  • 

•  •  334 

19,  7  •  .  .  . 

III 

148,  i  .  . 

.  .  78 

24,  i  .... 

210 

151,  i  •  • 

.  .  152 

24,8  .... 

347 

151,4  •  • 

•  .  224 

24,  15  .... 

398 

152,6  .  . 

.  .  321 

26,  3  .... 

272 

158,5  •  • 

.  •  368 

34,  4  *  .  •  • 

295 

159,5  •  • 

*  .  107 

35,  2  .... 

53 

1*3,45  5  • 

•  •  3*5 

3*,2  .  .  .  . 

294 

i*4,  3  •  • 

•  •  314 

37,*  •  .  .  . 

LIST  OF   IMPORTANT  PASSAGES. 


489 


PAGE 

PAGE 

II,  39,  I  .... 

210 

HI,  53,  i*  . 

•   •   380 

40,  4  .... 

156 

,   ,   48 

41,  5  .... 

246 

54,  19  •  • 

.   .   113 

111,1,6  .  .  .  . 

19 

54,  22  . 

•   •   376 

2,  I   .   .   .   . 

122 

55,  3  •  • 

•   -.223 

2,  3  •  •  •  - 

286 

55,  4  •  • 

.   .   78 

2,  5  •  •  •  • 

327 

55,6. 

.   .   25 

2,  7   •   •   •   • 

286 

55," 

.  .  76 

2,  14  .... 

305 

55,  12  • 

.  .  226 

3,  4  •  •  •  • 

421 

55,  21  . 

.  .  90 

4,  3  •  •  •  • 

223 

56,  5  •  - 

.  312 

4,  10  .... 

2OI 

56,  7  -  - 

.  .  81 

5,  6  .... 

134 

56,  8  .  . 

.  .  312 

5,8  .  .  .  . 

118 

58,  7  .  • 

•  •  44 

6,  i  .  .  .  . 

161,  224 

58,  9  •  • 

•  -  144 

6,2   .   .   .   . 

168 

59,  2  *  . 

•  .  65 

6,6  .  .  .  . 

319 

6r,  3  •  • 

162 

6,7  •  •  •  • 

224,  272 

62,  3  .  . 

.  ,  156 

6f9.... 

201 

IV,  i,  4  •  • 

.   .   112 

6,  10  .  .  .  . 

269 

,5  •  • 

.   .  40 

7,  i  .... 

225 

,6  .  . 

•  •   383 

7,  9  •  •  •  . 

25 

,9  •  • 

•  •   365 

8,  i;  3-  6;  ii  . 

12 

,  ii  .  • 

.  .  Io6,  329 

8,  10  .... 

35 

,  12  .   . 

•  •  ??9 

8,  ii  .... 

12 

,  12  seq. 

.  .  80 

10,  5  .... 

234 

2,  3  •  . 

.  .  246 

11,8  .... 

14 

2,  5  *  • 

•  •  9* 

12,  2  .... 

2IO 

2,  9  .  . 

•  .  274 

14,  4  «... 

169 

2,  15  .  . 

•  •  3M 

15,  2  .... 

4° 

4,  15  •  • 

.   .   210 

15,  5  .... 

223 

5,  i  •  • 

•  •  44,  ?o 

16,  4  .... 

151 

5,  7  .  . 

.  .  242,  »43 

18,  2  .  .  .  . 

214 

5,8  .. 

.  .  242 

24,  i  .... 

254 

5,  10  •  • 

•  •  M5 

27,  i  .... 

294 

5,  ii  •  • 

.  .  105 

27,  3  •  •  .  . 

91,  207 

5,  13  •  • 

.  .  152 

27,  7  .... 

161 

6,3  •• 

.  .  255,280 

28,  4  .... 

27 

6,8  .. 

.  .  76 

29,  3  .... 

29,218 

6,9  •• 

•  •  319 

29,  ii   .  .  . 

10 

6,  ii  .  . 

•  •  27,  373 

29,  13  •  •  . 

76 

7,  4  •  • 

.  .  78 

29,  14  ... 

260 

7,7  •• 

.  .  171,243 

30,  7  .... 

134 

7,  9  •  • 

.  .  48 

3o,ii   .  .  . 

272 

7,  10  .  . 

•  •  '33 

30,  13  .  .  . 

123 

7,  ii  •  • 

•  •  295 

30,  15  .  .  . 

29 

9,6  .. 

.  .  78 

3i,  i  -  .  .  . 

323 

11,6.  . 

80 

14,  2  .  . 

.  .  80 

31,  16  .  .  . 

225 

15,  6  ... 

.  .  118 

34,  3  .... 

246 

16,  4  •  • 

•  •  315 

38,  i  .  .  .  . 

286 

16,  15  . 

.  .  204 

39,  i  •  .  .  . 

155 

17,  14  . 

.  .  106,  312 

43,  i  •  •  •  • 

269 

17,  18  . 

.  .  298 

43*  5  •  •  ,  •  • 

30 

18,4  .  . 

•  •  59 

49,  4  .  •  .  . 

5,41 

19,  8  .  . 

.  .  272 

4QO  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


PACK 

PACE 

IV,  i9,  io  .  . 

•   69 

V,  56,  6  . 

...   87    - 

20,  4  •   •   • 

•   329 

57,3  . 

...   29 

23,  4  •  •  • 

•  105,  394 

57,5  • 

...   65 

23,  8  ... 

•  65,77,171 

58,6  . 

...   25 

23,  io  .  . 

.  322 

59,8  . 

...   25 

24,  3  •  •  • 

.  84 

64,2  . 

.   .   .   136 

29,  3  •  •  • 

.  116 

68,  i  . 

•   •   •   234 

33,  3  •  •  • 

•  19 

68,  3  • 

...   2f6 

33,  io  .  . 

.  204 

70,4  • 

•   •   •   330 

34,  9  •  •  • 

.  86 

76,i  . 

...   255 

35,  3  •  •  • 

.  191 

83,  *  • 

...   105 

VI,  I,  2   . 

37,  3  •  •  • 

•  134 

1,9  • 

...   26 

37,  5  •  •  • 

.  411 

2,8   . 

.   .   .   381,388 

37,  7  •  •  • 

.  390 

2,9  . 

...   388 

40,  2  .   .   . 

•  357 

3,5  • 

...   139 

42,  i  .  .  . 

.  65 

4,5  • 

...   I58 

,  79 

5,  2  • 

...   262 

50,  4  .  .  . 

•  243 

5,4  • 

.   '   .   214 

50,  1  1   .  . 

•  71 

6,2   . 

...   2I4 

,  243 

6,6  . 

...   178 

52,  2  ;  3   . 

8,  i  . 

'   •   •   27,149 

54,  3  •  •  • 

•  355 

8,'7  • 

...   159 

55,  5  •  •  • 

.   210 

10,  2  . 

...   383 

en 

...   98 

I,  10  .   .   . 

•   j* 

•  73 

11,4  • 

...   328 

3,  4  •  •  • 

•  342 

12,  2  . 

...   328 

3,6  ... 

•  27 

13,  I  . 

...   270 

4,  4  ... 

.  127 

15,5  - 

...   305 

6,9  ... 

.  226 

16,  2  . 

...   35 

7,  2  ... 

.  132 

16,  9  • 

.   .   .   98 

7,6  ... 

.  68 

16,  15 

...  35 

11,4  .  •  • 

•  73,78 

l6,  22 

...  267 

12,  2  .   .   . 

•  63 

16,27 

...  71 

12,  3  .  .  . 

.  105 

16,42 

...  90 

14,  3  •  -  • 

•  3 

16,46 

.  .  .  .  327 

21,  4  .  .  . 

•  243,345 

17,  15 

.   .   .   210 

25,  i  .  .  . 

136 

19,  3  • 

.   .   .   123,323 

as,  i  .  .  . 

•  3,224 

19,  4  . 

...   400 

29,  15   .  . 

•  370 

19,  io 

.  .  .  216 

30,  io  .  . 

.  400 

20,5  . 

...  93 

30,  14  .  . 

.  381 

20,  II 

...  36 

31,  I  .  .  . 

•  323 

21,4  • 

...  97 

31,11  .  . 

.   112 

21,  12 

...  272 

34,  6  .    . 

•  394 

24,2  . 

.  .  .  190 

42,  13   .  • 

•  53 

27,7  • 

...  361 

42,  17   •  - 

.  226 

31,3  • 

...  69 

43,  7  •  .  . 

.  224 

34,1  . 

...  270 

44,  i  •  •  • 

.  184 

35,5  • 

.  .  .  184,  185 

45,  2  .  .  . 

•  3M 

37,.3  • 

...  46 

47,  5  •  -  • 

.  226 

38,4  • 

...  72 

8,  4  ... 

.  383 

39,4  • 

...  272 

53,"   •  • 

•  295 

45,  '4 

.  .  .  ii  i 

53,  16   .  . 

.  140 

46,  io 

...  274 

56,  2  ... 

.   411 

46.  12 

.  .  .  100 

LIST   OF   IMPORTANT   PASSAGES.  491 


PACE 

PAGE 

VI,  47,  i« 

•   •   •   319 

VII,  48,  3  •  • 

•   71 

48,4  . 

51,  3  .  . 

.   200 

48,5  • 

...   71,  189 

56,4  .  . 

.  116 

48,  21 

...   84 

56,6  .  . 

.  294 

51,  2  . 

...   27,  205,  322 

56,  16  .  . 

.  320 

51,  8  . 

.   .   .   25I 

57,4  •  • 

•  355 

59,8  . 

•   •   •   274 

58,5   •  - 

.   112 

59,9  • 

.   .   .   107,216 

59,2   .  . 

•  97 

61,  i  . 

.   .   .   84 

61,  5   .  . 

.  116 

61,  2  . 

...   203 

63,  2  .  . 

.  286 

61,  7  . 

.   .   .   192 

66,  10  .  . 

.  205 

63,4  - 

•   •   •   341 

66,  n  .  . 

.  27,  208 

64,2  . 

•  .  •  359 

77,2   .  . 

•  314 

66,1  . 

•  •  •  329 

77,  3   •  • 

.  59 

66,5  • 

.   .   .   112 

82,4   .  . 

.  216 

67,  10 

.   .   .   134 

82,5   -  . 

•  159 

68,9  • 

...  95 

83,5   •  ' 

.  216 

70,  i  . 

.  .  .  127 

83,9   .  . 

,  203 

70,4  • 

-  .  •  3 

86,7  .  . 

.  312 

.  .  .  190 

87,3  •  • 

.   IOI 

VII,  I,  21  '. 

.  .  .  272 

87,  4   •'  • 

•  3'4 

2,  3  . 

.  .  .  218 

90,  5   .  . 

•  79 

2,  5   • 

.  .  •  239 

91,2   .  . 

•  4 

2,6   . 

.  .  .  200 

91,  3  •  • 

.  86 

2,  7   • 

.  .  .  ii 

95,4  •  • 

.  411 

2,  8-1  1 

...  239 

96,  i   .  . 

.  203 

3,  3  • 

.  .  .  214 

97,  4   •  • 

.  257 

3,4  • 

...  345 

97,9  •  • 

.  71,  203 

3,5  • 

...  320 

97,  10  .  . 

.  216 

4,  3  • 

...  58 

98,  2   .  . 

.   222 

7,2  . 

...  246 

101,  I   .   . 

.   105,  260 

9,  3  • 

...  63,  118 

104,21.  . 

•   132 

9,5  • 

...  40 

VIII,  i,  29  .  . 

.   258 

to,  5  . 

...  72 

5,  1  6   .  . 

•  35 

ii,  i  . 

...  50 

5,21   .  . 

.  196 

16,  9  . 

...  98 

5,  25  •  • 

•  35 

17,  4  . 

.   .   .   210 

5,  33   •  • 

•  43 

18,  2  . 

.  .  .  81 

6,  24  .  . 

.  381 

1  8,  18 

...  84 

7,  30  .  . 

.  107 

18,25 

...  274 

8,  22    .   . 

.  203 

22,  8  . 

.  .  .  ;6 

12,  II  .   . 

.  225 

.  .  .  135,286 

12,  32  .   . 

.  161 

31,  :i 

...  203 

n.  i  -  - 

.  225 

32,27 

.  .  .  184,  185 

13,6  .  . 

.  207 

...  105 

13,  14  .  . 

•  154 

&  6  : 

.  .  .  226 

15,  10  .  . 

.  86 

38,8  . 

...  408 

17,  15  •  • 

•  404 

39,  i  • 

...  238 

19,  1  .  . 

.  140 

39,3  • 

...  373 

19,  2   »   . 

.  299 

40,  3  • 

.  .  .  18 

IQ,  4   •   • 

.  257 

42,  i  , 

.  .  .  177,  2co 

19,  22  .   . 

.   212 

42,  4  • 

...  90 

19,  31  •   • 

41,  106 

43,2  . 

...  238 

2I,2;9   . 

.  257 

43,4  • 

...  63 

22,  12  .   . 

174 

43,5  • 

.  .  .  411 

23,  23  •   • 

•  I?I 

49 2  VEDIC   HYMNS. 


FACE 

TAGE 

VIII,  23,  28  .  .  . 

84 

IX,  8,4  .  - 

.   .   162 

24,1   .  •  . 

320 

ii,  5  .  - 

•   •   150 

24,  14  •  •  • 

152 

12,  9  .  . 

.   .   380 

25,5  .•  •  • 

"3 

15,  8  .  . 

.   .   162 

26,  13  .  .  . 

272 

16,  6  .  . 

•  •  353 

27,  io  ... 

190 

18,4  •  • 

.  .  140 

3i,  9  •  •  • 

274 

19,  i  •  • 

.  .  216 

3i,M  •  •  • 

204 

22,  3  •   • 

.  .  234 

32,  lo  .  .  . 

123,  278 

33,  5  •  • 

.  .  362 

35,19  •  •  • 

44 

38,  5  •  • 

.  .  362 

38,  2  ... 

265 

39,  2  .  . 

.  .  146 

39,  I   ... 

2OI 

40,  2  .   . 

.  .  246 

39,  2   ... 

71 

43,  5  •  • 

.  .  286 

39,9  .  •  • 

210 

47,  4  •  • 

.  .  118 

40,  i   ... 

'33 

50,  i  .  . 

.  .  41 

41,  3  ... 

208 

53,2  .  . 

.   .   210 

41,  10  ... 

62 

59,  2  .  . 

.   •   122 

43,2  .  .  . 

53 

62,  17   • 

•   •   225 

43,31  •  .  - 

258 

63,  ii   . 

.  .  106 

44,  19  ... 

260 

64,  10  . 

.  .  207 

47,  16  .  .  . 

406 

65,  12  . 

•  •  234 

49,2   .  .  . 

56 

66,  i  .  . 

•  •  3 

50,2   .  .  . 

56 

67,  12   . 

.  •  383 

50,8  .  .  . 

183 

68,  3  .  . 

.  .  312 

51,  4  «.  •  • 

242,  295 

68,  8  .  . 

.  .  200 

52,8   .  .  . 

280 

69,  5  •  • 

.  .  264 

53,6  .  .  . 

225 

70,  3  •  • 

.  .  245 

59,6  .  .  . 

158 

71,  i  ;  3. 

.  .  264 

60,3   .  .  . 

132 

7«>  3  •  • 

.  .  234 

61,  7   •  -  . 

210 

71,  5  •  • 

.  .  in 

67,3  •  •  • 

191 

.  .  272 

71,  12  ... 

255 

73*'  6  .  . 

.  .  313 

71,  15  .-. 

I36 

74,  i  •  . 

•  •  404 

72,3   ... 

243,  327,  404 

74,  4  •  • 

.  .  264 

73,  12  ... 

190 

75i  3  •  • 

.  .  161,  180 

74,6  ... 

3 

76,4  .  • 

•  •  65,  77 

76,9  ... 

44 

81,  i  .  . 

•  •  314 

76,  12  ... 

212 

32,  2  .   . 

.  .  286 

82,3   ... 

97 

83,  5  •  • 

.  .  264 

84,  i  ... 

195 

85,  1  .  . 

.  .  286 

84,4  ... 

97 

85,  ii  • 

•  •  324 

87,4  ... 

156 

86,  3  .  . 

.  .  286 

88,  i  ... 

'95 

86,  4  •  - 

•  •  '39 

96,  10  ... 

203 

86,14  . 

.  .  264 

96,  13  ... 
98,6  ... 

93 
183 

87,  i  .  . 

87,  2  .   . 

•  •  312,  365 
.  .  90 

101,  16.  .  . 

19 

92,  5  •  • 

.  .  J83 

102,11.   .   . 

258 

93,  i  •  • 

.  .  162 

102,  12.   .. 

36i 

96,  10  , 

.  .  93 

102,  22  ... 

40 

96,  20  . 

.  .  286 

103,7  •   •   . 

118,  171 

97,21  . 

.  .  264 

103,  8  ... 

35 

97,  34  • 

•  •  65,77 

IX,  5,  3*.  1  !  ! 

29 

3 

97,  48  . 
97,  57  • 

.  .  90 
.  .  162 

5,  10  ... 

12 

98,  i  .  . 

*  .  410 

LIST  OF   IMPORTANT  PASSAGES.  493 


PAGE 

FACE 

IX,  ioo,  3  .  • 

.  216 

X,  48,  2  .   .   . 

.   384 

102,  i  ;  8  . 

•   323 

49,  6  .  .  , 

,   .   36 

103,3  .  . 

.   225 

50,  i  .  .  . 

.   2€7 

106,  14  .  . 

.   2IO 

52,  6  .  .  . 

>   •   258 

107,  18  .  . 

•  344 

53,  i  .  .  . 

,   .   20O 

Ill,  2   .   . 

•  ^5,  77 

53,  2  .  .  , 

•  •  3,  73 

111,3   •  • 

.  116,  127 

53,  3  •  •  • 

,  .  225 

X,  I,  2   .   .   . 

•  78 

53,  6  .  .  . 

.  43 

2,6   ... 

.  136 

61,  4  •  •  • 

.  398 

3,  2  ... 

.  225  seq.. 

61,  7  ,  .  . 

.  80 

3,  3  •  •  • 

.  98 

61,  8  .  .  , 

>  •  79 

4,  3  •  -  • 

.  162 

61,  13   .  . 

.  323 

4,  7  ... 

•  134 

61,14  .  . 

•  73 

5,  i  ... 

.  408 

61,  21   .  . 

.  165 

6,1  ... 

.  136 

*»3»  5  •  •  • 

.  231 

7,  5  •  •  • 

.  171 

63,  8  .  .  . 

.  251 

8,  i  .  .  . 

.  150 

64,  4  .  .  . 

.  203 

8,2   ... 

.  306 

64,  ii   .  . 

.  .  163 

9,  i  ... 

.  224 

64,  15   .  . 

.  417 

ii,  5  ... 

.  196,  204 

65  .  .  .  . 

n,  6  .  .  . 

•  234 

65,  6  .  .  . 

.  250 

12,  3  .  .  . 

•  338 

65,  8  .  .  , 

.  250 

13,  3  •  •  • 

.  242 

65,  10  . 

.  .  n,  218 

14,  10  ;  ii  . 

.  29 

66,  12   .  . 

.  224 

15,  6  ... 

•  355 

66,13   .  , 

.  •  ii 

16,5  •  •  • 

.  225 

67,  i  .  .  , 

,  .  242 

17,  2  .   .   . 

.   122 

70,  7  .  .  , 

,  .  ii 

21,  I  .   .   . 

.   258 

70,  10  .  , 

,   .   12 

21,  2  .   .   . 

•   390 

73,  5  •  •  • 

•  •  35 

23,  7  .  .  . 

.   80 

74,  3  •  •  • 

•  •  324 

26,  4  .  .  . 

•   M9 

76,3.  •  • 

.  69 

27,  4  .  .  . 

.   184,  185 

79,  2  .  . 

.  .  270 

27,  7  •  .  . 

.   402 

79,  3  •  • 

.  .  242,  243 

27,  13   •  • 

.   224 

79,  5  •  •  • 

•  •  345 

30,  6  .  .  . 

.   122 

80,  4  .  .  , 

,  .  78 

3i,  5  •  •  • 

.   I34 

80,  7  .  . 

,  .  203 

31,  7  .  .  . 

.   272 

81,  i  .  .  , 

.  .  264 

32,  6  .  .  . 

.   370 

82,  6  .  .  , 

.  .  62 

33,  2  .  .  . 

.   254 

8j,  4  •  • 

.  .  414 

33,  7  •  •  • 

•   36 

84,  7  •  • 

.  .  ai6 

39,  4  •  •  • 

.   19 

85,18   . 

.  .  116 

39,  IO  •  • 

•  59 

85,  19   • 

.  .  27 

39,  14   •  • 

.  58,  272 

85,23  . 

,  .  424 

40,  2  .  .  . 

.   IOO 

87,  9  •  • 

.  .  224 

41,  i  .  .  . 

.  203 

87,  18  . 

.   .   20 

44,  i  •  •  • 

.  86 

87,20  . 

.   •   2I4 

44,  4  •  •  - 

.  48 

89,  7  .  . 

.   .   132 

45,  i  •  •  • 

.  189 

89,  10  . 

45,  2  .  .  . 

.  78 

89,  ii  . 

!  .'  267 

45,  10  .  . 

•  59 

90,  15  • 

.  .  85 

46,  2  .  .  . 

.  204 

91,  i  •  . 

.  .  191 

46,  8  .  .  . 

.  171 

•  •  345 

46,  10  .  . 

.   22/> 

9*i  I0  • 

.  .  189 

47,  6  ... 

•   343 

9*>  *  •  • 

.  .  196 

47,  7  .  .  • 

•   155,245 

93,  4  •  • 

.  .  106 

494 


VEDIC    HYMNS. 


I'VGK 

PAGE 

X,  9396  .    . 

•        •         177 

X,  118,  5      .     .     . 

257 

93,  io     . 

.     .     19 

119,  13    ... 

257 

94,  7  ;  8 

.     .     314 

121,  2        ... 

151 

94,11      . 

•     •     77 

122,3        .       .      . 

380 

96,  io      . 

<.    .     286 

122,4        .       .       . 

392 

97,  i  •     . 

.     .     144 

123,4        .       .      . 

65 

99,  6  .     . 

.     -     234 

125,   I        ... 

200 

100,  8     . 

.     .     417 

126,  8      ... 

355 

101,  7      • 

.     .     58,  380 

132,  5      ... 

90 

103,  3      • 

.     .     29 

133,  3      •     •     • 

71 

104,  8      . 

•     •     330 

138,6      .     .     . 

27 

106,  5      . 

.     .     320 

139,2      .     .     . 

90 

108,  3      . 

.     .     90 

139,3      •     •     • 

124 

108,  7      . 

•     •     339 

147,  i      ... 

69 

no     .     . 

.     .     1  80 

148,  3      ... 

7',  421 

i  io,  3      . 

.     .     238 

150,  i      ... 

257 

110,4      . 

.     .     224 

159,  5      •     -     - 

19  seq. 

110,9      . 

.     .     238 

164,3      .     .     . 

93 

1  10,   10     . 

.     .     180 

168,  3      ... 

306 

113,8      . 

•     •     345 

172,  i      ... 

145 

114,9      . 

.     .     207 

172,  i;  4     .     . 

250 

H5,3      • 

.     .     98 

172,  2      ... 

267 

115,  8  ;  9 

•     -     35 

176,  3      ... 

94 

118,  „      . 

-     •     3 

190,  2      ... 

27 

ATHARVA-VEDA. 

IV,   ,,  2    .      . 

•     195 

XI,  2,  13      .    .     . 

168 

V,  4,  3  •     • 

.     n 

7,  5  •     •     •     • 

295 

28,7   . 

.       IX 

XII,  2,  45      .     .     . 

376 

VI,  43,  3      • 

•     30 

4,  6;  12;  26  . 

20 

VI  I,  90,  3      • 

.     408 

XV,  12,  6;  io  .     . 

2O 

VIII,2,7  •     • 

•     353 

XIX,  39,  6-8.     .     . 

II 

VASASANEYI-SAJfHITA. 

V,  17.    • 

.     .     224 

XX,  44    •     • 

328 

VI,  26.     . 

.       .       121 

XXII,  2        .       . 

171 

35.    . 

.       .       121 

XXIII,  57    •     • 

27 

IX,  4    •     • 

•       •       3^9 

XXVIII,  7      •     • 

II 

XVI  I,  54-    - 

•       •       254 

XXXVIII,  20   .     . 

411 

MAITRAYAJVfYA-SAJ/HITA. 

11,4,2     .     . 

•     •     333 

TAITTIRtYA-SAJ/HITA. 

I,3,6,i    . 

•     •     12,254 

111,1,6,2       .       .      . 

369 

5,  3,  2      . 

.     .     168 

IV,  i,  8,  3     .     .     . 

156 

6,  6,  i     . 

.     .     20 

">  4,  2     .     .     . 

286 

7,  8,  2     . 

.     .     408 

V,  7,  8,  I     .     .     . 

295 

II,  4,  ii,4  • 

.    -.     20 

LIST  OF   IMPORTANT  PASSAGES. 


XIII,  3,  12   . 


PAA^AVWSA-BRAHMAATA. 

.    .     368  XXV,  7,  4     .    .    .     180 

XAIXXIRlYA-ARAATYAKA. 


IV,  ii,  4  .. 
23 


4ii 

93 


V,  9,7 


411 


A5VALAYANA-SRAUTASOTRA. 


Ill,  i,  8  seq. . 
4,  i  .  . 
12,  4  .  . 


353 
284 
5 


IV,  8, 20   ...  286 
V,  7,  3  ....  197 

XII,  II,  I  .   .   .   .   102 


SANKHAYANA-SRAUXAStTTRA. 


V,  15,  2  seq.  . 
VIII,  16    .    .    . 


253 
267 


VIII,  21 


KATYAYANA-SRAUTAStiTRA. 


IV,  8, 16  .   . 

VI,  3,  17.    . 
IX,  8,  8  seq. 


306 

255 
189 


IX,  8,  ii. 

XII,  6,  10. 

XXIV,  3,  42. 


189 

44 

44 


II,  2,  1      .      .      .      .       200 


V,  5,  4     •    •    •    •     5 

MANU. 


VIII,  44     ....     168 

MAHABHARATA. 
XIV,  280  ....    224 


495 


II,  2     .      .      . 

AIXAREYA-BRAHMAMA.  • 

FAGR 

PAGB 

80 
361 

189 
285 
386 
144 
411 
19 

386 

4O  ... 

,       .        267 

VII   *4 

I,  6,  3,  38 

7,4,4 
II,  I,  i,  8 

1TI     4'4'4 

111,4,1,20 
4,  1,21 
9i  4,  18 

1,2,  I,  13    . 
2,  I,  20    . 

SAXAPAXR 

86 
80 
306 
361 
304  seq. 
306 

121 

TAITTIRlY 

•    •    305 
.   .    376 

A.-BRAHMAATA. 

IV,  6,  6,  5  .    . 
VII,  i,  i,  22  seq. 
XII,  4,  4,  »  •    • 
5,  2,  «3     • 
XIV,  3,1,  9.    . 

A-BRAHMA^A. 

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